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Air Chief Marshal Mohammad Anwar Shamim (Urdu: محمد انور شمیم; October 31, 1931 – January 4, 2013) LOM, NI(m), HI(m), SI(m), SJ, OI, was a senior air officer of the Pakistan Air Force and was the Chief of Air Staff, appointed to the post in 1978 until retiring in 1985.[2][3]

Air Chief Marshal

Anwar Shamim
MAS10.jpg
ACM Anwar Shamim (1931–2013)
Chief of Air Staff
In office
23 July 1978 – 5 March 1985
Preceded byACM Zulfikar Khan
Succeeded byACM Jamal Khan
Chairman of Shaheen Foundation
In office
1982–1988
President of Pakistan Squash Federation
In office
1985–1988
Personal details
Born
Mohammad Anwar Shamim

(1931-10-31)October 31, 1931
Haripur, NWFP, British India
(Present-day, Haripur in Hazara District, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan)
DiedJanuary 4, 2013(2013-01-04) (aged 81)
CMH Rawalpindi in Punjab, Pakistan
Cause of deathCatastrophic illness
Resting placeWestridge Military Cemetery
Citizenship Pakistan
Military service
Nickname(s)Shamim
Fire Fighter
M. Anwar Shamim
Allegiance Pakistan
Branch/service Pakistan Air Force
Years of service1950–1985
RankACM Pakistan Air Force.pngUS-O10 insignia.svgAir Chief Marshal
UnitNo. 12 Squadron Globe Trotters
(S/No. PAF No. 3657):231[1]
CommandsMissile Guidance Program
Air Force Strategic Command
Southern Air Command
Masroor Air Force Base
ACAS (Air Operations) at Air AHQ
Battles/warsIndo-Pakistani war of 1965 Arab–Israeli war of 1967
Jordan–Palestine conflict in 1970
Indo-Pakistani war of 1971
Soviet–Afghan War
AwardsLegion of Merit ribbon.svgLegion of Merit
Order of Excellence Nishan-e-Imtiaz.pngNishan-i-Imtiaz (military)
Crescent of Excellence Hilal-e-Imtiaz.pngHilal-i-Imtiaz (military)
Star of Excellence Sitara-e-Imtiaz.pngSitara-i-Imtiaz (military)
PAK Sitara-i-Juraat ribbon.svgSitara-i-Jurat
Order of Independence Jordan.svgOrder of Independence

Born in Haripur, British India in 1931, he was a career fighter pilot who participated in conflict with India in 1965 and in 1971, before playing a crucial role as a military adviser to Jordan against the Palestinian insurgent groups in 1970.[4][5]

As an air chief, Shamim is notable for taking initiatives to modernize the air force by successfully acquiring the F-16 Fighting Falcon from the United States under the Project Falcon in 1983, and acquiring the radar technology from the United States to strengthened his country's aerial defense.[6][7] During his tenureship, he played an influential role in the Zia administration, advising President Zia on policy matters involving the national security.[8]

In addition, Shamim is also holds the distinction of being the longest serving chief of air staff of the Pakistan Air Force.[3]

BiographyEdit

Early life and educationEdit

Anwar Shamim was born in Haripur, Hazara District, NWFP in India, on 31 October 1931.[9] He hailed from an academic family and his parents were teachers at the local school.[4] He received his early education and matriculated Government College in Campbellpur (Attock) before becoming the member of the University Air Squadron of the Royal Air Force.:221[10][9]

In 1950, he joined the Pakistan Air Force, which directed to attend the Pakistan Air Force Academy in Risalpur, and was selected to attend the Royal Australian Air Force College in Point Cook where he completed the basic flying training course.:221[10][11] Upon returning to Pakistan, he gained commission as Pilot officer in No. 12 Squadron Globe Globe Trotters in 1952.:15;134[12] Flying Officer Shamim was sent to the United States to be trained to fly the F-104 Starfighter, and was later directed to attend the Air Command and Staff College in Montgomery, Alabama in the 1960s where he gained degree in Defence studies.:66[13]

In the 1970s, he went to attend the National Defence University in Islamabad, and attained his master's degree in national security course.:221[13][1]

War and staff appointments in the militaryEdit

 
A F-104A in flight in 1960: Wing Commander Shamim commanded the wing against the Indian IAF, leading bombing missions in 1965.:contents[14]

In 1963, Squadron-Leader Shamim took over the command of the No. 11 Squadron Arrows, which he commanded until 1965.:47–48[15] While in the United States, he qualified as a test pilot, flying mostly the F-104 and F-86 while performing the combat maneuvering.:109–110[10]

In 1965, Wing-Commander Shamim took over the command of the No. 33 (Tactical) Wing as its officer commanding, and participated in the second war with India in 1965. During the aerial operations, Wing Commander Shamim flew his F-104, alongside with F-86 against the Indian Air Force's MiG-21.:contents[14] His combat wing led several attacking and bombing missions against the Indian Air Force's attempt for an air superiority.:contents[16]

After the war with India, Group Captain Shamim was posted with the Pakistan Armed Forces–Middle East Command, serving first as an air adviser to the Royal Jordanian Air Force in 1967.[4] Group Captain Shamim played a crucial role in advising the importance of air superiority to King Hussain during the war with Israel.[4] In 1970, Gp. Capt. Shamim, acting as a military adviser to the Jordanian military, played a decisive role in gathering the military intelligence on Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in support of the Pakistan Armed Forces–Middle East Command led by its Chief of Staff then Brigadier Zia-ul-Haq.:9–11[17] His efforts won the praise from King Hussain, honoring him with a national decoration.[4]

In 1971, Gp. Capt. Shamim returned to Pakistan from his assignment, and was appointed as base commander of Masroor Air Force Base, mainly focusing on the aerial defence, though he continued directing combat air operations.:222[10]

In 1974-76, Air Commodore Shamim was appointed Air Officer Commanding of the Southern Air Command, but was later posted as ACAS (Air Operations) at the Air AHQ on a two-star rank, Air Vice Marshal.[4]

In 1978, AVM Shamim was promoted to Air Marshal.:231

Chief of Air StaffEdit

In 1978, Air Mshl. Shamim was initially selected by the MoD as a military adviser to the United Kingdom but the British military never cleared this appointment.[4] During this time, Chief of Air Staff Air Chief Marshal Zulfikar Ali Khan resigned, following with Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee General Muhammad Shariff, over the issue of military taking over the civilian government.[4]

On 23 July 1978, President Fazal Ilahi approved to elevate the junior most air officer, Air Marshal Anwar Shamim, to the four-star rank, superseding several seniors for this appointment.[18]

Once appointed air chief, ACM Shamim began taking initiatives to modernize the air force by acquiring fighter jets from the United States and China.[4]

ACM Shamim's tenureship is subjected to two extension as a chief of air staff, first receiving it in 1982 at the behest of the President General Zia to supervise the complete induction of the F-16A/B fighter jets in the air force.:cxxix[19] In 1983, ACM Shamim was given another extension as an air chief for two more year.:636[20] Repeated extension of ACM Shamim as chief of air staff made him the longest serving chief of the air force.:93[21]

Under his command, the air force was involved in combat sorties with the Soviet Air Forces in Afghanistan in shooting down the Soviet fighter jets violating the airspace of Pakistan only, but he did not authorized the air force's F-!6s for a hot pursuit missions in Afghanistan.[5]

F-16 Fighting Falcon programEdit

 
F-16A in flight: ACM Shamim's tenure acquire the F-16As from the United States in 1981.:18[22]

In 1979, ACM Shamim had notified President General Zia that Kahuta's ERL was an indefensible site because it was at three minutes flying time for the Indian IAF from the border, with reaction time for the Pakistan Air Force's fighter jets would be about eight minutes, resulting the enemy completing the job and reporting to their base safely.[23] ACM Shamim explored the idea of defending the nuclear deterrence by suggesting to acquire the American F-16s, allowing the PAF to have a second strike capability to destroying the Indian nuclear facility at Trombay, India.[23] ACM Shamim refused to acquire the F-5E aircraft from the United States, and provided a strong advocacy for acquiring the F-16s.[23] In 1980, ACM Shamim led successful talks with China, and acquired the F-6s to be inducted in the air force to protect the facilities.:28[24]

The Pakistan MoD and the U.S. DoD entered in negotiations to acquire the F-16s, with Air Chief Marshal Shamim later launching the Project Falcon, appointing Air Vice Marshal H. Durrani as its Project-Director.[25]

On 15 January 1983, the three F-16As in a single squadron flown under the leadership of then-Air Vice Marshal Jamal Khan reached the country.:37–38[13] When the F-16As were arrived, ACM Shamim directed a secret memo to confirm that the Indian attack on the nuclear facilities in the country will be met with retaliatory attack by the PAF, using the F-16s as their primary weapons.[23][26] During this time, he maintained close relations with Lieutenant General Arnold Braswell of the United States Air Force on mutual security issues.[6]

After Israel successfully launched a surprise airstrike on an Iraqi nuclear power plant, the fears in Pakistan increased with intelligence community asserting that India reciprocating the following the similar suit to destroy the nuclear infrastructure in Pakistan.[25] Upon learning the development between Iraq and Israel, ACM Shamim tightened the security of the nuclear facilities by establishing the strategic air command.[7]

In 1980, Air Chief Marshal Shamim also witnessed the commissioning and induction of the A-5 Fantan in the air force, acquiring the first squadron in 1981.:18[22]

In 1982, ACM Shamim acquired the additional batch of Dassault Mirage 5 that would provide support on aerial defence for the Pakistan Navy.:239[27]

Air Force Strategic CommandEdit

After Israel successfully launched a surprise airstrike on an Iraqi nuclear power plant, the fears in Pakistan increased with intelligence community asserting that India reciprocating the following the similar suit to destroy the nuclear infrastructure in Pakistan.[25] Upon learning the development between Iraq and Israel, ACM Shamim tightened the security of the nuclear facilities by establishing the strategic air command.[7][28]

The Air Force Strategic Command was primary tasked with protecting and providing the aerial defence of the country's clandestine nuclear deterrence.[28] The Air Force Strategic Command later over taken the satellite operations which were then run under Space Research Commission, providing the financial support for developing the nation's first communication satellite.[28]

Retirement and later lifeEdit

In 1985, Air Chief Marshal Shamim refused to accept the extension as an air chief despite President General President Zia approving his third extension.:99–100[29] ACM Shamim was eventually succeeded by Air Chief Marshal Jamal Khan, and decided to settled in the United States comfortably.:99–100[29]

In 1986, General President Zia appointed him as the High Commissioner of Pakistan to Canada to lead Pakistan's mission but the Canadian government refused take his appointment.:203–204[30] In 1987, he was then attempted to be sent as a Pakistan Ambassador to Saudi Arabia but this was also refused by the Saudi Arabia, citing unknown reasons.:203–204[30]

During this time, his strong political advocacy and role in developing toward the nuclear weapons was exposed by the investigative journalism in the United States, leading him to return to Pakistan and sell his home in the United States to avoid federal inquires by the United States government.:203–204[30] In 1988–89, he joined the Dawn, writing and penning articles on security issues in Afghanistan.

In 1999–2000, Shamim was implicated in several allegations in the corruption inquires conducted by National Accountability Bureau (NAB) but details of his assets were then marked as classified by President Pervez Musharraf.:87[31]

In 2010, he wrote and published his memoirs, Cutting Edge, recounting his memories during this tenureship as an air chief.[25]

Death and State funeralEdit

On 3 January 2013, Shamim was admitted at the Combined Military Hospital in Rawalpindi and passed away on 4 January 2013 after a prolonged illness.[32] His death was widely reported and, it was announced by the Government of Pakistan to give him the proper burial with state honors.

Shamim was given a state funeral and was attended by Air Chief Marshal Tahir Rafiq, then-air chief, Admiral Asif Sandila, then-navy chief, Gen. Ashfaq Parvez Kayani, then-army chief, former air chiefs, war veterans, diplomatics, and other dignitaries.[33][34] President Asif Zardari paid tribute to his services for the nation and prayed to Allah, the Almighty, to rest the departed soul in eternal peace and to give courage to the bereaved family to bear this loss with fortitude. [35]

LegacyEdit

ACM Anwar Shamim was noted as the longest serving chief of air staff, commanding the air force for nearly seven years whose tenureship saw the induction of the F-16s in the air force.[36] While there were several allegations of nepotism[37] and improper conduct, But this has been fervently denied by his family[38]

ACM Anwar Shamim started the air force's exercise that were integrated with the other branches of the Pakistani military in the 1980s for the leadership under Chairman joint chiefs to understand and appreciate exactly what the PAF could and could not do.[5]

Published worksEdit

  • Shamim, PAF`, ACM (Gen.) M. Anwar (12 March 1988). "Afghanistan Problem: The End in Sight? Part-I". M. A. Shamim, PAF. Islamabad: M. Anwar Shamim at Dawn. Dawn Newspapers. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  • Shamim, PAF`, ACM (Gen.) M. Anwar (13 March 1988). "Afghanistan Problem: The End in Sight? Part-II". M. A. Shamim, PAF. Islamabad: M. Anwar Shamim at Dawn. Dawn Newspapers. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  • Shamim, PAF`, ACM (Gen.) M. Anwar (27 March 1988). "Implications of India's Naval Build-up". M. A. Shamim, PAF. Islamabad: M. Anwar Shamim at Dawn. Dawn Newspapers. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  • Shamim, PAF`, ACM (Gen.) M. Anwar (4 April 1989). "Dilemma of the Bureaucracy". M. A. Shamim, PAF. Islamabad: M. Anwar Shamim at Dawn. Dawn Newspapers. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  • Shamim, PAF`, ACM (Gen.) M. Anwar (20 May 1989). "What Does Agni Port End?". M. A. Shamim, PAF. Islamabad: M. Anwar Shamim at Dawn. Dawn Newspapers. Retrieved 14 January 2018.

MemoirsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b The Gazette of Pakistan. 1978. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  2. ^ (PAF), Pakistan Air Force (2015). "Chiefs of Air Staff Gallery". Pakistan Air Force Directorate for Public and Media relations. Directorate-General for the Inter-Services Public Relations of Pakistan Air Force. Retrieved 4 July 2011.
  3. ^ a b News Desk, Maliha Ajj (4 January 2013). "Ex-Chief of Air Staff Anwar Shamim dies at 81". Aaj News. Islamabad: Aaj News, 2013. Aaj News, 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i "PAF ex-chief Anwar Shamim passes away". The Nation. 5 January 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  5. ^ a b c Editorial, National (7 January 2013). "Air Chief Marshal Anwar Shamim and PAF". www.thenews.com.pk. News International. News International. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  6. ^ a b Marwat, Abdul Zahoor Khan (7 January 2014). "A Tribute to Late Air Chief Marshal Anwar Shamim (1978-1985)". www.truthbykbaig.com. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  7. ^ a b c Anwar, PAF, Air Chief Marshal Shamim (2010). "§The Lost Decade". Cutting Edge PAF: A Former Air Chief's Reminiscences of a Developing Air Force. Islamabad, Islamabad Capital Territory: Vanguard Books Publishers. p. 351. ISBN 978-969-402-540-7.
  8. ^ "انور شمیم". آزاد دائرۃ المعارف، ویکیپیڈیا (in Urdu). 7 January 2018. Retrieved 11 January 2018.[circular reference]
  9. ^ a b "Ex-chief of PAF Shamim dead". Islamabad: Dawn Newspaper. 5 January 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  10. ^ a b c d Hussain, Syed Shabbir; Qureshi, M. Tariq (1982). History of the Pakistan Air Force, 1947-1982 (1st ed.). Islamabad: Pakistan Air Force. p. 332. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  11. ^ Excerpts from Page 221. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  12. ^ Singh, Pushpindar; Rikhye, Ravi; Steinemann, Peter (1991). Fiza'ya: psyche of the Pakistan Air Force. Society for Aerospace Studies. p. 207. ISBN 9788170020387. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  13. ^ a b c "Shaheen: Journal of the Pakistan Air Force". Shaheen: Journal of the Pakistan Air Force. Air Headquarters. 35. 1988. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  14. ^ a b Singh, Mandeep (2017). Baptism Under Fire: Anti Aircraft Artillery in India Pakistan War 1965 (in Spanish). Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. ISBN 9789386457134. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  15. ^ Hussain, Syed Shabbir; Qureshi, M. Tariq (1982). History of the Pakistan Air Force, 1947-1982. Pakistan Air Force. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  16. ^ Roy, Kaushik (2017). Conventional Warfare in South Asia, 1947 to the Present. Routledge. ISBN 9781351948678.
  17. ^ Amin, A.H. (1999). "Group-Captain Cecil Chaudhry, SJ" (web cache). webcache.googleusercontent.com. Defence Journal. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  18. ^ Asian Recorder. K. K. Thomas at Recorder Press. 1982. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  19. ^ News Review on South Asia and Indian Ocean. Institute for Defence Studies & Analyses. 1983. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  20. ^ Globe. A. Mahmood. 1991. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  21. ^ a b Subramanian, Ram Rajan (1982). Nuclear Proliferation in South Asia: Security in the 1980s. Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. ISBN 9780867840919. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  22. ^ a b c d Anwar, PAF, Air Chief Marshal Shamim (17 May 2007). "Threat to destroy indian N-plant stopped attack on Kahuta". Air Chief Marshal (retired) Shamim Anwar, Chief of Air Staff of Pakistan Air Force. Dawn Newspapers. Retrieved 12 May 2011. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
  23. ^ New Delhi. Ananda Bazar Patrika, Limited. 1987. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  24. ^ a b c d Anwar, PAF, Air Chief Marshal Shamim (2010). "§ Critical Years: Intelligence and Deception". Cutting Edge PAF: A Former Air Chief's Reminiscences of a Developing Air Force. Islamabad, Islamabad Capital Territory: Vanguard Books. p. 351. ISBN 978-969-402-540-7.
  25. ^ In 1983, Air Chief Marshal Shamim written a memo stating: "I am now in a position to confirm that Indians will not attack Kahuta because it is amply clear to them that we will retaliate and launch an attack on their atomic station in Trombay, and knowing that they will suffer much more devastation than us, will desist from taking any unwise action".
  26. ^ Daily Report: South Asia. Foreign Broadcast Information Service. 1982. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  27. ^ a b c Anwar, PAF, Air Chief Marshal Shamim (2010). "§21st century Air Force". Cutting Edge PAF: Reminiscences. Islamabad, Islamabad Capital Territory: Vanguard Books Publishers Co. p. 351. ISBN 978-969-402-540-7.
  28. ^ a b Abbas, Hassan (2015). "Chapter 6: General Zia-ul-Haq". Pakistan's Drift Into Extremism: Allah, the Army, and America's War on Terror (google books). Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-46328-3. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  29. ^ a b c Joshi, P. C. (2008). Main Intelligence Outfits Of Pakistan (1st ed.). Anmol Publications Pvt. Limited. p. 414. ISBN 9788126135509. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  30. ^ Siddiqui, Tasneem Ahmad (2005). Dynamics of Social Change. Sama. p. 229. ISBN 9789698784263. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  31. ^ "President condoles death of Anwar Shamim". dailytimes.com.pk. 2013-01-05. Retrieved 2013-01-05.
  32. ^ Staff reporter (5 January 2013). "Ex-PAF chief Anwar Shamim laid to rest with military honours". www.pakistantoday.com.pk. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  33. ^ "Former Air Chief Laid to Rest". The Nation. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
  34. ^ "President Condoles Death of Anwar Shamim". Dail Times. 5 January 2013. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
  35. ^ PAF s' Chief of Air Staffs Archived 2009-02-25 at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ "Cecil Choudhary Interview". Archived from the original on 2008-05-22. Retrieved 2008-02-21.
  37. ^ "S Iqbals Response at Chowk". Archived from the original on 2007-11-05. Retrieved 2008-02-21.

External linksEdit