Anemonoides blanda

Anemonoides blanda, syn. Anemone blanda, the Balkan anemone,[2] Grecian windflower, or winter windflower, is a species of flowering plant in the family Ranunculaceae. The species is native to southeastern Europe and the Middle East.[1][3] The specific epithet blanda means "mild" or "charming".[4] The genus name is derived from the Greek word anemos, or wind.[5]

Anemonoides blanda
Anemone blanda1GrooverFW.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Order: Ranunculales
Family: Ranunculaceae
Genus: Anemonoides
Species:
A. blanda
Binomial name
Anemonoides blanda
(Schott & Kotschy) Holub
Synonyms[1]

Anemone blanda Schott & Kotschy

Flowers in cultivation

DescriptionEdit

An herbaceous tuberous perennial, it grows up to 4-6 inches tall, or 10-15 cm.[6] It is valued for its daisy-like flowers over a fernlike foliage,[6] which appear in early spring, a time when little else is in flower. The plants can also easily naturalize.[6] The flowers are an intense shade of purple blue, but are also available in shades of pink and white.

LeavesEdit

The green leaves are finely divided and arranged in a whorled and alternate pattern. They do not contain hair like structures.[7] The leaves are deeply cut.[8] The plant has compound leaves that are grown in basal arrangement. The edges of the blades of leaves contain teeth.[9]

Roots and stemsEdit

The stem of the plant is nonaromatic[7] and wiry.[10] It has little root growth so its normal for them to only produce few roots.[11] The perennial is tuberous-rooted.[5]

Fruits and flowersEdit

The flowers are found in various colors and are radially symmetrical. The flower contains about seven or more sepals and petals.[9] The flowers have an attractive, striking appearance with dull centers and smooth, satiny, vibrant petals.[11] The flowers come in colors like white, yellow-green, red, or purple, and more. They are shaped like cups, with several stamens.[12] The plant contains small fruits, frequently including plumose tails.[7] The fruits of this plant are dry and do not split open after they ripe. They are about 1.3 to 3 mm in size.[9]

Seeds and bulbsEdit

The Grecian windflower grows from bulb-like tubers.[11] The tubers appear to be black in color and are non-uniformly shaped, small, wrinkled pellets. The tubers do not contain a thin, paper-like sheath. Viable tubers have a firm texture. The minimum size of a tuber of is 5 cm, but they can be larger in size.[10] The seeds have low germination rates, but rates can be increased using stratification.[13]

DistributionEdit

The native range of Anemonoides blanda extends from southeastern Europe, through Turkey and Lebanon, to western Syria in the Middle East. The species has been introduced into Germany and elsewhere.[1] There are numerous naturalized populations in Canada and the United States.[14]

CultivationEdit

Anemonoides blanda should be planted in the autumn in partially shady areas, and in moist soil. It can also grow in full sun if the soil stays moist.[6] It grows in any well-drained soil which dries out in summer; hence it is often used for underplanting deciduous trees which provide the necessary conditions. It rapidly colonizes any favored location. The plant is deciduous, meaning the flowers and leaves die in the early summer.[15] The flowers attract bees, butterflies and other pollinators.[10] This plant[16] and its cultivar ‘White Splendour’,[17] have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

Medicinal usesEdit

Herbalists in the Middle Ages used A. blanda as treatment for gout and headaches. Due to their toxicity, they are no longer used as medications. The purple colored petals of the plant were used for dyeing purposes by boiling them to produce a light green color.[18]

ToxicityEdit

It is considered to be poisonous if ingested in large quantities, and causes pain and irritation in the mouth. The plant can cause contact dermatitis by touching of the following poisonous parts of the plant: bark, flowers, fruits, leaves, roots, stems, and seeds. Some other symptoms of being poisoned are inflammation, blistering from contact with fresh sap, vomiting, and diarrhea.[7]

EcologyEdit

Bees and other insects eat the nectar and pollen.[19]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "Anemonoides blanda (Schott & Kotschy) Holub". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 9 August 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  2. ^ BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  3. ^ "Anemone blanda", The Plant List, retrieved 2014-10-23 CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  4. ^ Harrison, Lorraine (2012). RHS Latin for gardeners. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. p. 224. ISBN 9781845337315.
  5. ^ a b "Anemone blanda - Plant Finder". www.missouribotanicalgarden.org. Retrieved 2019-12-11.
  6. ^ a b c d "Anemone blanda (Grecian Windflower)". Gardenia.net. Retrieved 2019-09-25.
  7. ^ a b c d "Anemonoides blanda (Anemones) | North Carolina Extension Gardener Plant Toolbox". plants.ces.ncsu.edu. Retrieved 2019-12-03.
  8. ^ "Anemone blanda". www.seasonalgardening.co.uk. Retrieved 2019-12-11.
  9. ^ a b c "Anemone blanda (Greek windflower): Go Botany". gobotany.nativeplanttrust.org. Retrieved 2019-12-10.
  10. ^ a b c "Anemone blanda Hort Tips". www.vanengelen.com. Retrieved 2019-12-11.
  11. ^ a b c "All About Anemones". www.longfield-gardens.com. Retrieved 2019-12-11.
  12. ^ "Anemonoides blanda (Anemones) | North Carolina Extension Gardener Plant Toolbox". plants.ces.ncsu.edu. Retrieved 2019-12-11.
  13. ^ Clark, Joan. "Anemone: planting, care and cultivation of the flower". floristics.info. Retrieved 2019-12-10.
  14. ^ " Anemone blanda". County-level distribution map from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  15. ^ "Anemone blanda". www.seasonalgardening.co.uk. Retrieved 2019-12-11.
  16. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Anemone blanda". Retrieved 14 February 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  17. ^ "RHS Plantfinder - Anemone blanda 'White Splendour'". Royal Horticultural Society. 2017. Retrieved 18 February 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  18. ^ "Anemones! All About Anemone Bulbs". Farmer Gracy. Retrieved 2019-12-10.
  19. ^ "Anemone blanda". BBC Gardeners' World Magazine. Retrieved 2019-12-11.