Ansible is an open-source software provisioning, configuration management, and application-deployment tool enabling infrastructure as code. It runs on many Unix-like systems, and can configure both Unix-like systems as well as Microsoft Windows. It includes its own declarative language to describe system configuration. Ansible was written by Michael DeHaan and acquired by Red Hat in 2015. Ansible is agentless, temporarily connecting remotely via SSH or Windows Remote Management (allowing remote PowerShell execution) to do its tasks.
|Original author(s)||Michael DeHaan|
|Developer(s)||Ansible Community / Ansible Inc. / Red Hat Inc.|
|Initial release||February 20, 2012|
2.11.1 / 24 May 2021
|Written in||Python, PowerShell, Shell, Ruby|
|Operating system||Linux, Unix-like, MacOS, Windows|
|Type||Configuration management, infrastructure as code (IaC), Orchestration engine|
|License||Proprietary / GNU General Public License|
The Ansible tool was developed by Michael DeHaan, the author of the provisioning server application Cobbler and co-author of the Fedora Unified Network Controller (Func) framework for remote administration.
Ansible, Inc. (originally AnsibleWorks, Inc.) was the company founded in 2013 by Michael DeHaan, Timothy Gerla, and Saïd Ziouani to commercially support and sponsor Ansible. Red Hat acquired Ansible in October 2015.
Ansible is included as part of the Fedora distribution of Linux, owned by Red Hat, and is also available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux, CentOS, openSUSE, SUSE Linux Enterprise, Debian, Ubuntu, Scientific Linux, and Oracle Linux via Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux (EPEL), as well as for other operating systems.
This section contains content that is written like an advertisement. (April 2020)
Ansible is a Python-dependent configuration-management software, where both the controlling node and the target machine must have Python and its dependent packages installed. Ansible does not require a single controlling machine where orchestration begins. Ansible works against multiple systems in your infrastructure by selecting portions of Ansible's inventory, stored as edit-able, version-able ASCII text files. The inventory is configurable, and target machine inventory can be sourced dynamic or cloud-based sources or different formats (YAML, INI, etc.). The absence of a central-server requirement simplifies disaster-recovery planning. Nodes are managed by this controlling machine – typically over SSH. The controlling machine describes the location of nodes through its inventory. Sensitive data can be stored in encrypted files using Ansible Vault since 2014. In contrast with other popular configuration-management software — such as Chef, Puppet, and CFEngine — Ansible uses an agentless architecture, with Ansible software not normally running or even installed on the controlled node. Instead, Ansible orchestrates a node by installing and running modules on the node temporarily via SSH. For the duration of an orchestration task, a process running the module communicates with the controlling machine with a JSON-based protocol via its standard input and output. When Ansible is not managing a node, it does not consume resources on the node because no daemons are executing or software installed.
The design goals of Ansible include:
- Minimal in nature. Management systems should not impose additional dependencies on the environment.
- Consistent. With Ansible one should be able to create consistent environments.
- Secure. Ansible does not deploy agents to nodes. Only OpenSSH and Python are required on the managed nodes.
- Reliable. When carefully written, an Ansible playbook can be idempotent, to prevent unexpected side-effects on the managed systems. It is possible to write playbooks that are not idempotent.
- Minimal learning required. Playbooks use an easy and descriptive language based on YAML and Jinja templates.
Modules are mostly standalone and can be written in a standard scripting language (such as Python, Perl, Ruby, Bash, etc.). One of the guiding properties of modules is idempotency, which means that even if an operation is repeated multiple times (e.g., upon recovery from an outage), it will always place the system into the same state.
The Inventory is a description of the nodes that can be accessed by Ansible. By default, the Inventory is described by a configuration file, in INI or YAML format, whose default location is in
/etc/ansible/hosts. The configuration file lists either the IP address or hostname of each node that is accessible by Ansible. In addition, nodes can be assigned to groups.
An example inventory:
192.168.6.1 [webservers] foo.example.com bar.example.com
This configuration file specifies three nodes: the first node is specified by an IP address and the latter two nodes are specified by hostnames. Additionally, the latter two nodes are grouped under the
Playbooks are YAML files that express configurations, deployment, and orchestration in Ansible, and allow Ansible to perform operations on managed nodes. Each Playbook maps a group of hosts to a set of roles. Each role is represented by calls to Ansible tasks.
Ansible Tower is a REST API, web service, and web-based console designed to make Ansible easier to use for people with a wide range of IT skillsets. It is a hub for automation tasks. Tower is a commercial product supported by Red Hat, Inc. but derived from AWX upstream project, which is open source since September 2017.
Managed nodes, if they are Unix-like, must have Python 2.4 or later. For managed nodes with Python 2.5 or earlier, the
python-simplejson package is also required. Since version 1.7, Ansible can also manage Windows nodes. In this case, native PowerShell remoting supported by the WS-Management protocol is used instead of SSH.
Ansible can deploy to bare metal hosts, virtual machines, and cloud environments, including Amazon Web Services, Atomic, Lumen, Cloudscale, CloudStack, DigitalOcean, Dimension Data, Docker, Google Cloud Platform, KVM, Linode, LXC, LXD, Microsoft Azure, OpenStack, Oracle Cloud, OVH, oVirt, Packet, Profitbricks, PubNub, Rackspace, Scaleway, SmartOS, SoftLayer, Univention, VMware, Webfaction, and XenServer.
AnsibleFest is an annual conference of the Ansible community of users, contributors, etc.
|2020||Virtual only due to COVID-19 pandemic|
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