A Catalan-language sign in Valencia city calling for a boycott of Catalan products

Anti-Catalanism (Catalan: anticatalanisme, IPA: [ˌantikətələˈnizmə]) is the collective name given to various alleged historical trends in Spain that have been hostile to Catalan culture and traditions.

In more recent times it is a term used to criticize political stances contrary to Catalan nationalism or Catalan independentism, both inside and outside Catalonia.


OriginsEdit

1482 The suppression and burning of the Valencian Bible begins, to the point that for years its existence has been doubted.

From the New Plant Decree of Philip V, which abolished Catalan laws and institutions after the War of the Succession, which ended in 1714, the marginalization of the Catalan language and culture was progressively increased for the benefit of Castilian. The New Plant Decree was a royal measure aimed at the repression of those defeated during the War of Succession and that it initiated the creation of the Spanish centralized state under the laws of Castile, founded, legally and for the first time, the Kingdom of Spain. This centralism took quite a lot during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, reaching maximum levels during the Franco dictatorship and white terror.

Chronology of the repression of Catalan [1] (1482-Present)

DescriptionEdit

In a historical context, anti-Catalanism expresses itself as a hostile attitude towards the Catalan language, people, traditions or anything identified with Catalonia. In a political context it may express itself as the reaction to a perceived intrusion of Catalan political nationalism into the area. In its most extreme circumstances, this may also be referred as Catalanophobia. Several political movements, known for organising boycotts of products from Catalonia, are also actively identified with anti-Catalanism.

Current

Catalanophobia can be found all over Spain, The hate map and in many places the most severe and evident catalanophobia has been flagged by Spanish and ultranationalist parties such as the PP, Citizens and VOX.[2][3][4]

Catalonia

In Catalonia, anti-Catalan social bubbles are common, especially in the metropolitan area of Barcelona and in the migrant districts of Castilian-language origin in the main cities of the Principality. It is customary to reject the language in speech, music or the media, showing utter indifference or contempt for Catalan and its culture. This rejection causes the Spanish political parties to obtain the best results in these areas. [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]

Valencia

In the Valencian Country, anti-Catalanism has spread mainly to conservative groups in the City of Valencia and its surroundings, linked with linguistic secessionism and the political movement commonly called blaverism. Anticatalanism usually has a political effect in these areas, almost always understood as a reaction to a pretended Catalan imperialism. [10]

Balearic islands

In mid-1972 a series of letters appeared in the Diario de Mallorca signed under the pseudonym Pep Gonella, which led to Gonellism, a movement that some associate with Valencian blaverism. However, the letters never denied the unity of the language or manifested anti-Catalan feelings, but called for greater importance in the Balearic dialect varieties than the standard.

Aragon

In Aragon there is a movement similar to blaverism or gonellism which seeks to eliminate all reference to Catalan in relation to the Strip. Aragon excludes Catalan from its official languages, now it is called Lapao. [11]

From EuropeEdit

 
Interdiction officielle de la langue catalane of April 2, 1700, during the reign of Louis XIV of France, decree by which Catalan was banned in Roussillon, Conflent and Cerdanya.
Italy

Historian Antoni Simon states that between the 12th and 15th centuries, the Catalan military expansion in Sicily, Sardinia and southern Italy, and the entry of Catalan merchants into these markets, generated a deep sense of Animosity against the Catalans - often identified as Spaniards. Reflections can be found in the literary works of Dante Alighieri, Giovanni Boccaccio, Francesco Petrarca, Luigi Alamanni, Pietro Aretino or Serafino Aquilano . He claims that it was an anti-Catalan sentiment more cultural-linguistic than political-territorial, due to protests over the election of Alfonso de Borja in 1455 as Pope Calixto III for being barbarian and Catalan. [12] [13]


Rest of Europe

Although the anti-Catalan black legend had its origin in Italy, it extended to the eastern Mediterranean with the expeditions of the almogávares, which decisively influenced the fear and rejection they acquired in that area, which made famous the imprecation or insult «¡ Catalan revenge ! »[14]

France

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Chronology of the repression of Catalan".
  2. ^ "Catalanophobia; building a story: The strategy of the common enemy is one of the oldest tricks in politics". translate.google.com. Retrieved 2019-12-17.
  3. ^ "The PP has always been very well resort to the scarecrow of anti-Catalanism". translate.google.com. Retrieved 2019-12-17.
  4. ^ "According to the CEO, the Catalans are by far the citizens that generate the most rejection among Spaniards". translate.google.com. Retrieved 2019-12-17.
  5. ^ "Denunciation about Catalanophobia reaches the European parliament".
  6. ^ "Pursuit of leaders of pro-culture social organizations, such as Omnium".
  7. ^ "El disputado voto anticatalanista en las elecciones municipales de València". La Vanguardia. December 30, 2018.
  8. ^ "Vox busca el voto anticatalanista para entrar en Valencia". ELMUNDO. September 30, 2014.
  9. ^ Valencia, Redacción (October 31, 2017). "Vox se suma a la marcha anticatalanista de su ex Cristina Seguí". www.esdiario.com.
  10. ^ "The disputed anti-Catalan vote Popular, Cs and Vox fight for a sector of the electorate of Valencian regionalism in the capital of the community".
  11. ^ "The Courts of Aragon have just given birth to a law that, as a philologist and Aragonese, embarrasses me".
  12. ^ http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=2250078 Els orígens històrics de l'anticatalanisme
  13. ^ Duran, Eulàlia (December 17, 2008). "The Borja Family: Historiography, Legend and Literature". Catalan Historical Review: 63–79 – via www.raco.cat.
  14. ^ Arroyo, F. (October 8, 2005). The price of the 'Catalan revenge'. The Country.