The Antonov An-148 (Ukrainian: Антонов Ан-148) is a regional jet designed and built by Antonov of Ukraine. Development of the aircraft was started in the 1990s, and its maiden flight took place on 17 December 2004. The aircraft completed its certification programme on 26 February 2007. The An-148 has a maximum range of 2,100–4,400 km (1,100–2,400 nmi; 1,300–2,700 mi) and is able to carry 68–85 passengers, depending on the configuration. The Antonov An-158 is a stretched fuselage version of the aircraft, accommodating up to 100 passengers.

Antonov An-158
Role Regional jet airliner
National origin Ukraine
Design group Antonov
Built by Antonov Serial Production Plant[1]
Voronezh Aircraft Production Association[citation needed]
First flight 17 December 2004 (An-148)
28 April 2010 (An-158)
Introduction 2 June 2009
Status In production, in service
Primary users Ministry of Defence (Russia)
Cubana de Aviación
Angara Airlines
Air Koryo
Number built 47[2][citation needed]
Developed from Antonov An-74
Developed into Antonov An-178

Following a crash in February 2018, all An-148 and An-158 in Russia were grounded by the Russian Ministry of Transport.[3][4] In addition, Cubana grounded its An-158 fleet as of May 2018 due to several technical issues with the aircraft.[5] Until late 2018,[citation needed] the Antonov An-148 aircraft was also being produced in Russia by Voronezh Aircraft Production Association; however, due to the souring political relationship between Ukraine and Russia, production in Russia was discontinued.[6] The last Russian-built An-148 was completed in October 2018.[7][8]

Development edit

The first prototype. It made its maiden flight on 17 December 2004.
The first An-158 in April 2010, before its first presentation

The beginning of the An-148 project dates to the early 1990s, when work on the Antonov An-74 passenger modification started, headed by Petro Balabuev. In 2001, the project was renamed An-148. The An-74 fuselage was extended and the new aircraft's wing design was created from scratch. The developers initially used Motor Sich D-436-148 engines. Other variants with Western-made engines with thrust of 58.86–78.48 kN (6,002–8,003 kgf; 13,230–17,640 lbf) (such as the General Electric CF34 or Rolls-Royce BR700) are being considered.[9]

In 2002, production of the first three prototypes was begun at AVIANT. On 17 December 2004, the first prototype completed its maiden flight. The second prototype joined the testing programme in April 2005.[10] During the certification programme, the two prototypes performed about 600 flights in total.[11] On 26 February 2007, the aircraft, its D-436-148 engine and the AI-450-МS auxiliary power unit were certified by the Interstate Aviation Committee of Russia and the State Aviation Administration of Ukraine.

The An-148 is manufactured by the Ukrainian Kyiv AVIANT plant (now Antonov Serial Production Plant) and Russia's Voronezh Aircraft Production Association (VASO). On 28 June 2009, the first serially produced An-148, manufactured at VASO in Voronezh, took to the skies.[10] Although numerous companies are involved in the project, at least 70% of the aircraft's hardware is made by Russian manufacturers.[citation needed] The An-148's list price is about $24–30 million.[12] The main problem with the project has been increasing the aircraft's sluggish production rate. The then-independent AVIANT plant initially failed to satisfy to growing orders, leading to VASO's growing involvement in the aircraft's assembly.[12] VASO announced in June 2017 that the two final Russian-assembled An-148s would be delivered, and the project would not see further development.[13]

For Siberian operators, Antonov plans a model with a higher gross weight and additional fuel capacity in the center tank, extending the range with 75 passengers from 2,198 km (1,187 nmi; 1,366 mi) to 3,598 km (1,943 nmi; 2,236 mi). An "E" variant is also planned to offer a special 5,100 km (2,800 nmi; 3,200 mi) range, which would serve as a platform for the "E1", capable of non-stop Moscow-Vladivostok 6,995 km (3,777 nmi; 4,346 mi) services carrying 44 passengers.[citation needed]

Design edit

Flight deck
2+3 seating

The An-148 aircraft is a high-wing monoplane with two turbofan jet engines mounted in pods under the wing. This arrangement protects the engines and wing structure against foreign object damage. A built-in autodiagnosis system, auxiliary power unit, and the wing configuration allow the An-148 to be used at poorly equipped airfields. Flight and navigation equipment features five 15 by 20 cm (5.9 by 7.9 in) liquid crystal display panels built by Russia's Aviapribor and a fly-by-wire system, which enables the An-148 aircraft to operate day and night, under instrument flight rules and visual flight rules weather conditions on high-density air routes. Similar to the Boeing 737, the main landing gear rotates into the belly of the aircraft when in flight, with partial doors covering the legs, and the sides of the tires remaining exposed. Built-in entrance stairs enable boarding and disembarking the aircraft without extra ground equipment.[12] The manufacturer claims high fuel efficiency of the Motor Sich D-436-148 engines.[12]

The An-148-100 regional aircraft is the main model of the An-148. It seats 70 passengers at 864 mm (34.0 in) or up to 80 passengers at 762 mm (30.0 in) pitch in a one-class 2+3 seating layout. The aircraft is also configurable in a multiple-class layout which can carry fewer passengers, typically with four abreast business class.[14]

Variants edit

The 29.13 m long An-148
The 1.7m longer An-158
Proposed military An-148-300MP
main version of the An-148. It has a passenger capacity of 85 in a one-class dense configuration or 68 in a two-class configuration, and a range of 2,100 km (1,100 nmi; 1,300 mi)[15]
extended-range version, up to 3,500 km (1,900 nmi; 2,200 mi)[15]
extended-range version, up to 4,400 km (2,400 nmi; 2,700 mi)[15] and a maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) of 43.7 t (43,700 kg; 96,000 lb)
unified with An-158 by the rear part of the fuselage. Hence maximum seating capacity is increased to 89 passengers in dense configuration, comparing to 85 for An-148-100. Planned for production in Kyiv with An-158.[16]
previously called An-168, business variant, seating 8-40 passengers, with a range up to 7,000 km (3,800 nmi; 4,300 mi)[17]
proposed airborne early warning and control variant.[citation needed]
stretched fuselage version for 99 passengers in a one-class standard configuration.[18][19][20] Other changes include the installation of wingtip fences. The airplane successfully completed its first flight on 28 April 2010, with flight certification tests planned to be completed before the end of 2010;[21] on 3 March 2011, it was given Russian certification.[22] Nowadays, after flight and land test in night lands airports of Ecuador (Latacunga / Cotopaxi International Airport, 2806 m AMSL) and Bolivia (La Paz / El Alto International Airport, 4061 m AMSL) in November 2013 prepare documentation for obtaining correspondent supplements to the type certificate of this airplane.[23]
cargo variant, with a payload capacity of 15 t (15,000 kg; 33,000 lb).[18][24][25] The wing outer panels (including winglets), front fuselage with cockpit and nosewheel leg come from the An-158. The cargo hold is slightly enlarged, and there is an extra pair of main-wheels on each side.[26] The An-178 was previously known as the An-148T,[27] which would have had the Progress AI-727 turbofan as a potential power plant option.[28]
HESA IrAn-148
Designation of An-148 aircraft proposed for license production from knocked down kits in Iran.

Operational history edit

In April 2005, the Ilyushin Finance Leasing Company ordered the first series of An-148 for the Krasair airline. Lease agreement calls for ten aircraft with an option for five units valued at $270 million.[29]

On 2 June 2009, the first An-148 entered commercial service with the Ukrainian carrier Aerosvit.[30] The first passenger flight was from Kharkiv to Kyiv; the aircraft had the civilian registration UR-NTA.[31] By November 2009, Aerosvit was operating the An-148 on the Kyiv–Odesa and SimferopolLviv routes, performing two flights a day with the average flight time of 4–5 hours.[12]

On 21 December 2009, the An-148 was put into service in Russia with Rossiya airline. The first passenger flight was FV135 from Pulkovo Airport in Saint Petersburg to Sheremetyevo International Airport in Moscow.[10] By 20 May 2010, Rossiya's An-148 fleet had accumulated a total of 915 flight hours and performed 710 landings.[32] Rossiya complained that the aircraft experienced some reliability problems.[33] There were some technical problems with the aircraft, and pilot training could not be ramped up fast enough, leading to pilot shortages.[32] However, by 2011 the situation had improved.[34]

On 15 February 2010, the An-148 started international flights to the European Union (Poland) with the Aerosvit airline.[35]

On 18 April 2013, the first serial An-158 version was delivered to the Cuban flagship airline Cubana de Aviación. According to Antonov, Cubana additionally ordered two more aircraft,[36] while other sources report this order to be for ten aircraft.[37] On 28 April 2013, Ukraine's Antonov aircraft maker handed over a third An-158 passenger airliner to Cuba and signed a contract for the delivery of three more.

In April 2016, Indian company Reliance defense limited and Antonov entered into an agreement to construct an aircraft based on An 148/ An 158 for defense and commercial purposes.[38]

In April 2017, Cubana de Aviación suspended its flights between Havana and Guantánamo due to "technical problems" with its An-158 fleet. The route from Havana to Holguín also had problems: of 116 planned flights in the first months of 2017, 38 were cancelled and 36 suffered significant delays.[39] Yoanka Acosta, head of Cubana's commercial division, explained that the planes were leased from Ukraine but spare parts were sourced from Russia, so the state of conflict between the two countries had affected the supply of parts, making maintenance difficult.[39] In late April, however, representatives from Antonov and Cubana met and signed a service agreement that extended the aircraft's navigation directives to 3,600 flights and guaranteed the supply of spare parts, although it did not specify a date for normalization.[40]

In March 2018, Rostransnadzor suspended all flights of An-148 in Russia after the crash on 11 February 2018.[41]

In May 2018, Cubana de Aviación grounded its An-158 fleet after it received an order from the Cuban National Aviation Authority. The official reason given by the Cuban National Aviation Authority was "multiple and repeating failures have been found in complex systems, built by mechanical, hydraulic and electrical components, as well as computer performance algorithms", in addition to "evidence of design and manufacturing flaws, serious issues in flight control system, cracks in the structure and engine temperature increase above normal parameters".[5]

Total 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004
47 3 2 3 5 5 9 4 6 6 2 0 0 0 1 1

On 18 September 2023, the Ukrainian military intelligence claimed a raid against Chkalovsky Air Base, near Moscow, occurred. During which they claimed damaged an An-148.[42]

Orders and deliveries edit

The following sheet depicts all known orders and deliveries of An-148 aircraft. However it is unclear if all of them are currently operational:

Airline Order Delivered Refs
  Air Koryo 2 2 [43][44]
  Angara Airlines 5 5 [45]
  Ministry of Defence 15 15 [46]
  Ministry of Emergency Situations 2 2 [47]
  Russian Presidential Administration 5 3 [48]
  Ukraine Air Enterprise 2 2 [49]
  Border Guard Service of Russia 3 2 [50]
  Cubana de Aviación 6 6 [51][52]
Total 40 37

Incidents and accidents edit

  • On 5 March 2011, an Antonov An-148 (assembled by VASO) carrying test registration 61708 crashed during a test flight in Russia's Belgorod Oblast after an inflight breakup, killing all six crew members on board. An investigation commission found that the crew permitted the aircraft to accelerate more than 60 knots above its "Never Exceed" speed in an emergency descent, which led to the inflight breakup.[53] Witnesses on the ground reported a wing had separated from the aircraft in flight. The aircraft was due to be delivered to Myanmar.
  • On 11 February 2018, an Antonov An-148 operating as Saratov Airlines Flight 703, crashed shortly after takeoff near Ramenskoye, outside of Moscow. The aircraft was carrying 65 passengers and six crew members. There were no survivors. This is the first fatal commercial accident for this aircraft type.[54]

Specifications edit

Three-view diagram
Antonov An-148 specifications[55][56][18][57]
Variant 148-100E 158 *
Cockpit crew 2
Seats 68–85 86–99
Seat pitch 30–35 in 30–34 in
Cargo 14.60 m3 (516 cu ft)
Length 29.13 m (95 ftin) 30.83 m (101 ft 2 in)
Wingspan 28.91 m (94 ft 10 in)
Wing area 87.32 m2 (939.9 sq ft)
Height 8.19 m (26 ft 10 in)
Cabin 3.15 m (10 ft 4 in) width × 2.00 m (6 ft 7 in) height
MTOW 43,700 kg (96,300 lb)
Max. payload 9,000 kg (20,000 lb) 5,000 kg (11,000 lb)
OEW 22,000 kg (49,000 lb)
Max. fuel 12,050 kg (26,570 lb)
Turbofan (x 2) Progress D-436-148 D-436
Thrust (x 2) 14,000 lbf; 63 kN 15,100 lbf; 67.0 kN
Ceiling 12,200 m (40,000 ft)
Cruise 800 to 870 km/h (430 to 470 kn)
Range (75 pax/max PL) 4,400 km (2,400 nmi) 2,500 km (1,300 nmi)
Fuel burn 1,650 kg/h (3,600 lb/h) 1,800 kg/h (4,000 lb/h)
Takeoff (MTOW) 1,885 m (6,184 ft) 1,900 m (6,200 ft)

See also edit

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

References edit

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External links edit

  Media related to Antonov An-148 at Wikimedia Commons