Anglo-Saxon runes or Anglo-Frisian runes are runes that were used by the Anglo-Saxons and Medieval Frisians (collectively called Anglo-Frisians) as an alphabet in their native writing system, recording both Old English and Old Frisian (Old English: rūna, ᚱᚢᚾᚪ, "rune"). Today, the characters are known collectively as the futhorc (ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ, fuþorc) from the sound values of the first six runes. The futhorc was a development from the older co-Germanic 24-character runic alphabet, known today as Elder Futhark, expanding to 28-characters in its older form and up to 34-characters in its younger form. In contemporary Scandinavia, the Older Futhark developed into a shorter 16-character alphabet, today simply called Younger Futhark.

Script type
Time period
5th through 11th centuries
DirectionLeft-to-right Edit this on Wikidata
LanguagesAnglo-Frisian (Old English and Old Frisian)
Related scripts
Parent systems
Sister systems
Younger Futhark
 This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and ⟨ ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.

Use of the Anglo-Frisian runes is likely to have started in the 5th century onward and they continued to see use into the High Middle Ages. They were later accompanied and eventually overtaken by the Old English Latin alphabet introduced to Anglo-Saxon England by missionaries. Futhorc runes were no longer in common use by the eleventh century, but MS Oxford St John's College 17 indicates that fairly accurate understanding of them persisted into at least the twelfth century.


The left half of the front panel of the 7th century Franks Casket, depicting the Germanic legend of Weyland Smith and containing a riddle in Anglo-Saxon runes.

There are competing theories about the origins of the Anglo-Saxon futhorc. One theory proposes that it was developed in Frisia and from there later spread to Britain. Another holds that runes were first introduced to Britain from the mainland where they were then modified and exported to Frisia. Both theories have their inherent weaknesses, and a definitive answer may come from further archaeological evidence.

The early futhorc was nearly identical to the Elder Futhark, except for the split of a into three variants āc, æsc and ōs, resulting in 26 runes. This was done to account for the new phoneme produced by the Ingvaeonic split of allophones of long and short a. The earliest known instance of the ōs rune may be from the 5th-century, on the Undley bracteate. The earliest known instances of the āc rune may be from the 6th century, appearing on objects such as the Schweindorf solidus. The double-barred hægl characteristic of continental inscriptions is first attested as late as 698, on St Cuthbert's coffin; before that, the single-barred variant was used.

In England, outside of the Brittonic West Country where evidence of Latin[2] and even Ogham continued for several centuries, usage of the futhorc expanded.[citation needed] Runic writing in England became closely associated with the Latin scriptoria from the time of Anglo-Saxon Christianization in the 7th century. In some cases, texts would be written in the Latin alphabet, and þorn and ƿynn came to be used as extensions of the Latin alphabet. By the time of the Norman Conquest of 1066 it was very rare, and it disappeared altogether a few centuries thereafter. From at least five centuries of use, fewer than 200 artifacts bearing futhorc inscriptions have survived.

Several famous English examples mix runes and Roman script, or Old English and Latin, on the same object, including the Franks Casket and St Cuthbert's coffin; in the latter, three of the names of the Four Evangelists are given in Latin written in runes, but "LUKAS" (Saint Luke) is in Roman script. The coffin is also an example of an object created at the heart of the Anglo-Saxon church that uses runes. A leading expert, Raymond Ian Page, rejects the assumption often made in non-scholarly literature that runes were especially associated in post-conversion Anglo-Saxon England with Anglo-Saxon paganism or magic.[3]


A chart showing 30 Anglo-Saxon runes
A rune-row showing variant shapes

The letter sequence and letter inventory of futhorc, along with the actual sounds indicated by those letters, could vary depending on location and time. That being so, an authentic and unified list of runes is not possible.

Rune inventory

Image Unicode Name Name meaning Transliteration IPA
  feh (feoh) wealth, cattle f /f/, [v] (word-medial allophone of /f/)
  ur (ūr) aurochs u /u(:)/
  ðorn (þorn) thorn th /θ/, [ð] (word-medial allophone of /θ/)
  os (ōs) heathen god (mouth in rune poem?[4](p 68)) o /o(:)/[5]
  rada (rād) riding r /r/
  cen (cēn) torch c /k/, /kʲ/, /tʃ/
  geofu (gyfu) gift g /ɡ/, [ɣ] (word-medial allophone of /ɡ/), /j/
  wyn (wynn) mirth w /w/
  hægil (hægl) hail h /h/, [x], [ç]
  næd (nēod) plight n /n/
  is (īs) ice i /i(:)/
   / gær (gēar) year j /j/
  ih (īw) yew tree ï /i(:)/ [x], [ç][5]
  peord (peorð) (unknown[4](pp 70–71)) p /p/
  ilcs (eolh?) (unknown, perhaps a derivative of elk[4](p 71)) x (otiose as a sound[5](p 41) but still used to transliterate the Latin letter 'X' into runes)
  / sygil (sigel) sun (sail in rune poem?) s /s/, [z] (word-medial allophone of /s/)
  ti (Tīw) (unknown, originally god,[4](p 72) Planet Mars in rune poem?[6]) t /t/
  berc (beorc) birch tree b /b/
  eh (eh) steed e /e(:)/
  mon (mann) man m /m/
  lagu (lagu) body of water (lake) l /l/
  ing (ing) Ing (Ingui-Frea?) ŋ /ŋg/, /ŋ/
  oedil (ēðel) inherited land, native country œ /ø(:)/[5]
  dæg (dæg) day d /d/
  ac (āc) oak tree a /ɑ(:)/[5]
  æsc (æsc) ash tree æ /æ(:)/[5]
  ear (ēar) (unknown, perhaps earth[4](p 76)) ea /æ(:)ɑ/[5]
  yr (ȳr) (unknown, perhaps bow[4](p 75)) y /y(:)/[5]

The sequence of the runes above is based on Codex Vindobonensis 795. The first 24 of these runes directly continue the elder futhark letters, and do not deviate in sequence (though ᛞᛟ rather than ᛟᛞ is an attested sequence in both elder futhark and futhorc). The manuscripts Codex Sangallensis 878 and Cotton MS Domitian A IX have precede .

The names of the runes above are based on Codex Vindobonensis 795, besides the names ing and æsc which come from The Byrhtferth's Manuscript and replace the seemingly corrupted names lug and æs found in Codex Vindobonensis 795. Ti is sometimes named tir or tyr in other manuscripts. The words in parentheses in the name column are standardized spellings.

Image UCS Name Name meaning Transliteration IPA
  calc chalk? chalice? sandal? k /k/
  gar spear /g/, [ɣ] (word-medial allophone of /g/)[5]
  cweorð (unknown) q /k/? (for writing Latin?)
  stan stone N/A /st/
  N/A (unknown) (unknown) ę, ᴇ /ǝ/?
  N/A (unknown) (unknown) į /e(:)o/? /i(:)o/?
  īor beaver?[7] eel? N/A /i(:)o/?
  (unknown) (unknown) c̄, k̄ /k/

The runes in the second table, above, were not included in Codex Vindobonensis 795: Calc appears in manuscripts, and epigraphically on the Ruthwell Cross, the Bramham Moor Ring, the Kingmoor Ring, and elsewhere. Gar appears in manuscripts, and epigraphically on the Ruthwell Cross and probably on the Bewcastle Cross.[8] The unnamed rune only appears on the Ruthwell Cross, where it seems to take calc's place as /k/ where that consonant is followed by a secondary fronted vowel. Cweorð and stan only appear in manuscripts. The unnamed ę rune only appears on the Baconsthorpe Grip. The unnamed į rune only appears on the Sedgeford Handle. While the rune poem and Cotton MS Domitian A IX present as ior, and as ger, epigraphically both are variants of ger (although is only attested once outside of manuscripts (on the Brandon Pin). R.I. Page designated ior a pseudo-rune.[4](pp 45–47)

There is little doubt that calc and gar are modified forms of cen and gyfu, and that they were invented to address the ambiguity which arose from /k/ and /g/ spawning palatalized offshoots.[4](pp 41–42) R.I. Page designated cweorð and stan "pseudo-runes" because they appear pointless, and speculated that cweorð was invented merely to give futhorc an equivalent to 'Q'.[4](pp 41–42) The ę rune is likely a local innovation, possibly representing an unstressed vowel, and may derive its shape from }.[9][full citation needed] The unnamed į rune is found in a personal name (bįrnferþ), where it stands for a vowel or diphthong. Anglo-Saxon expert Gaby Waxenberger speculates that į may not be a true rune, but rather a bindrune of and , or the result of a mistake.[10][full citation needed]

Combinations and digraphs


Various runic combinations are found in the futhorc corpus. For example, the sequence ᚫᚪ appears on the Mortain Casket where ᛠ could theoretically have been used.

Combination IPA Word Meaning Found on
ᚩᛁ /oi/? ]oin[.] (unknown) Lindisfarne Stone II
ᚷᚳ [gg]?, [dʒ]? blagcmon (personal name) Maughold Stone I
ᚷᚷ ~[dʒ] eggbrect (personal name) (an armband from the Galloway Hoard)
ᚻᚹ /ʍ/ gehwelc each Honington Clip
ᚻᛋ /ks/ wohs to wax Brandon Antler
ᚾᚷ /ŋg/ hring ring Wheatley Hill Silver-Gilt Finger-Ring
ᛁᚷ /ij/ modig proud/bold/arrogant Ruthwell Cross
ᛇᛡ? ~/ij/? hælïj? holy? Gandersheim Casket
ᛇᛋ /ks/ BennaREïs king Benna (a coin of Beonna of East Anglia)
ᛋᚳ /sk/, /ʃ/ fisc fish Franks Casket
ᛖᚩ /eo/, /eːo/ eoh (personal name) Kirkheaton Stone
ᛖᚷ /ej/ legdun laid Ruthwell Cross
ᛖᛇ ~/ej/, [eʝ]? eateïnne (personal name) Thornhill Stone II
ᛖᚪ /æɑ/, /æːɑ/ eadbald (personal name) Santi Marcellino e Pietro al Laterano Graffiti
ᚪᚢ ~/ɑu/ saule soul Thornhill Stone III
ᚪᛁ /ɑi/ aib (personal name) Oostum Comb
ᚪᛡ /ɑj/?, /ɑx/? fajhild? faghild? (personal name) Santi Marcellino e Pietro ad Duas Lauros Graffiti
ᚫᚢ ~/æu/ dæus deus (Latin) Whitby Comb
ᚫᚪ /æɑ/, /æːɑ/ æadan (personal name) Mortain Casket
The Anglo-Saxon futhorc (abecedarium anguliscum) as presented in Codex Sangallensis 878 (9th century)

Usage and culture


A rune in Old English could be called a rūnstæf (perhaps meaning something along the lines of "mystery letter" or "whisper letter"), or simply rūn.

Futhorc inscriptions hold diverse styles and contents. Ochre has been detected on at least one English runestone, implying its runes were once painted. Bind runes are common in futhorc (relative to its small corpus), and were seemingly used most often to ensure the runes would fit in a limited space.[11] Futhorc logography is attested to in a few manuscripts. This was done by having a rune stand for its name, or a similar sounding word. In the sole extant manuscript of the poem Beowulf, the ēðel rune was used as a logogram for the word ēðel (meaning "homeland", or "estate").[12] Both the Hackness Stone and Codex Vindobonensis 795 attest to futhorc Cipher runes.[13] In one manuscript (Corpus Christi College, MS 041) a writer seems to have used futhorc runes like Roman numerals, writing ᛉᛁᛁᛉᛉᛉᛋᚹᛁᚦᚩᚱ, which likely means "12&30 more".[14]

There is some evidence of futhorc rune magic. The possibly magical alu sequence seems to appear on an urn found at Spong Hill in spiegelrunes (runes whose shapes are mirrored). In a tale from Bede's Ecclesiastical History (written in Latin), a man named Imma cannot be bound by his captors and is asked if he is using "litteras solutorias" (loosening letters) to break his binds. In one Old English translation of the passage, Imma is asked if he is using "drycraft" (magic, druidcraft) or "runestaves" to break his binds.[15] Furthermore, futhorc rings have been found with what appear to be enchanted inscriptions for the stanching of blood.[16]

Inscription corpus

Futhorc series on the Seax of Beagnoth (9th century). The series has 28 runes, omitting io. The shapes of j, s, d, œ and y deviate from the standard forms shown above; eo appears mirrored.

The Old English and Old Frisian Runic Inscriptions database project at the Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt, Germany aims at collecting the genuine corpus of Old English inscriptions containing more than two runes in its paper edition, while the electronic edition aims at including both genuine and doubtful inscriptions down to single-rune inscriptions.

The corpus of the paper edition encompasses about one hundred objects (including stone slabs, stone crosses, bones, rings, brooches, weapons, urns, a writing tablet, tweezers, a sun-dial,[clarification needed] comb, bracteates, caskets, a font, dishes, and graffiti). The database includes, in addition, 16 inscriptions containing a single rune, several runic coins, and 8 cases of dubious runic characters (runelike signs, possible Latin characters, weathered characters). Comprising fewer than 200 inscriptions, the corpus is slightly larger than that of Continental Elder Futhark (about 80 inscriptions, c. 400–700), but slightly smaller than that of the Scandinavian Elder Futhark (about 260 inscriptions, c. 200–800).

Runic finds in England cluster along the east coast with a few finds scattered further inland in Southern England. Frisian finds cluster in West Frisia. Looijenga (1997) lists 23 English (including two 7th-century Christian inscriptions) and 21 Frisian inscriptions predating the 9th century.

The Thames zoomorphic silver-gilt (knife?) mount (late 8th century)

Currently known inscriptions in Anglo-Frisian runes include:

  • Codex Sangallensis 270 — lists runes with their names, and explains how to use certain rune ciphers
  • Codex Sangallensis 878 — contains a presentation of Anglo-Saxon runes
  • Codex Vindobonensis 795 — contains a description of Anglo-Saxon runes
  • Cotton Domitian A.IX — lists runes with their names
  • Cotton Otho B.x.165 — contained the Old English rune poem before being destroyed in a fire
  • Cotton Vitellius A.XII — lists runes in alphabetical order
  • MS Oxford St. John's College 17 — contains a "table of runic, cryptographic, and exotic alphabets".

See also



  1. ^ Himelfarb, Elizabeth J. "First Alphabet Found in Egypt", Archaeology 53, Issue 1 (January/February 2000): 21.
  2. ^ "Ancient Writing Discovered at Tintagel Castle". Archived from the original on 29 November 2020. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  3. ^ Page, Raymond Ian (1989), "Roman and Runic on St Cuthbert's Coffin", in Bonner, Gerald; Rollason, David; Stancliffe, Clare (eds.), St. Cuthbert, his Cult and his Community to AD 1200, Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, pp. 257–63, ISBN 978-0-85115-610-1, archived from the original on 15 April 2021, retrieved 29 October 2020.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Page, Raymond Ian (1999). An Introduction to English Runes (2nd ed.). Woodbridge: Boydell.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Barnes, Michael (2012). Runes: A handbook. Woodbridge: Boydell. pp. 38–41.
  6. ^ Osborn, Marijane (2010). "Tiw as Mars in the Old English rune poem". ANQ: A Quarterly Journal of Short Articles, Notes and Reviews. 16. Taylor & Francis: 3–13. doi:10.1080/08957690309598179.
  7. ^ Osborn, Marijane; Longland, Stella (1980). "A Celtic intruder in the Old English 'rune poem'". Neuphilologische Mitteilungen. 81 (4). Modern Language Society: 385–387. ISSN 0028-3754. JSTOR 43343355. Archived from the original on 26 July 2021. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  8. ^ Page, Raymond Ian (1998). Runes and Runic Inscriptions: Collected essays on Anglo-Saxon and Viking runes. Boydell. pp. 38, 53.
  9. ^ Hines, John (2011). "[no title cited]". Anglia – Zeitschrift fr englische Philologie. 129 (3–4): 288–289.
  10. ^ Waxenberger, Gaby (2017). "[no title cited]". Anglia – Zeitschrift fr englische Philologie. 135 (4): 627–640. doi:10.1515/ang-2017-0065.
  11. ^ Page, Raymond Ian (1999), An introduction to English runes (2nd ed.), Woodbridge: Boydell, pp. 139, 155.
  12. ^ Page, Raymond Ian (1999), An introduction to English runes (2nd ed.), Woodbridge: Boydell, pp. 186–199, ISBN 9780851159461.
  13. ^ Kilpatrick, Kelly (2013), Latin, Runes and Pseudo-Ogham: The Enigma of the Hackness Stone, pp. 1–13.
  14. ^ Birkett, Thomas (2012), Notes and Queries, Volume 59, Issue 4, Boydell, pp. 465–470.
  15. ^ Page, Raymond Ian (1999), An introduction to English runes (2nd ed.), Woodbridge: Boydell, pp. 111–112.
  16. ^ Page, Raymond Ian (1999), An introduction to English runes (2nd ed.), Woodbridge: Boydell, pp. 93, 112–113.
  17. ^ Looijenga, Tineke (1 January 2003). Texts and Contexts of the Oldest Runic Inscriptions. BRILL. ISBN 978-9004123960. Archived from the original on 15 April 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2020 – via
  18. ^ Flickr (photograms), Yahoo!, 20 May 2008, archived from the original on 13 October 2016, retrieved 22 July 2016
  19. ^ "Silver knife mount with runic inscription", British Museum, archived from the original on 18 October 2015, retrieved 22 July 2016.
  20. ^ Page, Raymond Ian (1999), An introduction to English runes (2nd ed.), Woodbridge: Boydell, p. 182.
  21. ^ Bammesberger, Alfred (2002), "The Brandon Antler Runic Inscription", Neophilologus, 86, Ingenta connect: 129–31, doi:10.1023/A:1012922118629, S2CID 160241063.
  22. ^ Hines, John (2019). "Anglo-Saxon Micro-Texts – Practical Runic Literacy in the Late Anglo-Saxon Period: Inscriptions on Lead Sheet". Anglia Book Series. 63 (1): 29–59. doi:10.1515/9783110630961-003. S2CID 165389048.


  • Bammesberger, A, ed. (1991), "Old English Runes and their Continental Background", Anglistische Forschungen, 217, Heidelberg.
  • ——— (2006), "Das Futhark und seine Weiterentwicklung in der anglo-friesischen Überlieferung", in Bammesberger, A; Waxenberger (eds.), Das fuþark und seine einzelsprachlichen Weiterentwicklungen, Walter de Gruyter, pp. 171–87, ISBN 978-3-11-019008-3.
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  • J. H. Looijenga, Runes around the North Sea and on the Continent AD 150–700, dissertation, Groningen University (1997).
  • Odenstedt, Bengt, On the Origin and Early History of the Runic Script, Uppsala (1990), ISBN 91-85352-20-9; chapter 20: 'The position of continental and Anglo-Frisian runic forms in the history of the older futhark '
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  • Middleton & Tum, Andrew & Julia (2006). Radiography of Cultural Material. Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-7506-6347-2.
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  • Frisian runes and neighbouring traditions, Amsterdamer Beiträge zur älteren Germanistik 45 (1996).
  • H. Marquardt, Die Runeninschriften der Britischen Inseln (Bibliographie der Runeninschriften nach Fundorten, Bd. I), Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen, Phil.-hist. Klasse, dritte Folge, Nr. 48, Göttingen 1961, pp. 10–16.

Further reading