The anthem of the Estonian SSR[a] was the Soviet regional anthem of the Estonian SSR between 1945 and 1990 when Estonia was occupied by the Soviet Union.
|English: Anthem of the Estonian SSR|
Former regional anthem of the Estonian SSR
|Adopted||20 July 1945|
21 July 1956 (modified version)
|Relinquished||8 May 1990|
State Anthem of the Estonian SSR (1945 version)
The anthem was presented to the central government of the USSR in May 1944, three months after the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR had issued a decree on 3 February 1944, "On the State Anthems of the Soviet Republics."
The melody of the anthem was composed by Gustav Ernesaks, and the lyrics written by Johannes Semper. The anthems of the Estonian SSR, the Karelo-Finnish SSR, and the Georgian SSR were the only Soviet regional anthems not to mention the Russian people. After the Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin died in 1953, during the following period of "de-Stalinization" in the USSR, on 21 July 1956, the third stanza of the lyrics of the Estonian SSR anthem were changed to remove all mentions of Stalin.
During the Soviet occupation of Estonia performing or reciting the melody or lyrics of the anthem of Estonia Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm was forbidden by law, and considered a punishable criminal offence by the Soviet regime. While another song with Ernesaks' melody Mu isamaa on minu arm, served as means of expressing national feelings, and was widely regarded by Estonians as their "unofficial anthem". On 8 May 1990, Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm was restored as the state anthem, together with the blue-black-white Estonian flag and state official name Republic of Estonia.
- ^ Estonian: Eesti NSV hümn; Russian: Гимн Эстонской ССР
- ^ a b In the original 1945–56 lyrics, it was "ja tõusid töötajate vabaks maaks" ("and became a flourishing land of free workers").
- ^ a b Original lyrics:
"Kui kants-nii seisavad su kodurannad,
su ees vaid lainetavad laiad veed.
Sa kõrgel Leninlikku lippu kannad
suur Stalin juhtimas su tõusuteed.
Käi kindlalt, saatmas sind su õnneteel
me võitlusvaim ja kohkumatu mehemeel!"
"Your home beaches stand as a castle,
wide waters only wave before you.
You're bearing Leninist banner high,
great Stalin leading your ascent.
March steadily with our fighting spirit
and bold manly mind guiding you!"
- ^ "Eesti NSV hümn". Postimees. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
- ^ "Seadus Eesti sümboolikast". Riigi Teataja. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
- ^ "National anthem of the Republic of Estonia". news.tut.by. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
- ^ "National anthem of the Republic of Estonia". eesti.ee. Retrieved 4 September 2017.