António José de Almeida
António José de Almeida, GCTE, GCA, GCC, GCSE (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐ̃ˈtɔniu ʒuˈzɛ dɨ aɫˈmɐjdɐ]; 27 July 1866 in Penacova, São Pedro de Alva – 31 October 1929 in Lisbon), son of José António de Almeida and his wife Maria Rita das Neves, was a Portuguese political figure. He served as the sixth President of Portugal from 1919 until 1923.
António José de Almeida
Official portrait of President António José de Almeida by Henrique Medina
|President of Portugal|
5 October 1919 – 5 October 1923
|Preceded by||João do Canto e Castro|
|Succeeded by||Manuel Teixeira Gomes|
|Prime Minister of Portugal|
16 March 1916 – 25 April 1917
|Preceded by||Afonso Costa|
|Succeeded by||Afonso Costa|
|Born||27 July 1866|
Vale da Vinha, Portugal
|Died||31 October 1929 (aged 63)|
|Political party||Portuguese Republican|
|Spouse(s)||Maria Joana Queiroga|
He studied medicine at the University of Coimbra becoming a medical doctor and during his term as Minister for the Interior, he was the founder of both the University of Lisbon and the University of Porto in 1911. He was one of the most eloquent republican tribunes, and, after the Republic proclamation, as interior minister he led the moderate wing of the Portuguese Republican Party, that opposed Afonso Costa. The moderates elected Manuel de Arriaga for first elected President, on 24 August 1911, defeating Afonso Costa's candidate, Bernardino Machado.
António José de Almeida founded his own party, the Evolutionist Party, that was in the opposition. On 12 June 1916 he became the 6th Minister for Finance and also the 96th Prime Minister of Portugal. Later, both the Evolutionist Party and the Republican Union, Manuel de Brito Camacho's party, joined to form the new Republican Liberal Party, in 1919, that went on to win the legislative elections.
On 6 August 1919, António José de Almeida was elected the 6th President of the Republic, and was the only President of the First Republic, that completed the full four years mandate. He faced the greatest political instability of the regime and almost resigned. He was also remembered for his voyage to Brazil, in 1922, during the centennial of that country's independence from Portugal, where he was noted as a brilliant speaker.
He married on 14 December 1910 to Maria Joana de Morais Perdigão Queiroga, daughter with her younger sisters Antónia and Catarina of Joaquim José Perdigão Queiroga (b. Évora) and first wife Maria Cândida de Morais and half-sister of Perdigão Queiroga. On 27 December 1911 they had an only daughter Maria Teresa Queiroga de Almeida, married to medical doctor Júlio Gomes da Cunha de Abreu.
- Sash and Grand-Cross of the Three Orders, as President of the Republic and Grand-Master of the Portuguese Honorific Orders (1919–1923)
- Grand-Cross of the Order of the Tower and of the Sword, of Valour, Loyalty and Merit, Portugal (July 10, 1919)
- Grand-Cross of the Order of Christ, Portugal (October 16, 1919)
- Grand-Cross of the Order of Aviz, Portugal (October 16, 1919)
- Grand-Cross of the Order of Saint James of the Sword, Portugal (October 16, 1919)
Notes and referencesEdit
- "With the proclamation of the Republic and the installment of the first provisional government, which was led by Teófilo Braga with António José de Almeida as Interior Minister and Afonso Costa as Minister of Justice, all of whom were freemasons" A Shortened History of Freemasonry in Portugal, Petrestones Review
- "CIDADÃOS NACIONAIS AGRACIADOS COM ORDENS PORTUGUESAS - Página Oficial das Ordens Honoríficas Portuguesas". www.ordens.presidencia.pt (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2017-08-07.
| Prime Minister of Portugal
João do Canto e Castro
| President of Portugal
Manuel Teixeira Gomes