Appalachian Mountains

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The Appalachian Mountains,[b] often called the Appalachians, are a mountain range in eastern to northeastern North America. Here, the term "Appalachian" refers to several different regions associated with the mountain range, and its surrounding terrain. The general definition used is one followed by the US Geological Survey and the Geologic Survey of Canada to describe the respective countries' physiographic regions. The US uses the term Appalachian Highlands and Canada uses the term Appalachian Uplands. (The Appalachian Mountains are not synonymous with the Appalachian Plateau which is one of the provinces of the Appalachian Highlands).

Appalachian Mountains
Appalachians
The Appalachian Mountains in the background with Penns Valley in Pennsylvania in the foreground, October 2021
Highest point
PeakMount Mitchell, North Carolina
Elevation6,684 ft (2,037 m)
Dimensions
Length2,050 mi (3,300 km)
Geography
Appalachian Mountains including US and Canadian portions.
CountriesUnited States, Canada and France[a] (one of its overseas territorial collectivities)[1]
Province/ StateNewfoundland and Labrador[2][3], Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Québec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Washington, D.C., Delaware, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia and Alabama
Geology
OrogenyGrenvillle, Taconic, Acadian, Alleghanian
Age of rockMesoproterozoic era (Stenian period) [4]Paleozoic era (Permian period); 1.2 billion years ago to 300 million years ago

The Appalachian range runs from the Island of Newfoundland 2,050 mi (3,300 km) southwestward to Central Alabama in the United States. [c] (It crosses the 96-square mile archipelago of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, an overseas collectivity of France, meaning it is technically in three countries).[6] The highest peak of the mountain range is Mount Mitchell in North Carolina at 6,684 feet (2,037 m), which is also the highest point in the United States east of the Mississippi River.

The range is older than the other major mountain range in North America, the Rocky Mountains of the west. Some of the outcrops in the Appalachians contain rocks formed during the Precambrian era. The geologic processes that led to the formation of the Appalachian Mountains started 1.1 billion years ago. The first mountain range in the region was created when the continents of Laurentia and Amazonia collided, creating a supercontinent called Rodinia. The collision of these continents caused the rocks to be folded and faulted, creating the first mountains in the region.[4][7] Many of the rocks and minerals that were formed during that event can currently be seen at the surface of the present Appalachian range.[8] Around 480 million years ago, geologic processes began that led to three distinct orogenic eras that created much of the surface structure seen in today's Appalachians. [d] During this period, mountains once reached elevations similar to those of the Alps and the Rockies before natural erosion occurred over the last 240 million years leading to what is present today.[9]

The Appalachian Mountains are a barrier to east–west travel, as they forms a series of alternating ridgelines and valleys oriented in opposition to most highways and railroads running east–west. This barrier was extremely important in shaping the expansion of the United States in the colonial era.[10]

The range is the home of a very popular recreational feature, the Appalachian Trail. This is a 2,175-mile (3,500 km) hiking trail that runs all the way from Mount Katahdin in Maine to Springer Mountain in Georgia, passing over or past a large part of the Appalachian range. The International Appalachian Trail is an extension of this hiking trail into the Canadian portion of the Appalachian range in New Brunswick and Quebec.

Etymology edit

While exploring inland along the northern coast of Florida in 1528, the members of the Narváez expedition, including Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, found a Native American village near present-day Tallahassee, Florida whose name they transcribed as Apalchen or Apalachen [a.paˈla.tʃɛn]. The name was soon altered by the Spanish to Apalachee and used as a name for the tribe and region spreading well inland to the north. Pánfilo de Narváez's expedition first entered Apalachee territory on June 15, 1528, and applied the name. Now spelled "Appalachian", it is the fourth-oldest surviving European place-name in the US.[11]

After the 1540 expedition of Hernando de Soto, Spanish cartographers began to apply the name of the tribe to the mountains themselves. The first cartographic appearance of Apalchen is on Diego Gutiérrez's map of 1562; the first use for the mountain range is the map of Jacques le Moyne de Morgues in 1565.[12]

 
Diego Gutiérrez's 1562 map of the Western Hemisphere showing the first known use of a variation of the place name Appalachia ("Apalchen") from his map, Americae sive qvartae orbis partis nova et exactissima descriptio

The name was not commonly used for the whole mountain range until the late 19th century. A competing and often more popular name was the "Allegheny Mountains", "Alleghenies", and even "Alleghania". In the early 19th century, Washington Irving proposed renaming the United States either Appalachia or Alleghania.[13]

In U.S. dialects in the southern regions of the Appalachians, the word is pronounced /ˌæpəˈlæɪnz/, with the third syllable sounding like "latch". In northern parts of the mountain range, it is pronounced /ˌæpəˈlɪnz/ or /ˌæpəˈlʃɪnz/; the third syllable is like "lay", and the fourth "chins" or "shins".[14] There is often great debate between the residents of the regions as to which pronunciation is the more correct one. Elsewhere, a commonly accepted pronunciation for the adjective Appalachian is /ˌæpəˈlæiən/, with the last two syllables "-ian" pronounced as in the word "Romanian".[15]


Geography edit

 
Appalachian Mountains broken down by physiographic division, provinces, and sections.

Perhaps partly because the range runs through large portions of both the United States and Canada, and partly because the range was formed over numerous geologic time periods (one of which is sometimes termed the Appalachian orogeny), writing communities struggle to agree on an encyclopedic definition of the mountain range. However, each of the governments has an agency that informs the public about the major landforms that make up the countries - the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geologic Survey of Canada (GSC). The landforms are referred to as physiographic regions. The regions create precise boundaries from which maps can be drawn. The Appalachian Highlands is the name one of the eight physiographic regions of the contiguous 48 United States.[16] The Appalachian Uplands is the name of one of seven physiographic regions of Canada.[17]

Appalachian Highlands of the United States edit

 
Appalachian Highlands physiographic provinces.

The second level in the physiographic classification schema for the USGS is "province" (unfortunately the same word as Canada uses to divide its political subdivisions - meaning that the terminology used by the two countries do not match below the region level). The lowest level of classification is "section". Following are the physiographic provinces and sections of the Appalachian Highlands using USGS terminology.

[16]

Appalachian Uplands of Canada edit

 
Appalachian Uplands of Canada with 13 divisions as defined by CGS.

The Appalachian Uplands are one of the seven physiographic divisions in Canada. Canada's GSC does not use the same classification system as the USGS below the division level. The agency does break the divisions of the Appalachian Uplands into 13 subsections that are in four different political provinces of Canada.

.[18]

While the Appalachian Highlands and Appalachian Uplands are generally continuous across the U.S./Canadian border, the St. Lawrence Valley area is handled differently in the physiographic classification schemas. The part of the St. Lawrence Valley in the United States is one of the second-level classifications, part of the Appalachian Highlands. In Canada, the area is part of the first-level classification, the St. Lawrence Lowlands. This includes the area around the city of Montreal, Anticosti Island, and the northwest coastline of Newfoundland. The dissected plateau area, while not actually made up of geological mountains, is popularly called "mountains", especially in eastern Kentucky and West Virginia, and while the ridges are not high, the terrain is extremely rugged. In Ohio and New York, some of the plateau has been glaciated, which has rounded off the sharp ridges and filled the valleys to some extent. The glaciated regions are usually referred to as hill country rather than mountains.


 
Notre-Dame Range, hills belonging to the Appalachian Mountains, Quebec, Canada

Range Characteristics edit

 
The Appalachian Trail at Mount Minsi, Pennsylvania

The Appalachian belt includes the plateaus sloping southward to the Atlantic Ocean in New England, and southeastward to the border of the coastal plain through the central and southern Atlantic states; and on the northwest, the Allegheny and Cumberland plateaus declining toward the Great Lakes and the interior plains. A remarkable feature of the belt is the longitudinal chain of broad valleys, including the Great Appalachian Valley, which in the southerly sections divides the mountain system into two unequal portions, but in the northernmost lies west of all the ranges possessing typical Appalachian features, and separates them from the Adirondack group. The mountain system has no axis of dominating altitudes, but in every portion, the summits rise to rather uniform heights, and, especially in the central section, the various ridges and intermontane valleys have the same trend as the system itself. None of the summits reaches the region of perpetual snow.[19]

In Pennsylvania, there are over sixty summits that rise over 2,500 ft (800 m); the summits of Mount Davis and Blue Knob rise over 3,000 ft (900 m). In Maryland, Eagle Rock and Dans Mountain are conspicuous points reaching 3,162 ft (964 m) and 2,882 ft (878 m) respectively. On the same side of the Great Valley, south of the Potomac, are the Pinnacle 3,007 feet (917 m) and Pidgeon Roost 3,400 ft (1,000 m).[19] In West Virginia, more than 150 peaks rise above 4,000 ft (1,200 m), including Spruce Knob 4,863 ft (1,482 m), the highest point in the Allegheny Mountains. A number of other points in the state rise above 4,800 ft (1,500 m). Cheat Mountain (Snowshoe Mountain) at Thorny Flat 4,848 ft (1,478 m) and Bald Knob 4,842 ft (1,476 m) are among the more notable peaks in West Virginia.

 
Part of the Appalachian Mountains as seen from the international space station.

The Blue Ridge Mountains, rising in southern Pennsylvania and there known as South Mountain, attain elevations of about 2,000 ft (600 m) in that state. South Mountain achieves its highest point just below the Mason-Dixon line in Maryland at Quirauk Mountain 2,145 ft (654 m) and then diminishes in height southward to the Potomac River. Once in Virginia, the Blue Ridge again reaches 2,000 ft (600 m) and higher. In the Virginia Blue Ridge, the following are some of the highest peaks north of the Roanoke River: Stony Man 4,031 ft (1,229 m), Hawksbill Mountain 4,066 ft (1,239 m), Apple Orchard Mountain 4,225 ft (1,288 m) and Peaks of Otter 4,001 and 3,875 ft (1,220 and 1,181 m). South of the Roanoke River, along the Blue Ridge, are Virginia's highest peaks including Whitetop Mountain 5,520 ft (1,680 m) and Mount Rogers 5,729 ft (1,746 m), the highest point in the Commonwealth.

Chief summits in the southern section of the Blue Ridge are located along two main crests—the Western or Unaka Front along the Tennessee-North Carolina border and the Eastern Front in North Carolina—or one of several "cross ridges" between the two main crests. Major subranges of the Eastern Front include the Black Mountains, Great Craggy Mountains, and Great Balsam Mountains, and its chief summits include Grandfather Mountain 5,964 ft (1,818 m) near the Tennessee-North Carolina border, Mount Mitchell 6,684 ft (2,037 m) in the Blacks, and Black Balsam Knob 6,214 ft (1,894 m) and Cold Mountain 6,030 ft (1,840 m) in the Great Balsams. The Western Blue Ridge Front is subdivided into the Unaka Range, the Bald Mountains, the Great Smoky Mountains, and the Unicoi Mountains, and its major peaks include Roan Mountain 6,285 ft (1,916 m) in the Unakas, Big Bald 5,516 ft (1,681 m) and Max Patch 4,616 ft (1,407 m) in the Bald Mountains, Clingmans Dome 6,643 ft (2,025 m), Mount Le Conte 6,593 feet (2,010 m), and Mount Guyot 6,621 ft (2,018 m) in the Great Smokies, and Big Frog Mountain 4,224 ft (1,287 m) near the Tennessee-Georgia-North Carolina border. Prominent summits in the cross ridges include Waterrock Knob (6,292 ft (1,918 m)) in the Plott Balsams. Across northern Georgia, numerous peaks exceed 4,000 ft (1,200 m), including Brasstown Bald, the state's highest, at 4,784 ft (1,458 m) and 4,696 ft (1,431 m) Rabun Bald. In north-central Alabama, Mount Cheaha rises prominently to 1,445 feet (440 m) over its surroundings, as part of the southernmost spur of the Blue Ridge Mountains.

Highest Peaks in each U.S. state and Canadian province in the Appalachian Mountains
State or Province Country Physiographic Area Highest Peak Elev. (feet) Elev. (meters) Geographic Coordinates
Alabama USA Appalachian Plateau Cheaha Mountain 2,407 734 33.4869° N 85.8091° W
Georgia USA Blue Ridge Brasstown Bald 4,784 1,457 34.8745° N 83.8063° W
Kentucky USA Appalachian Plateau Black Mountain 4,145 1,263 36.9022° N 82.9144° W
Maine USA New England Mount Katahdin 5,269 1,606 45.9046° N 68.9216° W
Maryland USA Appalachian Plateau Backbone Mountain 3,360 1,024 39.4049° N 79.2911° W
New Brunswick Canada Chaleur Uplands Mount Carleton 2,690 820 47.2241° N 66.5233 ° W
Newfoundland Canada Newfoundland The Cabox 2,664 812 48.4959° N 58.2903° W
New Hampshire USA New England Mount Washington 6,288 1,917 44.1614° N 71.1811° W
New York USA Adirondacks Mount Marcy 5,344 1,629 44.1126° N 73.9235° W
North Carolina USA Blue Ridge Mount Mitchell 6,684 2,037 35.7658° N 82.2655° W
Nova Scotia Canada Nova Scotia Highlands White Hill 1,755 535 46.7555° N 60.6350° W
Ohio USA Appalachian Plateau Campbell Hill 1,549 472 40.3888° N 83.6381° W
Pennsylvania USA Appalachian Plateau Mount Davis 3,213 979 39.7866° N 79.1751° W
South Carolina USA Blue Ridge Sassafras Mountain 3,553 1,083 35.0632° N 82.3062° W
Tennessee USA Blue Ridge Clingmans Dome 6,643 2,025 35.5625° N 83.4989° W
Virginia USA Blue Ridge Mount Rogers 5,729 1,746 36.6586° N 81.5438° W
West Virginia USA Appalachian Plateau Spruce Knob 4,863 1,482 38.6992° N 79.5327° W

Description of Appalachian Mountains divided into three sections edit

Sources written prior to the recognition of the physiographic region concept divided the Appalachian Mountains into three major sections:[19][f]

 
Mt. Washington, NH from Bretton Woods

Mountains of the Long Range in Newfoundland, such as the Cabox and Gros Morne, reach heights of nearly 2,700 ft (800 m). In the Chic-Choc and Notre Dame mountain ranges in Quebec, the higher summits rise above 4,000 ft (1,200 m) in elevation. Isolated peaks and small ranges in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick vary from 1,000 to 2,700 ft (300 to 800 m). In Maine, several peaks exceed 4,000 ft (1,200 m), including Mount Katahdin at 5,267 feet (1,605 m). In New Hampshire, many summits rise above 5,000 ft (1,500 m), including Mount Washington in the White Mountains at 6,288 ft (1,917 m), Adams at 5,771 ft (1,759 m), Jefferson at 5,712 ft (1,741 m), Monroe at 5,380 ft (1,640 m), Madison at 5,367 ft (1,636 m), Lafayette at 5,249 feet (1,600 m), and Lincoln at 5,089 ft (1,551 m). In the Green Mountains the highest point, Mt. Mansfield, is 4,393 ft (1,339 m) in elevation; others include Killington Peak at 4,226 ft (1,288 m), Camel's Hump at 4,083 ft (1,244 m), Mt. Abraham at 4,006 ft (1,221 m), and a number of other heights exceeding 3,000 ft (900 m).[19][20][21]

 
Shaded map of the Cumberland Plateau and Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians on the VirginiaWest Virginia border
 
Bald Mountains in Tennessee

Geology edit

Plate tectonics over the period dating back at least 1 billion years led to geological creation of the land that is now the Appalachian Mountain range. The continental movement led to collisions that built mountains and they later pulled apart creating oceans over parts of the continent that are now exposed.[22]

Grenville Orogeny and formation of Supercontinent Rodinia edit

The first mountain-building tectonic plate collision that initiated the construction of what are today the Appalachians occurred at least a billion years ago when the pre-North American craton called Laurentia collided with at least one other craton - Amazonia. All the other cratons of the earth also collided at about this time to form the supercontinent Rodinia and were surrounded by one single ocean. (It is possible that the cratons of Kalahari, and Rio Plato, were also part of that early collision since they were present as Rodinia broke up). Mountain-building referred to as the Grenville Orogeny occurred along the boundaries of the cratons.[4][23] The present Appalachian Mountains have at least two areas which are made from rock formations that were formed during this orogeny - the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Adirondacks.

 
Land added to Laurentia during the Grenville orogeny.

Breakup of Rodinia and formation of the Iapetus Ocean edit

After the Grenville orogeny, the direction of the continental drift reversed, and the single supercontinent Rodinia began to break up. The mountains formed during the Grenvillian era underwent erosion due to weathering, glaciation, and other natural processes, resulting in the leveling of the landscape. The eroded sediments from these mountains contributed to the formation of sedimentary basins and valleys. For example, in the what is now the southern United States, the Ococee Basin was formed. Seawater filled the basin. Rivers from the surrounding countryside carried clay, silt, sand, and gravel to the basin, much as rivers today carry sediment from the midcontinent region to the Gulf of Mexico. The sediment spread out in layers on the basin floor. The basin continued to subside, and over a long period of time, probably millions of years, a great thickness of sediment accumulated.[23] Eventually, the tectonic forces pulling the two continents apart became so strong that an ocean formed off the eastern coast of the Laurentian margin. This was called the Iapetus Ocean and was the precursor of the modern Atlantic Ocean. The rocks of the Valley and Ridge province formed over millions of years, in the Iapetus. Shells and other hard parts of ancient marine plants and animals accumulated to form limey deposits that later became limestone. This is the same process by which limestone forms in modern oceans. The weathering of limestone, now exposed at the land surface, produces the lime-rich soils that are so prevalent in the fertile farmland of the Valley and Ridge province.[23]

During this continental break-up, around 600 million to 560 million years ago, volcanic activity was present along the tectonic margins. There is evidence of this activity in today's Blue Ridge Mountains. Mount Rogers, Whitetop Mountain, and Pine Mountain are all the result of volcanic activity that occurred around this time.[24] Evidence of subsurface activity, dikes and sills intruding into the overlying rock, is present in the Blue Ridge as well. For instance, mafic rocks have been found along the Fries Fault in the central Blue Ridge area of Montgomery County, VA.[25]

Taconic Orogeny edit

 

The Iapetus continued to expand and during that time bacteria, algae, and many species of invertebrates flourished in the oceans, but there were no plants or animals on land. Then, during the middle Ordovician Period about 500 to 470 million years ago, the motion of the crustal plates changed, and the continents began to move back toward each other. The once-quiet Appalachian passive margin changed to a very active plate boundary when a neighboring Iapetus oceanic plate containing a volcanic arc collided with and began sinking beneath the North American craton. With the birth of this new subduction zone. Volcanoes grew along the continental margin coincident with the initiation of subduction. Thrust faulting uplifted and warped older sedimentary rock laid down on the passive margin. As the mountains rose, erosion began to wear them down over time. Streams carried rock debris downslope to be deposited in nearby lowlands.[26] The Taconic orogeny ended after about 60 million years, but built much of the land mass that is now New England and southwestward to Pennsylvania.

The Taconic Orogeny was the second of four mountain building plate collisions that contributed to the formation of the Appalachians, culminating in the collision of North America and Africa (see Alleghanian orogeny).[27]

Acadian Orogeny edit

The third mountain-building event was the Acadian orogeny which occurred between 375 and 359 million years ago.[28] The Acadian orogeny was caused by a series of collisions of pieces of crust from the Avalonia Terrane, sections broken off from continent of Gondwana, with the North American Plate. The collision initiating this orogeny resulted in the closing of the southern Iapetus ocean and the formation of a high mountain belt. After the Acadian collision took place, Gondwana began to retreat from Laurentia with the newly accreted Avalonian terranes left behind. As Gondwana moved away, a new ocean opened up, the Rheic Ocean, during the Middle to Late Devonian, and subsequently its closure would result in the formation of the Alleghanian orogeny.

Alleghenian Orogeny and Supercontinent Pangea edit

As the continental plates moved closer together, fragments of oceanic crust, islands, and other continental masses collided with the eastern margin of ancestral North America. By this time, plants had appeared on land, followed by scorpions, insects, and amphibians. The ocean continued to shrink until, about 270 million years ago, the continents that were ancestral to North America and Africa collided during the formation of the supercontinent Pangea.[26]

Because North America and Africa were connected, the Appalachians formed part of the same mountain chain as the Little Atlas in Morocco. This mountain range, known as the Central Pangean Mountains, extended into Scotland, before the Mesozoic Era opening of the Iapetus Ocean, from the North America/Europe collision (See Caledonian orogeny).

 
Old fault exposed by roadcut near Hazleton, Pennsylvania, along Interstate 81 include faults that are common in the folded Appalachians.

By the end of the Mesozoic Era, the Appalachian Mountains had been eroded to an almost flat plain.[27] It was not until the region was uplifted during the Cenozoic Era that the distinctive topography of the present formed.[29] Uplift rejuvenated the streams, which rapidly responded by cutting downward into the ancient bedrock. Some streams flowed along weak layers that define the folds and faults created many millions of years earlier. Other streams downcut so rapidly that they cut right across the resistant folded rocks of the mountain core, carving canyons across rock layers and geologic structures.

Mineral resources edit

 
Cliffs overlooking the New River near Gauley Bridge, West Virginia

The Appalachian Mountains contain major deposits of anthracite coal as well as bituminous coal. In the folded mountains the coal is in metamorphosed form as anthracite, represented by the Coal Region of northeastern Pennsylvania. The bituminous coal fields of western Pennsylvania, western Maryland, southeastern Ohio, eastern Kentucky, southwestern Virginia, and West Virginia contain the sedimentary form of coal.[30] The mountain top removal method of coal mining, in which entire mountain tops are removed, is currently threatening vast areas and ecosystems of the Appalachian Mountain region.[31] The surface coal mining that started in the 1940s has significantly impacted the central Appalachian Mountains in Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia. Early mining methods were unregulated and mined land reclamation research, including acid base reaction, was led by the West Virginia University in the 1960s and 1970s. West Virginia developed rigorous mine reclamation standards for state coal mines in the late 1960s. Regulations were introduced by most federal states to protect the Appalachian Mountains by the late 1960s. Social and political activism brought about the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977.[32]

The 1859 discovery of commercial quantities of petroleum in the Appalachian Mountains of western Pennsylvania started the modern United States petroleum industry.[33] Recent discoveries of commercial natural gas deposits in the Marcellus Shale formation and Utica Shale formations have once again focused oil industry attention on the Appalachian Basin.

Some plateaus of the Appalachian Mountains contain metallic minerals such as iron and zinc.[34]

Drainage edit

 
Paleogeographic reconstruction showing the Appalachian Basin area during the Middle Devonian period[35]

There are many geological issues concerning the rivers and streams of the Appalachians. In spite of the existence of the Great Appalachian Valley, many of the main rivers are transverse to the mountain system axis. The drainage divide of the Appalachians follows a tortuous course that crosses the mountainous belt just north of the New River in Virginia. South of the New River, rivers head into the Blue Ridge, cross the higher Unakas, receive important tributaries from the Great Valley, and traversing the Cumberland Plateau in spreading gorges (water gaps), escape by way of the Cumberland River and the Tennessee River rivers to the Ohio River and the Mississippi River, and thence to the Gulf of Mexico. In the central section, north of the New River, the rivers, rising in or just beyond the Valley Ridges, flow through great gorges to the Great Valley, and then across the Blue Ridge to tidal estuaries penetrating the coastal plain via the Roanoke River, James River, Potomac River, and Susquehanna River.[19]

In the northern section the height of land lies on the inland side of the mountainous belt, and thus the main lines of drainage run from north to south, exemplified by the Hudson River.[19] However, the valley through which the Hudson River flows was cut by the gigantic glaciers of the ice ages—the same glaciers that deposited their terminal moraines in southern New York and formed the east–west Long Island.

 
Apple Orchard Mountain peak in the Blue Ridge Mountains, which stretch from southern Pennsylvania in the north through Georgia in the south

The Appalachian region is generally considered the geographical divide between the eastern seaboard of the United States and the Midwest region of the country. The Eastern Continental Divide follows the Appalachian Mountains from Pennsylvania to Georgia.

Ecology edit

The Appalachians, particularly the Central and Southern regions, is one of the most biodiverse places in North America.[36] The north–south orientation of the long ridges and valleys contributes to the high number of plant and animal species. Species were able to migrate through these from either direction during alternating periods of warming and cooling, settling in the microclimates that best suited them.[37]

Flora edit

 
View from Mount Mitchell, North Carolina at 6,684 ft (2,037 m), the highest peak east of the Mississippi River
 
Shenandoah National Park in Virginia
 
View from Craggy Gardens on the Blue Ridge Parkway in North Carolina
 
Great laurel thicket in the Pisgah National Forest in North Carolina
 
Cranberry Glades, a bog preserve in West Virginia
 
Grassy balds on the Roan Highlands straddling the North Carolina/Tennessee border

The flora of the Appalachians are diverse and vary primarily in response to geology, latitude, elevation and moisture availability. Geobotanically, they constitute a floristic province of the North American Atlantic Region. The Appalachians consist primarily of deciduous broad-leaf trees and evergreen needle-leaf conifers, but also contain the evergreen broad-leaf American holly (Ilex opaca), and the deciduous needle-leaf conifer, the tamarack, or eastern larch (Larix laricina).

The dominant northern and high elevation conifer is the red spruce (Picea rubens), which grows from near sea level to above 4,000 ft (1,200 m) above sea level (asl) in northern New England and southeastern Canada. It also grows southward along the Appalachian crest to the highest elevations of the southern Appalachians, as in North Carolina and Tennessee. In the central Appalachians it is usually confined above 3,000 ft (900 m) asl, except for a few cold valleys in which it reaches lower elevations. In the southern Appalachians, it is restricted to higher elevations. Another species is the black spruce (Picea mariana), which extends farthest north of any conifer in North America, is found at high elevations in the northern Appalachians, and in bogs as far south as Pennsylvania.

The Appalachians are also home to two species of fir, the boreal balsam fir (Abies balsamea), and the southern high elevation endemic, Fraser fir (Abies fraseri). Fraser fir is confined to the highest parts of the southern Appalachian Mountains, where along with red spruce it forms a fragile ecosystem known as the Southern Appalachian spruce–fir forest. Fraser fir rarely occurs below 5,500 ft (1,700 m), and becomes the dominant tree type at 6,200 ft (1,900 m).[38] By contrast, balsam fir is found from near sea level to the tree line in the northern Appalachians, but ranges only as far south as Virginia and West Virginia in the central Appalachians, where it is usually confined above 3,900 ft (1,200 m) asl, except in cold valleys. Curiously, it is associated with oaks in Virginia. The balsam fir of Virginia and West Virginia is thought by some to be a natural hybrid between the more northern variety and Fraser fir. While red spruce is common in both upland and bog habitats, balsam fir, as well as black spruce and tamarack, are more characteristic of the latter. However, balsam fir also does well in soils with a pH as high as 6.[39]

Eastern or Canada hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) is another important evergreen needle-leaf conifer that grows along the Appalachian chain from north to south but is confined to lower elevations than red spruce and the firs. It generally occupies richer and less acidic soils than the spruce and firs and is characteristic of deep, shaded and moist mountain valleys and coves. It is, unfortunately, subject to the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae), an introduced insect, that is rapidly extirpating it as a forest tree. Less abundant, and restricted to the southern Appalachians, is Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana). Like Canada hemlock, this tree suffers severely from the hemlock woolly adelgid.

Several species of pines characteristic of the Appalachians are eastern white pine (Pinus strobus), Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana), pitch pine (Pinus rigida), Table Mountain pine (Pinus pungens) and shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata). Red pine (Pinus resinosa) is a boreal species that forms a few high elevation outliers as far south as West Virginia. All of these species except white pine tend to occupy sandy, rocky, poor soil sites, which are mostly acidic in character. White pine, a large species valued for its timber, tends to do best in rich, moist soil, either acidic or alkaline in character. Pitch pine is also at home in acidic, boggy soil, and Table Mountain pine may occasionally be found in this habitat as well. Shortleaf pine is generally found in warmer habitats and at lower elevations than the other species. All the species listed do best in open or lightly shaded habitats, although white pine also thrives in shady coves, valleys, and on floodplains.

The Appalachians are characterized by a wealth of large, beautiful deciduous broadleaf (hardwood) trees. Their occurrences are best summarized and described in E. Lucy Braun's 1950 classic, Deciduous Forests of Eastern North America (Macmillan, New York). The most diverse and richest forests are the mixed-mesophytic or medium-moisture types, which are largely confined to rich, moist montane soils of the southern and central Appalachians, particularly in the Cumberland and Allegheny Mountains, but also thrive in the southern Appalachian coves. Characteristic canopy species are white basswood (Tilia heterophylla), yellow buckeye (Aesculus octandra), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), tuliptree (Liriodendron tulipifera), white ash (Fraxinus americana) and yellow birch (Betula alleganiensis). Other common trees are red maple (Acer rubrum), shagbark and bitternut hickories (Carya ovata and C. cordiformis) and black or sweet birch (Betula lenta). Small understory trees and shrubs include flowering dogwood (Cornus florida), hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana), witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) and spicebush (Lindera benzoin). There are also hundreds of perennial and annual herbs, among them such herbal and medicinal plants as American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius), goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis), bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) and black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa).

The foregoing trees, shrubs, and herbs are also more widely distributed in less rich mesic forests that generally occupy coves, stream valleys and flood plains throughout the southern and central Appalachians at low and intermediate elevations. In the northern Appalachians and at higher elevations of the central and southern Appalachians these diverse mesic forests give way to less diverse northern hardwood forests with canopies dominated only by American beech, sugar maple, American basswood (Tilia americana) and yellow birch and with far fewer species of shrubs and herbs.

Drier and rockier uplands and ridges are occupied by oak–chestnut forests dominated by a variety of oaks (Quercus spp.), hickories (Carya spp.) and, in the past, by the American chestnut (Castanea dentata). The American chestnut was virtually eliminated as a canopy species by the introduced fungal chestnut blight (Cryphonectaria parasitica), but lives on as sapling-sized sprouts that originate from roots, which are not killed by the fungus. In present-day forest canopies, chestnut has been largely replaced by oaks.

The oak forests of the southern and central Appalachians consist largely of black, northern red, white, chestnut and scarlet oaks (Quercus velutina, Q. rubra, Q. alba, Q. prinus and Q. coccinea) and hickories, such as the pignut (Carya glabra) in particular. The richest forests, which grade into mesic types, usually in coves and on gentle slopes, have predominantly white and northern red oaks, while the driest sites are dominated by chestnut oak, or sometimes by scarlet or northern red oaks. In the northern Appalachians the oaks, except for white and northern red, drop out, while the latter extends farthest north.

The oak forests generally lack the diverse small tree, shrub and herb layers of mesic forests. Shrubs are generally ericaceous, and include the evergreen mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia), various species of blueberries (Vaccinium spp.), black huckleberry (Gaylussacia baccata), a number of deciduous rhododendrons (azaleas), and smaller heaths such as teaberry (Gaultheria procumbens) and trailing arbutus (Epigaea repens). The evergreen great rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum) is characteristic of moist stream valleys. These occurrences are in line with the prevailing acidic character of most oak forest soils. In contrast, the much rarer chinquapin oak (Quercus muehlenbergii) demands alkaline soils and generally grows where limestone rock is near the surface. Hence no ericaceous shrubs are associated with it.

The Appalachian flora also include a diverse assemblage of bryophytes (mosses and liverworts), as well as fungi. Some species are rare and/or endemic. As with vascular plants, these tend to be closely related to the character of the soils and the thermal environment in which they are found.

Eastern deciduous forests are subject to a number of serious insect and disease outbreaks. Among the most conspicuous is that of the introduced gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), which infests primarily oaks, causing severe defoliation and tree mortality. But it also has the benefit of eliminating weak individuals, and thus improving the genetic stock, as well as creating rich habitat of a type through accumulation of dead wood. Because hardwoods sprout so readily, this moth is not as harmful as the hemlock woolly adelgid. Perhaps more serious is the introduced beech bark disease complex, which includes both a scale insect (Cryptococcus fagisuga) and fungal components.

During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the Appalachian forests were subject to severe and destructive logging and land clearing, which resulted in the designation of the national forests and parks as well many state-protected areas. However, these and a variety of other destructive activities continue, albeit in diminished forms; and thus far only a few ecologically based management practices have taken hold.

Appalachian bogs are boreal ecosystems, which occur in many places in the Appalachians, particularly the Allegheny and Blue Ridge subranges.[40][41] Though popularly called bogs, many of them are technically fens.[42]

Several mountain summits in the southern Appalachians are covered with expansive open habitats (either grassy meadows or heath) known as Appalachian balds. These habitats support many unique plant and animal communities, including rare, relict species, that are adapted to the open, exposed habitat. Their origins are heavily debated; while all were formerly thought to have anthropogenic origins, more recent evidence indicates a mixed origin: many were formed by climatic conditions in the Pleistocene and kept open by Pleistocene megafauna, then by other grazing wildlife (such as bison, elk, and deer) and Native American burning practices, and finally by grazing livestock introduced by European settlers. Others, especially those dominated by introduced grasses, may be fully anthropogenic in origin. The abandonment of grazing has caused trees to encroach on many of these balds, threatening their ecosystems.[43][44]

In contrast to the largely grazing-influenced balds of the southern Appalachians, parts of the northern Appalachians such as the White Mountains. the Adirondack Mountains, and Mount Katahdin have summits covered with true alpine tundra; these ecosystems are kept clear due to extremely harsh winter storms, and support a vegetation community more akin to that of the Arctic Circle.[45][46][47]

Fauna edit

 
Southern flying squirrel
 
Male eastern wild turkey

Animals that characterize the Appalachian forests include five species of tree squirrels. The most commonly seen is the low to moderate elevation eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis). Occupying similar habitat is the slightly larger fox squirrel (Sciurus niger) and the much smaller southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans). More characteristic of cooler northern and high elevation habitat is the red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), whereas the Appalachian northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus), which closely resembles the southern flying squirrel, is confined to northern hardwood and spruce–fir forests.

As familiar as squirrels are the eastern cottontail rabbit (Silvilagus floridanus) and the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The latter in particular has greatly increased in abundance as a result of the extirpation of the eastern wolf (Canis lupus lycaon) and the North American cougar. This has led to the overgrazing and browsing of many plants of the Appalachian forests, as well as destruction of agricultural crops. Other deer include the moose (Alces alces), found only in the north, and the elk (Cervus canadensis), which, although once extirpated, is now making a comeback, through transplantation, in the southern and central Appalachians. In Quebec, the Chic-Chocs host the only population of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) south of the St. Lawrence River. An additional species that is common in the north but extends its range southward at high elevations to Virginia and West Virginia is the varying or snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus). However, these central Appalachian populations are scattered and very small.

Another species of great interest is the beaver (Castor canadensis), which is showing a great resurgence in numbers after its near extirpation for its pelt. This resurgence is bringing about a drastic alteration in habitat through the construction of dams and other structures throughout the mountains.

Other common forest animals are the black bear (Ursus americanus), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), raccoon (Procyon lotor), opossum (Didelphis virginianus), woodchuck (Marmota monax), bobcat (Lynx rufus), gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and in recent years, the coyote (Canis latrans), another species favored by the advent of Europeans and the extirpation of eastern and red wolves (Canis rufus). European boars (Sus scrofa) were introduced in the early 20th century.

Characteristic birds of the forest are wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris), ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), mourning dove (Zenaida macroura), common raven (Corvus corax), wood duck (Aix sponsa), great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), barred owl (Strix varia), screech owl (Megascops asio), red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), red-shouldered hawk (Buteo lineatus), and northern goshawk, as well as a great variety of "songbirds" (Passeriformes), like the warblers in particular.

Of great importance are the many species of salamanders and, in particular, the lungless species (Family Plethodontidae) that live in great abundance concealed by leaves and debris, on the forest floor. Most frequently seen, however, is the eastern or red-spotted newt (Notophthalmus viridescens), whose terrestrial eft form is often encountered on the open, dry forest floor. It has been estimated that salamanders represent the largest class of animal biomass in the Appalachian forests. Frogs and toads are of lesser diversity and abundance, but the wood frog (Rana sylvatica) is, like the eft, commonly encountered on the dry forest floor, while a number of species of small frogs, such as spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer), enliven the forest with their calls. Salamanders and other amphibians contribute greatly to nutrient cycling through their consumption of small life forms on the forest floor and in aquatic habitats.

Although reptiles are less abundant and diverse than amphibians, a number of snakes are conspicuous members of the fauna. One of the largest is the non-venomous black rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta), while the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) is among the smallest but most abundant. The Eastern copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and the timber rattler (Crotalus horridus) are venomous pit vipers. There are few lizards, but the broad-headed skink (Eumeces laticeps), at up to 13 in (33 cm) in length, and an excellent climber and swimmer, is one of the largest and most spectacular in appearance and action. The most common turtle is the eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina), which is found in both upland and lowland forests in the central and southern Appalachians. Prominent among aquatic species is the large common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina), which occurs throughout the Appalachians.

Appalachian streams are notable for their highly diverse freshwater fish life. Among the most abundant and diverse are those of the minnow family (family Cyprinidae), while species of the colorful darters (Percina spp.) are also abundant.[48]

A characteristic fish of shaded, cool Appalachian forest streams is the wild brook or speckled trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), which is much sought after as a game fish.

Appalachian Mountains' impact on North American History edit

Indigenous People edit

The roots of the Appalachian regions' histories trace back to the indigenous peoples who inhabited these lands long before European arrival. Indigenous communities across the Appalachians developed diverse cultures, languages, and societies, adapting to the region's varying environments and ecosystems. The interactions between indigenous communities and the natural world laid the foundation for the intricate relationship between humans and the Appalachian landscape.[49] Indigenous peoples thrived in these challenging terrains, adapting their lifestyles to the resources available. They forged deep connections with the land, developing sustainable practices for hunting, fishing, agriculture, and gathering. The Appalachian landscape provided a rich tapestry of flora and fauna, which indigenous communities learned to harness for their sustenance and well-being.[50] The Appalachian Mountains served as a conduit for trade networks, connecting distant indigenous communities through intricate trails. These trade routes facilitated the exchange of goods, ideas, and cultural practices across vast distances. This network fostered a sense of shared identity among diverse indigenous groups, transcending geographical boundaries.[51]

European Exploration edit

During the late 15th and early 16th centuries, European explorers embarked on voyages of discovery across the Atlantic Ocean. While seeking new trade routes and riches, they encountered the vast landmass of North America, including the Appalachian regions. The mountains posed a formidable geographical obstacle that European explorers had to navigate. The French, British, and Spanish were among the major powers vying for dominance in the New World, and their interactions with indigenous communities and the Appalachian landscape shaped the course of history.

Colonial Settlements edit

The Appalachian Highlands and Lowlands became focal points for European colonial expansion. French and British explorers traversed the Appalachian Mountains as they established footholds in North America. The French established settlements in the Great Lakes region and Canada, while the British colonies stretched along the eastern seaboard of what would become the United States. The territorial ambitions of European powers set the stage for later conflicts such as the French and Indian War.

The British Proclamation of 1763 holds significance in both Canadian and American histories. In the United States, the proclamation aimed to curb westward expansion beyond the Appalachian Mountains to avoid conflicts with indigenous nations, leading to tensions between American colonists and the British Crown and contributing to the drive for independence. In Canada, the proclamation provided a framework for governing newly acquired French territories, including Quebec, to ensure stability and control over the region. The ramifications of the proclamation were multifaceted, reflecting the complex dynamics of colonial governance and indigenous relations.

Cultural Exchange and Identity edit

The Appalachian Mountains in both countries nurtured unique cultural identities that persist to this day. The isolation of these mountainous regions allowed for the development of distinctive music, folklore, and traditions. Appalachian music played a significant role in the broader evolution of American and Canadian music genres. While each side of the border has its own cultural expressions, the shared geographical features and historical interactions contributed to common threads of self-reliance, resilience, and connection to nature that characterize Appalachian culture.

Colonization and Frontier Expansion edit

European exploration of the Appalachian regions contributed to the mapping and understanding of the area's geographical features. Explorers documented the rugged terrain, dense forests, and abundant natural resources. Their observations shaped the perceptions of the Appalachian landscape and influenced subsequent settlement patterns and resource utilization. The range posed significant barriers to westward expansion, leaving an indelible mark on colonization efforts.

Cumberland Gap and Gaspé Peninsula edit

The Cumberland Gap, a prominent geographic feature, played a pivotal role in westward expansion in the United States. This passage through the Appalachian Mountains provided a route for pioneers seeking new opportunities beyond the mountains. Similarly, Canada had its own geographical passage, the Gaspé Peninsula, which facilitated exploration and trade in the Canadian Appalachian region. These passages were vital gateways that shaped the movement of people, ideas, and resources on both sides of the border. "Gaspé Peninsula". The Canadian Encyclopedia.

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ France maintains governmental control of eight small islands off the southern coast of Newfoundland, Canada, named Saint Pierre and Miquelon. Newfoundland is generally considered the northernmost point of the Appalachian range. Therefore, the Appalachians run through the lone remaining North American territory of France.
  2. ^ Appalachian is pronounced variably as /ˌæpəˈlʃ(i)ən/ AP-ə-LAY-sh(ee-)ən, /ˌæpəˈl(i)ən/ AP-ə-LAY-ch(ee-)ən, /ˌæpəˈlæʃ(i)ən/ AP-ə-LASH-(ee-)ən or /ˌæpəˈlæ(i)ən/ AP-ə-LATCH-(ee-)ən;[5] French: Appalaches, pronounced [apalaʃ].
  3. ^ measured from Montgomery, Alabama which is at the southwestern end of the Coosa Valley, to Belle Island, Newfoundland and Labrador which is the northeastern-most extent of Newfoundland
  4. ^ Many internet sources cite 480 million years as the age of the Appalachians. This statement ignores some of the highest and most prominent features of the range that exposes scientifically-dated metamorphic rocks that are at least 1 billion years old.
  5. ^ Originally the intent was that there would be two sections, the Champlain and the Northern section, however the dividing line was never officially determined
  6. ^ Description used by 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica that is now in the public domain

References edit

  1. ^ "Saint Pierre and Miquelon". World Factbook. Retrieved August 15, 2023. the islands are actually part of the northern Appalachians along with Newfoundland
  2. ^ "International Appalachian Trail- Newfoundland". Iatnl.ca. Archived from the original on June 4, 2010. Retrieved November 6, 2010.
  3. ^ Cees R. van Staal, Mineral Deposits of Canada: Regional Metallogeny: Pre-Carboniferous tectonic evolution and metallogeny of the Canadian Appalachians Archived March 11, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, Geological Survey of Canada website
  4. ^ a b c Thomas, William A.; Hatcher, Jr., Robert D. (2021). "Southern-Central Appalachians-Ouachitas Orogen". Encyclopedia of Geology. 4 – via Elsevier Science Direct. The foundations of the Appalachian-Ouachita orogen were laid when the assembly of supercontinent Rodinia was completed. The collisional events were accompanied by high-grade metamorphism and magmatism during the Grenville orogeny in the time span of 1300–950 Ma.
  5. ^ Jones, Daniel (2011). Roach, Peter; Setter, Jane; Esling, John (eds.). Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-15255-6.
  6. ^ "Saint Pierre and Miquelon". World Factbook. Retrieved August 15, 2023. the islands are actually part of the northern Appalachians along with Newfoundland
  7. ^ Clark, Sandra H. B. (1996). Birth of the Mountains: The Geologic Story of the Southern Appalachian Mountains (PDF). United States Geologic Survey. p. 4. The rocks at the core of the Appalachian Mountains formed more than a billion years ago. At that time, all of the continents were joined together in a single supercontinent surrounded by a single ocean. Remnants of the supercontinent make up much of the North American core and are composed of minerals that are more than a billion years old.
  8. ^ Clark, Sandra H. B. (1996). Birth of the Mountains: The Geologic Story of the Southern Appalachian Mountains (PDF). United States Geologic Survey. p. 4. We can see fragments of the billion-year-old supercontinent ... at the surface in many places in the Appalachian Mountains.
  9. ^ "Geology of the Great Smoky Mountains". usgs. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
  10. ^ Brown, Daniel. "Cumberland Gap: A new beginning". National Park Service. To the English settlers of North America the Appalachian Mountains formed an almost impenetrable geographic barrier.
  11. ^ After Florida, Cape Canaveral, and Dry Tortugas: Stewart, George (1945). Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States. New York: Random House. pp. 11–13, 17, 18.
  12. ^ Walls, David (1978), "On the Naming of Appalachia" Archived May 28, 2010, at the Wayback Machine In An Appalachian Symposium, pp. 56–76.
  13. ^ Stewart, George R. (1967). Names on the Land. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
  14. ^ David Walls, "Appalachia". The Encyclopedia of Appalachia (Knoxville, Tenn.: University of Tennessee Press, 2006), 1006–1007.
  15. ^ Define "Appalachian". Random House Dictionary, online at Dictionary.com. Retrieved May 15, 2011.
  16. ^ a b "Physiographic divisions of the conterminous U. S." U.S. Geological Survey. Archived from the original on December 5, 2007. Retrieved December 6, 2007.
  17. ^ "The Atlas of Canada - Physiographic Regions". Government of Canada. Retrieved August 17, 2023.
  18. ^ "The Atlas of Canada - Physiographic Regions". Government of Canada. Retrieved August 17, 2023.
  19. ^ a b c d e f   One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSpencer, Arthur Coe (1911). "Appalachian Mountains". In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 207–208.
  20. ^ "Geomorphology From Space – Appalachian Mountains". NASA. Archived from the original on December 6, 2007. Retrieved December 27, 2007.
  21. ^ Weidensaul, Scott (1994). Mountains of the Heart: A Natural History of the Appalachians. Fulcrum Publishing. pp. ix. ISBN 978-1-55591-139-3.
  22. ^ Keppie, J. D. (2006). "Avalonian terranes of the Appalachian orogen: A review". Geological Society of America Bulletin. 129 (9/10): 1195–1208. doi:10.1130/B31595.1.
  23. ^ a b c Clark, Sandra H. B. (1996). Birth of the Mountains: The Geologic Story of the Southern Appalachian Mountains (PDF). United States Geologic Survey. p. 4.
  24. ^ Rankin, James W. (1993). The volcanogenic Mount Rogers Formation and the overlying glaciogenic Konnarock Formation: Two late Proterozoic units in southwestern Virginia. USGS. doi:10.3133/b2029.
  25. ^ Kaygi, Patti Boyd (1994). The Fries Fault near Riner, Virginia: an example of a polydeformed, ductile deformation zone. VT Works.
  26. ^ a b Clark, Sandra H. B. (1996). Birth of the Mountains: The Geologic Story of the Southern Appalachian Mountains (PDF). United States Geologic Survey.
  27. ^ a b "Geologic Provinces of the United States: Appalachian Highlands Province". USGS. Archived from the original on March 11, 2013. Retrieved July 19, 2010.
  28. ^ Hatch, N. L. (2009). "The Acadian orogeny: A review". Geological Society of America Bulletin. 121 (5–6): 639–678.
  29. ^ Poag, C. Wylie; Sevon, William D. (September 1989). "A record of Appalachian denudation in postrift Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the U.S. Middle Atlantic continental margin". Geomorphology. 2 (1–3): 119–157. Bibcode:1989Geomo...2..119P. doi:10.1016/0169-555X(89)90009-3.
  30. ^ Ruppert, Leslie F. "Executive Summary—Coal Resource Assessment of Selected Coal Beds and Zones in the Northern and Central Appalachian Basin Coal Regions" (PDF). USGS. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 15, 2010. Retrieved July 19, 2010.
  31. ^ Palmer, M. A.; Bernhardt, E. S.; Schlesinger, W. H.; Eshleman, K. N.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Hendryx, M. S.; Lemly, A. D.; Likens, G. E.; Loucks, O. L.; Power, M. E.; White, P. S.; Wilcock, P. R. (January 8, 2010). "Mountaintop Mining Consequences". Science. 327 (5962): 148–149. Bibcode:2010Sci...327..148P. doi:10.1126/science.1180543. ISSN 1095-9203. PMID 20056876. S2CID 206522928.
  32. ^ Hu, Zhenqi (2014). Legislation, Technology and Practice of Mine Land Reclamation. CRC Press. p. 3. ISBN 9781315732138.
  33. ^ Ryder, R.T. "Appalachian Basin Province (067)" (PDF). USGS. Retrieved July 19, 2010.
  34. ^ Mineral Resources of the Appalachian Region. USGS. 1968. Professional Paper 580.
  35. ^ Blakey, Ron. "Paleogeography and Geologic Evolution of North America". Global Plate Tectonics and Paleogeography. Northern Arizona University. Archived from the original on June 21, 2008. Retrieved July 4, 2008.
  36. ^ Elliston, Jon (October 31, 2019). "Heart of Appalachia". No. Winter 2019. The Nature Conservancy. The Nature Conservancy. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  37. ^ Jeffries, Stephanie B; Wentworth, Thomas R. (2014). Exploring Southern Appalachian Forests (1 ed.). Chapel Hill NC: The University of North Carolina Press. p. 8. ISBN 9781469619798.
  38. ^ Rose Houk, Great Smoky Mountains National Park: A Natural History Guide (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1993), pp. 50–62.
  39. ^ Fowells, H.A., 1965, Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, Agricultural Handbook No. 271, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, D.C.
  40. ^ "Info" (PDF). www.fws.gov.
  41. ^ "Home – Mountain Bogs – U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service". www.fws.gov.
  42. ^ Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: expeditionspatrick. "Southern Appalachian Cranberry Bog" – via YouTube.
  43. ^ "NatureServe Explorer 2.0". explorer.natureserve.org. Retrieved May 31, 2021.
  44. ^ "Discovering the Southern Appalachian Grassy Balds - Office of the Vice President for Research | University of South Carolina". sc.edu. Retrieved May 31, 2021.
  45. ^ "In the Zone: Exploring the Ecozones of the White Mountains". Appalachian Mountain Club. April 22, 2015. Retrieved May 31, 2021.
  46. ^ Carlson, Bradley Z.; Munroe, Jeffrey S.; Hegman, Bill (August 1, 2011). "Distribution of Alpine Tundra in the Adirondack Mountains of New York, U.S.A." Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research. 43 (3): 331–342. Bibcode:2011AAAR...43..331C. doi:10.1657/1938-4246-43.3.331. ISSN 1523-0430. S2CID 53579861.
  47. ^ Regenold, Stephen (October 12, 2007). "A Pocket of Alpine Tundra Nestled Atop New England". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 31, 2021.
  48. ^ Page, Lawrence M. and Brooks M. Burr 1991, A Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes, North America, North of Mexico, Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston
  49. ^ Jennings, Francis (1993). The Invasion of America: Indians, Colonialism, and the Cant of Conquest. W. W. Norton & Company.
  50. ^ Rickter, D. K. (2001). Facing East from Indian Country: A Native History of Early America. Harvard University Press.
  51. ^ Marshall, Kathleen; Marshall, Lamar (October 30, 2008). "Indian Trails of Appalachia". The Appalachian Voice. Retrieved August 24, 2023.

Sources edit

Further reading edit

  • Brooks, Maurice (1965), The Appalachians: The Naturalist's America; illustrated by Lois Darling and Lo Brooks. Boston; Houghton Mifflin Company.
  • Caudill, Harry M. (1963), Night Comes to the Cumberlands. ISBN 0-316-13212-8.
  • Constantz, George (2004), Hollows, Peepers, and Highlanders: an Appalachian Mountain Ecology (2nd edition). West Virginia University Press; Morgantown. 359 p.
  • Olson, Ted (1998), Blue Ridge Folklife. University Press of Mississippi, 211 pages, ISBN 1-57806-023-0.
  • Rehder, John (2013) "Appalachian Folkways," Koxville: University of Tennessee Press.
  • Chapters iii., iv. and v. of Miss E. C. Semple's American History and its Geographic Conditions (Boston, 1903).
  • Weidensaul, Scott (2000), Mountains of the Heart: A Natural History of the Appalachians. Fulcrum Publishing, 288 pages, ISBN 1-55591-139-0.
  • Bailey Willis, The Northern Appalachians, and C. W. Hayes, The Southern Appalachians, both in National Geographic Monographs, vol. 9.
Appalachian flora and fauna-related journals

External links edit