Antoine of Navarre
Antoine (in English, Anthony; 22 April 1518 – 17 November 1562) was the King of Navarre through his marriage (jure uxoris) to Queen Jeanne III, from 1555 until his death. He was the first monarch of the House of Bourbon, of which he was head from 1537. He was the father of Henry IV of France.
|King of Navarre|
|Reign||25 May 1555 – 17 November 1562|
|Born||22 April 1518|
La Fère, Picardy, France
|Died||17 November 1562 (aged 44)|
Les Andelys, Eure
|Father||Charles, Duke of Vendôme|
|Mother||Françoise of Alençon|
Antoine was born at La Fère, Picardy, France, the second son of Charles de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme (1489–1537), and his wife, Françoise d'Alençon (died 1550). He was the older brother of Louis, Prince of Condé (1530–1569), leader of the Huguenots. In February 1557, Antoine, Jeanne and their son Henry traveled to the French court in Paris, while there King Henry II suggested a betrothal between his daughter Margaret and Henry.
Marriage and childrenEdit
On 20 October 1548, at Moulins, Antoine married Jeanne d'Albret, the daughter of Henry II of Navarre and his wife Marguerite de Navarre. After his father-in-law's death in May 1555, he became King of Navarre, Count of Foix, of Bigorre, of Armagnac, of Périgord, and Viscount of Béarn. It was reported that Jeanne was much in love with him.
Antoine and Jeanne had:
- Henry (1551–1553), Duke of Beaumont
- Henry IV of France (1553–1610)
- Louis (1555–1557), Count of Marle
- Madeleine (1556)
- Catherine (1559–1604), married Henry II, Duke of Lorraine in 1599
- Charles, Archbishop of Rouen from 1554 until 1610.
Antoine does not appear to have had any real religious conviction and officially changed religions several times. His reconversion to Catholicism separated him from his wife and he threatened to repudiate her. He had an affair with Louise de La Béraudière de l'Isle Rouhet, "la belle Rouet," with whom he had a son, Charles III de Bourbon (1554–1610) who became archbishop of Rouen.
Wars of ReligionEdit
Catherine de' Medici, governor for her son Charles IX, named him lieutenant general of the kingdom in 1561. When his wife, Jeanne d'Albret, allowed the Huguenots to sack the chapel and the churches of Vendôme in 1562, he threatened to send her to a convent. She took refuge in Béarn. Antoine was killed during the Siege of Rouen (1562) fighting for the Catholics.
- Louisa 1992, p. 98.
- Holt 2005, p. 50.
- Pitts 2009, p. 8-9.
- Commire 2000, p. 251.
- Pitts 2009, p. 8.
- Robin, Larsen & Levin 2007, p. 2.
- Holt 2005, p. 218.
- Roelker 1968, p. xiv.
- Bergin 1996, p. 581.
- Holt 2005, p. 52.
- Robin, Larsen & Levin 2007, p. 3.
- Bryson 1999, p. 219.
- Bryson 1999, p. 111.
- Bryson 1999, p. 299.
- Holt 2005, p. 54.
- Bergin, Joseph (1996). The Making of the French Episcopate, 1589–1661. St. Edmundsbury Press Ltd.
- Bryson, David (1999). Queen Jeanne and the Promised Land. Koninklijke Brill.
- Commire, Anne (2000). Women in World History. 10. Yorkin Publications.
- Holt, Mack P. (2005). The French wars of religion, 1562–1629. Cambridge University Press.
- Louisa, Angelo (1992). "Antoine de Bourbon". In Dupuy, Trevor; Johnson, Curt; Bongard, David L. (eds.). The Harper Encyclopedia of Military Biography. Castle Books.
- Pitts, Vincent J. (2009). Henri IV of France: His Reign and Age. The Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Robin, Diana Maury; Larsen, Anne R.; Levin, Carole (2007). Encyclopedia of women in the Renaissance: Italy, France, and England. ABC-CLIO, Inc.
- Roelker, Nancy Lyman (1968). Queen of Navarre, Jeanne d'Albret, 1528-1572. Harvard University Press.
- Media related to Antoine of Navarre at Wikimedia Commons