Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch
The Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch, also known as the Antiochian Orthodox Church and legally as the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East (Arabic: بطريركية أنطاكية وسائر المشرق للروم الأرثوذكس, romanized: Baṭriyarkiyya Anṭākiyya wa-Sāʾir al-Mashriq li'l-Rūm al-Urthūdhuks, lit. 'Romaean/Byzantine Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East'), is an autocephalous Greek Orthodox Church within the wider communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Headed by the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch, it considers itself the successor to the Christian community founded in Antioch by the Apostles Peter and Paul.
Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East
بطريركية أنطاكية وسائر المشرق للروم الأرثوذكس
|Primate||John X Yazigi Patriarch of Antioch and all the East (Dec 17, 2012)|
|First autocephalous |
|Paul the Jew in 518 AD|
|Language||Koine Greek, Arabic, English, French, Portuguese, Spanish|
|Headquarters||Mariamite Cathedral, Damascus, Syria|
Traditionally: Antioch, Byzantine Empire
Monastic residence: Balamand Monastery, Koura, Lebanon
|Territory||Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Kuwait, UAE, Bahrain, Oman, parts of Turkey, formerly Cyprus, formerly Georgia and parts of the Central Caucasus area, United States, Canada, Mexico, Central America, South America, Australia, New Zealand, European Union|
|Founder||Apostles Peter and Paul|
|Branched from||Church of Antioch|
|Members||Approx. 4.3 million (2012)|
The seat of the patriarchate was formerly Antioch, in what is now Turkey. However, in the 14th century, it was moved to Damascus, modern-day Syria, following the Ottoman invasion of Antioch. Its traditional territory includes Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Kuwait, Arab countries of the Persian Gulf and also parts of Turkey. Its territory formerly included the Church of Cyprus until the latter became autocephalous in 431. Both the Orthodox Churches of Antioch and Cyprus are members of the Middle East Council of Churches.
Its North American branch is autonomous, although the Holy Synod of Antioch still appoints its head bishop, chosen from a list of three candidates nominated in the North American archdiocese. Its Australasia and Oceania branch is the largest in terms of geographic area due to the relatively large size of Australia and the large portion of the Pacific Ocean that the archdiocese covers.
The head of the Orthodox Church of Antioch is called Patriarch. The present Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch is John X Yazigi, who presided over the Archdiocese of Western and Central Europe (2008–2013). He was elected as primate of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All The East as John X of Antioch (Yazigi) on December 17, 2012. He succeeded Ignatius IV who had died on December 5, 2012. Membership statistics are not available, but may be as high as 1,100,000 in Syria and 400,000 in Lebanon where they make up 8% of the population or 20% of Christians who make up 39-41% of Lebanon. The seat of the Patriarch in Damascus is the Mariamite Cathedral of Damascus.
The Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch is one of several churches that lay claim to be the canonical incumbent of the ancient see of St. Peter and St. Paul in Antioch. The Oriental Orthodox Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch makes the same claim, as do the Syriac Catholic Church, the Maronite Church, and the Melkite Greek Catholic Church, all of them Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the Holy See. These three, however, mutually recognize each other as holding authentic patriarchates, being part of the same Catholic communion. The Roman Catholic Church also appointed titular Latin Rite patriarchs for many centuries, until the office was left vacant in 1953 and abolished in 1964 and all claims renounced.
History and cultural legacyEdit
Pauline Greco-Semitic rootsEdit
The Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch claims the status of most ancient Christian church in the world. According to Luke the Evangelist- himself a Greco-Syrian member of that community:
The disciples were first called Christians in Antioch.
St. Peter and St. Paul the Apostle are considered the cofounders of the Patriarchate of Antioch, the former being its first bishop. When Peter left Antioch, Evodios and Ignatius took over the charge of the Patriarchate. Both Evodios and Ignatius died as martyrs under Roman persecution.
Hellenistic Judaism and the Judeo-Greek "wisdom" literature popular in the late Second Temple era amongst both Hellenized Rabbinical Jews (known as Mityavnim in Hebrew) and gentile Greek proselyte converts to mainstream Judaism played an important part in the formation of the Melkite-Antiochian Greek Orthodox tradition. Some typically Grecian "Ancient Synagogal" priestly rites and hymns have survived partially to the present in the distinct church services of the Melkite Greek Orthodox and Greek Catholic communities of the Hatay Province of Southern Turkey, Syria and Lebanon.
Some historians believe that a sizable proportion of the Hellenized Jewish communities and most gentile Greco-Macedonian settlers in Southern Turkey (Antioch, Alexandretta and neighboring cities) and Syria/Lebanon – the former being called "Hellenistai" in the Acts – converted progressively to the Greco-Roman branch of Christianity that eventually constituted the "Melkite" (or "Imperial") Hellenistic Churches in Western Asia and North Africa
As Jewish Christianity originated at Jerusalem, so Gentile Christianity started at Antioch, then the leading center of the Hellenistic East, with Peter and Paul as its apostles. From Antioch it spread to the various cities and provinces of Syria, among the Hellenistic Syrians as well as among the Hellenistic Jews who, as a result of the great rebellions against the Romans in A.D. 70 and 130, were driven out from Jerusalem and Palestine into Syria.
Acts 6 points to the problematic cultural tensions between the Hellenized Jews and Greek-speaking Judeo-Christians centered around Antioch and related Cilician, Southern-Anatolian and Syrian "Diasporas" and (the generally more conservative) Aramaic-speaking Jewish converts to Christianity based in Jerusalem and neighboring Israeli towns:
The ‘Hebrews’ were Jewish Christians who spoke almost exclusively Aramaic, and the ‘Hellenists’ were also Jewish Christians whose mother tongue was Greek. They were Greek-speaking Jews of the Diaspora, who returned to settle in Jerusalem. To identify them, Luke uses the term Hellenistai. When he had in mind Greeks, gentiles, non-Jews who spoke Greek and lived according to the Greek fashion, then he used the word Hellenes (Acts 21.28). As the very context of Acts 6 makes clear, the Hellenistai are not Hellenes.
"There is neither Jew nor Greek"Edit
These ethno-cultural and social tensions were eventually surmounted by the emergence of a new, typically Antiochian Greek doctrine (doxa) spearheaded by Paul (himself a Hellenized Cilician Jew) and his followers be they 1. Established, autochthonous Hellenized Cilician-Western Syrian Jews (themselves descendants of Babylonian and ‘Asian’ Jewish migrants who had adopted early on various elements of Greek culture and civilization while retaining a generally conservative attachment to Jewish laws & traditions), 2. Heathen, ‘Classical’ Greeks, Greco-Macedonian and Greco-Syrian gentiles, and 3. the local, autochthonous descendants of Greek or Greco-Syrian converts to mainstream Judaism – known as “Proselytes” (Greek: προσήλυτος/proselytes or ‘newcomers to Israel’) and Greek-speaking Jews born of mixed marriages.
Paul's efforts were probably facilitated by the arrival of a fourth wave of Greek-speaking newcomers to Cilicia/Southern Turkey and Northwestern Syria: Cypriot and ‘Cyrenian’ (Libyan) Jewish migrants of non-Egyptian North African Jewish origin and gentile Roman settlers from Italy- many of whom already spoke fluent Koine Greek and/or sent their children to Greco-Syrian schools. Some scholars believe that, at the time, these Cypriot and Cyrenian North African Jewish migrants were generally less affluent than the autochthonous Cilician-Syrian Jews and practiced a more ‘liberal’ form of Judaism, more propitious for the formation of a new canon:
[North African] Cyrenian Jews were of sufficient importance in those days to have their name associated with a synagogue at Jerusalem (Acts 6:9). And when the persecution arose about Stephen [a Hellenized Syrian-Cilician Jew, and one of the first known converts to Christianity], some of these Jews of Cyrene who had been converted at Jerusalem, were scattered abroad and came with others to Antioch [...] and one of them, Lucius, became a prophet in the early church there [the Greek-speaking ‘Orthodox’ Church of Antioch].
These subtle, progressive socio-cultural shifts are somehow summarized succinctly in Chapter 3 of the Epistle to the Galatians:
There is neither Jew nor Greek: there is neither slave nor free: there is neither male nor female. For you are all one in Christ Jesus (Galatians 3:28).
Dual self-designation: "Melkites" and "Eastern Romans"Edit
The unique combination of ethnocultural traits inhered from the fusion of a Greek cultural base, Hellenistic Judaism and Roman civilization gave birth to the distinctly Antiochian “Eastern Mediterranean-Roman” Christian traditions of Cilicia (Southeastern Turkey) and Syria/Lebanon:
The mixture of Roman, Greek, and Jewish elements admirably adapted Antioch for the great part it played in the early history of Christianity. The city was the cradle of the church.
Some of the typically Antiochian ancient liturgical traditions of the community rooted in Hellenistic Judaism and, more generally, Second Temple Greco-Jewish Septuagint culture, were expunged progressively in the late medieval and modern eras by both Phanariot European-Greek (Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople) and Vatican (Roman Catholic) theologians who sought to 'bring back' Levantine Greek Orthodox and Greek-Catholic communities into the European Christian fold.
But members of the community in Southern Turkey, Syria and Lebanon still call themselves Rûm which means "Eastern Roman" or "Asian Greek" in Arabic. In that particular context, the term "Rûm" is used in preference to "Yāvāni" or "Ionani" which means "European-Greek" or Ionian in Biblical Hebrew (borrowed from Old Persian Yavan = Greece) and Classical Arabic. Members of the community also call themselves 'Melkites', which literally means "monarchists" or "supporters of the emperor" in Semitic languages - a reference to their past allegiance to Greco-Macedonian, Roman and Byzantine imperial rule. But, in the modern era, the term tends to be more commonly used by followers of the Greek Catholic Church of Antioch and Alexandria and Jerusalem.
Interaction with other non-Muslim ethnocultural minoritiesEdit
Following the fall of the Turkish Ottoman Empire and the Czarist Russian Empire (long the protector of Greek-Orthodox minorities in the Levant), and the ensuing rise of French colonialism, communism, Islamism and Israeli nationalism, some members of the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch embraced secularism and/or Arab Nationalism as a way to modernize and "secularize" the newly formed nation-states of Northern Syria and Lebanon, and thus provide a viable "alternative" to political Islam, communism and Jewish nationalism (viewed as ideologies potentially exclusive of Byzantine Christian minorities).
This often led to interfaith conflicts with the Maronite Church in Lebanon, notably regarding Palestinian refugees after 1948 and 1967. Various (sometimes secular) intellectuals with a Greek Orthodox Antiochian background played an important role in the development of Baathism, the most prominent being Michel Aflaq, one of the founders of the movement.
Abraham Dimitri RihbanyEdit
In the early 20th Century (notably during World War I), Lebanese-American writers of Greek-Orthodox Antiochian background such as Abraham Dimitri Rihbany, known as Abraham Mitrie Rihbany (a convert to Presbyterianism), popularized the notion of studying ancient Greco-Semitic culture to better understand the historic and ethnocultural context of the Christian Gospels : his original views were developed in a series of articles for The Atlantic Monthly, and in 1916 published in book form as The Syrian Christ.
At a time when most of the Arab world area was ruled by the Ottoman Empire, France and England, Rihbany called for US military intervention in the Holy Land to fend off Ottoman Pan-Islamism, French colonialism, Soviet Communism and radical Zionist enterprises- all viewed as potentially detrimental to Christian minorities.
Administration and structureEdit
After the death of the head of the Patriarchate of Antioch, Ignatius IV (Hazim), Patriarch of Antioch, Syria, Arabia, Cilicia, Iberia, Mesopotamia and All the Middle East, on December 7, 2012, Metropolitan Saba Esber was elected locum tenens until the election of the new patriarch. On Monday, December 17, the Holy Synod of Antioch announced the election of Metropolitan John (Yazigi) as the new Patriarch, taking the name John X.
Archdioceses and metropolitansEdit
In Western Asia and North Africa:
- Archdiocese of Damascus: Patriarchal diocese
- Archdiocese of Aleppo (Beroea) and Alexandretta: Paul Yazigi (2000–present)
- Archdiocese of Bosra, Hauran and Jabal al-Arab: Saba Esber (1999–present)
- Archdiocese of Homs (Emesa): George Abu Zakhem (1999–present)
- Archdiocese of Hama (Epiphania) and Exarchate of North Syria: Nicholas Baalbaki (2017–present)
- Archdiocese of Latakia (Laodicea ad Mare) and Exarchate of Theodorias: Athanasius Fahd (2018–present)
- Archdiocese of Beirut and Exarchate of Phoenicia: Elias Audi (1980–present)
- Archdiocese of Akkar: Basilios Mansour (2008–present)
- Archdiocese of Mount Lebanon, Byblos and Botrys: Siluan Muci (2018–present)
- Archdiocese of Zahlé and Baalbek (Heliopolis): Antonios El Soury (14 Nov 2015–present)
- Archdiocese of Tripoli and el-Koura: Ephraim Kyriakos (2009–present)
- Archdiocese of Tyre and Sidon: Elias Kfoury (1995–present)
- Archdiocese of Baghdad, Kuwait and Dependencies: Ghattas Hazim (2014–present)
in Asia and Oceania:
- Archdiocese of Australia, New Zealand and the Philippines: Basilios Qoudsiah (2017–present)
- Archdiocese of France, Western and Southern Europe: Ignatius Alhoushi (2013–present)
- Archdiocese of Germany and Central Europe: Isaac Barakat (2013–present)
- Archdiocese of the British Isles and Ireland: Silouan Oner (2015–present)
in the Americas:
- Archdiocese of North America (Englewood, New Jersey); Archbishop of New York and Metropolitan of All North America: Joseph Al-Zehlaoui (2014–present)
- Diocese of New York and Washington, D.C.: Archbishop's diocese
- Diocese of Worcester and New England: John Abdallah (2011–present)
- Diocese of Miami and the Southeast: Nicholas Ozone (2017–present)
- Diocese of Wichita and Mid-America: Basil Essey (2004–present), Titular Bishop of Anfeh (1992–2003)
- Diocese of Los Angeles and the West: Vacant
- Diocese of Eagle River and the Northwest: Vacant
- Diocese of Charleston, Oakland and Mid-Atlantic: Thomas Joseph (2004–present)
- Diocese of Toledo and the Mid-West: Anthony Michaels (2011–present)
- Diocese of Ottawa, Eastern Canada and Upstate New York: Alexander Mufarrij (2004–present)
- Archdiocese of Buenos Aires and All Argentina: Jacob Khoury (elected 2018)
- Archdiocese of Mexico, Venezuela, Central America and the Caribbean: Ignatius Samaan (2017–present)
- Archdiocese of Santiago and All Chile: Sergios Abad (1996–present), Bishop of Salamias and Patriarchal Auxiliary for Chile (1988–1996)
- Archdiocese of São Paulo and All Brazil: Damaskinos Mansour (1997–present)
Titular dioceses and bishopsEdit
- Diocese of Philippopolis: Niphon Saykali (1988–), elevated to archbishop in 2009 and elevated to metropolitan in 2014, Representative of the Patriarch of Antioch and All the East at the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia
- Diocese of Darayya: Moussa Khoury (1995–), Patriarchal Assistant – Damascus
- Diocese of Saidnaya: Luka Khoury (1999–), Patriarchal Assistant – Damascus
- Diocese of Banias: Demetrios Charbak (2011–), Auxiliary Bishop in Safita, Archdiocese of Akkar
- Diocese of Arthoussa: Elias Toumeh (2011–), Auxiliary Bishop in Marmarita, Archdiocese of Akkar
- Diocese of Zabadani: Constantine Kayal (2011–), Abbot of St Elias – Shwayya Patriarchal Monastery
- Diocese of Palmyra: Youhanna Haikal (2011–), Auxiliary Bishop in the Archdiocese of Germany and Central Europe
- Diocese of Seleucia: Ephrem Maalouli (2011–), Patriarchal Vicar and Secretary of the Holy Synod
- Diocese of Edessa: Romanos Daoud (2011–), Auxiliary Bishop in the Archdiocese of São Paulo and Brazil
- Diocese of the Emirates: Gregorios Khoury-Abdallah (2014-), Assistant Bishop to the Patriarch
- Diocese of Erzurum: Qays Sadek (2014-), Assistant Bishop to the Patriarch
- Diocese of Sergiopolis: Youhanna Batash (2017-)
- Diocese of Apamea: Theodore Ghandour (2017-)
- Archdiocese of Zahlé and Baalbek: Spyridon Khoury (1966-2015)
- Archdiocese of Mount Lebanon, Byblos and Batroun: Georges Khodr (1970-2018)
- Diocese of Yabroud: Athanasius Saliba (1979–)
- Diocese of Jableh: Demetrios Khoury (1995–2003)
- Church of Cyprus: Granted autocephaly by the Church of Antioch in 431 AD.
- Church of Georgia: Granted autocephaly by the Church of Antioch in 474 AD.
- Church of Imereti and Abkhazia: Granted autocephaly by the Church of Antioch in the 1470s, but suppressed by the Russian Empire in 1814 and continued to be a dependency of the Church of Moscow and all Russia until 1917 when it was reunited with Church of Georgia.
- Eastern Orthodoxy in Syria
- Antiochian Greeks
- Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of North America
- Early Christianity
- Eastern Orthodox Church
- Greek Orthodox Church
- Hellenistic Judaism
- List of Greek Orthodox Patriarchs of Antioch – 518 to present day
- List of Orthodox Churches
- List of Patriarchs of Antioch – to 518
- Eastern Orthodoxy in Lebanon
- Eastern Orthodoxy in Turkey
- Saint John of Damascus
- Saint Joseph of Damascus
- Saint Raphael of Brooklyn
- "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Church of Antioch". www.newadvent.org.
- Hans Wehr, Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic (4th ed.), page 428.
- Bailey, Betty Jane; Bailey, J. Martin. Who Are the Christians in the Middle East? (1st ed.). Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. p. 63.
- " History of Christianity in Syria ", Catholic Encyclopedia
- " Conflict and Diversity in the Earliest Christian Community" Archived 2013-05-10 at the Wayback Machine, Fr. V. Kesich, O.C.A.
- " Epistle to the Cyrene", International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
- " Epistle to the Galatians", New Testament
- "Antioch," Encyclopaedia Biblica, Vol. I, p. 186 (p. 125 of 612 in online .pdf file. Warning: Takes several minutes to download).
- Geschichtskonstrukt und Konfession im Libanon, Wolf-Hagen von Angern, Logos Verlag Berlin GmbH, 2010
- “Christian Church to be Filled by a Damascus Preacher” (New York Times, September 15, 1895)
- Ostrogorsky, George (1956). History of the Byzantine State. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
- Meyendorff, John (1989). Imperial unity and Christian divisions: The Church 450-680 A.D. The Church in history. 2. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. ISBN 978-0-88-141056-3.
- Hage, Wolfgang (2007). Das orientalische Christentum. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer Verlag. ISBN 9783170176683.
- Kiminas, Demetrius (2009). The Ecumenical Patriarchate: A History of Its Metropolitanates with Annotated Hierarch Catalogs. Wildside Press LLC. ISBN 9781434458766.