Antoine of Navarre

Antoine (in English, Anthony; 22 April 1518 – 17 November 1562) was the King of Navarre through his marriage (jure uxoris) to Queen Jeanne III, from 1555 until his death. He was the first monarch of the House of Bourbon, of which he was head from 1537. He was the father of Henry IV of France.

Antoine
Antoine-de-bourbon.jpg
King of Navarre
Reign25 May 1555 – 17 November 1562
PredecessorHenry II
SuccessorJeanne III
Co-monarchJeanne III
Born22 April 1518
La Fère, Picardy, France
Died17 November 1562 (aged 44)
Les Andelys, Eure
Burial
Spouse
(m. 1548)
Issue
among others...
Full name
French: Antoine de Bourbon
HouseBourbon
FatherCharles, Duke of Vendôme
MotherFrançoise of Alençon
ReligionSee details

FamilyEdit

 
Coat of Arms of Antoine de Bourbon and the Kings of Navarre

Antoine was born at La Fère, Picardy, France, the second son of Charles de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme (1489–1537), and his wife, Françoise d'Alençon (died 1550).[1] He was the older brother of Louis, Prince of Condé (1530–1569), leader of the Huguenots.[2] In February 1557, Antoine, Jeanne and their son Henry traveled to the French court in Paris, while there King Henry II suggested a betrothal between his daughter Margaret and Henry.[3]

Marriage and childrenEdit

 
A detailed portrait of Antoine by Corneille de Lyon (1548). Royal Castle, Warsaw

On 20 October 1548, at Moulins, Antoine married Jeanne d'Albret, the daughter of Henry II of Navarre and his wife Marguerite de Navarre.[1] After his father-in-law's death in May 1555,[4] he became King of Navarre, Count of Foix, of Bigorre, of Armagnac, of Périgord, and Viscount of Béarn.[5] It was reported that Jeanne was much in love with him.[6]

Antoine and Jeanne had:

With his mistress, Louise de La Béraudière de l'Isle Rouhet,[9] Antoine had:

  • Charles, Archbishop of Rouen from 1554 until 1610.[9]

ReligionEdit

Antoine does not appear to have any real religious conviction and officially changed religions several times.[10] His reconversion to Catholicism separated him from his wife and he threatened to repudiate her.[11] He had an affair with Louise de La Béraudière de l'Isle Rouhet, "la belle Rouet," with whom he had a son, Charles III de Bourbon (1554–1610) who became archbishop of Rouen.[12]

War of ReligionEdit

Catherine de' Medici, regent for her son Charles IX, named him lieutenant general of the kingdom in 1561.[13] When his wife, Jeanne d'Albret, allowed the Huguenots to sack the chapel and the churches of Vendôme in 1562, he threatened to send her to a convent.[14] She took refuge in Béarn. Antoine was killed during the Siege of Rouen (1562) fighting for the Catholics.[15]

AncestorsEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b Louisa 1992, p. 98.
  2. ^ Holt 2005, p. 50.
  3. ^ Pitts 2009, p. 8-9.
  4. ^ Commire 2000, p. 251.
  5. ^ Pitts 2009, p. 8.
  6. ^ Robin, Larsen & Levin 2007, p. 2.
  7. ^ Holt 2005, p. 218.
  8. ^ Roelker 1968, p. xiv.
  9. ^ a b Bergin 1996, p. 581.
  10. ^ Holt 2005, p. 52.
  11. ^ Robin, Larsen & Levin 2007, p. 3.
  12. ^ Bryson 1999, p. 219.
  13. ^ Bryson 1999, p. 111.
  14. ^ Bryson 1999, p. 299.
  15. ^ Holt 2005, p. 54.

ReferencesEdit

  • Bergin, Joseph (1996). The Making of the French Episcopate, 1589–1661. St. Edmundsbury Press Ltd.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Bryson, David (1999). Queen Jeanne and the Promised Land. Koninklijke Brill.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Commire, Anne (2000). Women in World History. Volume 10.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Holt, Mack P. (2005). The French wars of religion, 1562–1629. Cambridge University Press.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Louisa, Angelo (1992). "Antoine de Bourbon". In Dupuy, Trevor; Johnson, Curt; Bongard, David L. (eds.). The Harper Encyclopedia of Military Biography. Castle Books.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Pitts, Vincent J. (2009). Henri IV of France: His Reign and Age. The Johns Hopkins University Press.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Robin, Diana Maury; Larsen, Anne R.; Levin, Carole (2007). Encyclopedia of women in the Renaissance: Italy, France, and England. ABC-CLIO, Inc.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Roelker, Nancy Lyman (1968). Queen of Navarre, Jeanne d'Albret, 1528-1572. Harvard University Press.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

External linksEdit

Antoine of Navarre
Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty
Born: 22 April 1518 Died: 17 November 1562
Navarrese royalty
Preceded by
Henry II
King of Navarre
25 May 1555 – 17 November 1562
with Joan III
Succeeded by
Joan III
French nobility
Preceded by
Charles de Bourbon
Duke of Vendôme
1537 – 17 November 1562
Succeeded by
Henry IV of France