Somdet Phra Chao Lan Ther Chaofa Thong-In Krom Phra Rajawang Boworn Sathan Phimuk (Thai: สมเด็จพระเจ้าหลานเธอ เจ้าฟ้าทองอิน กรมพระราชวังบวรสถานภิมุข, lit: His Royal Highness Prince Thong-In, the Deputy Vice King of Siam) (28 March 1746 – 20 December 1806) was a Siamese Prince and military leader. A nephew of King Phutthayotfa Chulalok (Rama I) the founder of the Chakri Dynasty, he was appointed Deputy Vice King or Rear Palace, the 3rd highest position in the kingdom. Becoming the only person to hold that title during the Rattanakosin Kingdom.
|Prince Anurak Devesh|
|Deputy Viceroy of Siam|
|Tenure||circa 1782 – 20 December 1806|
|Appointed||Phutthayotfa Chulalok (Rama I)|
|Born||28 March 1746|
Kingdom of Ayutthaya
|Died||20 December 1806 (aged 60)|
|Issue||35 sons and daughters with various consorts|
|Father||Phra Intraraksa (Seam)|
Thong-In (ทองอิน) was born on the 28 March 1746 to an Ayutthayan aristocrat Phra Intraraksa (Seam) and Sa (later Princess Sister Thepsuthavadi; the eldest child of Thongdee and Daoreung). Sa was also the elder sister of Thong Duang, later Chao Phraya Chakri and in 1782 King Phutthayotfa Chulalok. Thong-In was the eldest child and has two younger brothers and a sister.
For a time Thong-In served in the Army under King Taksin of Thonburi as Luang Ritnaiwair (หลวงฤทธิ์นายเวร). In 1780 he was raised to the rank of Phraya Suriyaphai (พระยาสุริยอภัย) and was appointed governor of Nakhon Ratchasima.
When his uncle ascended to the throne as King of the new Rattanakosin Kingdom in 1782, he elevated his nephew to the rank of Chaofa (most senior rank of Prince). Soon he was appointed to the title of Krom Phra Rajawang Boworn Sathan Phimuk and Rear Palace or Deputy Vice King (Deputy Uparaja), this meant he was essentially the third most powerful individual in the Kingdom. When the new capital was built at Bangkok Prince Anurak Devesh built his residence (Wang Lang) back in Thonburi, directly opposite the Front Palace, today the site is now occupied by the Siriraj Hospital.
After becoming the Rear Palace he assisted King Rama I in his fight against King Bodawpaya of Burma in 1785 during the Nine Armies War. During the conflict he personally accompanied the King to recapture the city of Phitsanulok from the Burmese.
Anurak Devesh died on the 20 December 1806 at the age of 60. After his death King Rama I decided not to appoint anyone to succeed him as Rear Palace and left the office vacant, the tradition was carried by subsequent kings until the official abolishment of the title in 1885 by King Chulalongkorn. Making Anurak Devesh the only Rear Palace of the Chakri Dynasty.
The Prince had 35 children, six borne from his consort Thongyu, others by concubines. Of his six children (borne with Thongyu), the four sons and two daughters received the title of Phra Ong Chao (the middle rank of Princes). The rest (borne with concubines) received the title of Mom Chao (the most junior rank of Princes), however during the reign of King Mongkut (Rama IV), all 35 children was given the additional title of "Royal Cousins" (พระสัมพันธวงศ์เธอ or Phra Samphan Wong Ther).