Andong (Korean pronunciation: [an.doŋ]) is a city in South Korea, and the capital of North Gyeongsang Province. It is the largest city in the northern part of the province with a population of 167,821 as of October 2010. The Nakdong River flows through the city. Andong is a market centre for the surrounding agricultural areas.

Andong
안동시
Korean transcription(s)
 • Hangul
 • Hanja
 • Revised RomanizationAndong-si
 • McCune-ReischauerAndong-si
An aerial view of Hahoe Folk Village
An aerial view of Hahoe Folk Village
Flag of Andong
Official logo of Andong
Location in South Korea
Location in South Korea
Coordinates: 36°33′33″N 128°43′44″E / 36.55917°N 128.72889°E / 36.55917; 128.72889Coordinates: 36°33′33″N 128°43′44″E / 36.55917°N 128.72889°E / 36.55917; 128.72889
Country South Korea
RegionYeongnam
First mention930
City status1963
Administrative divisions1 eup, 13 myeon, 10 dong
Area
 • Total1,590.91 km2 (614.25 sq mi)
Elevation
139 m (456 ft)
Population
 (July. 2020)
 • Total158,765
 • Density100/km2 (260/sq mi)
 • Dialect
Gyeongsang
Postal code
760003-760944
Area code(s)(+82) 054
WebsiteOfficial website

Since the 1970s Andong has developed rapidly, although the population has fallen by nearly seventy thousand as people have moved away to Seoul and other urban centers. In the late 1990s and early 2000s it became a tourism and cultural center.

Andong is known as a centre of culture and folk traditions. The surrounding area maintains many types of traditions and the Andong Folk Festival is held in mid October every year. One of the most famous aspects of these cultural festivities are the Andong masks.

Andong National University, specialising in education and Korean folklore, has grown rapidly since the 1970s. Other tertiary institutions include Andong Science College and Catholic Sangji College.

HistoryEdit

Around 1 BC, Andong was founded by the Jinhan people, and it was known as Gochang. During the Three Kingdoms period, the area was controlled by the Silla kingdom. The Battle of Gochang in 930 was fought here between Hubaekje forces and the Goryeo army led by Wanggeon, who won control of the city and renamed it Andong.

After the ascent of the Joseon dynasty to the throne of Korea, Andong became a centre of Confucianism. The area was extremely conservative for a long time and produced many leading confucian scholars. Toe-gye Yi Hwang (1501–70), one of the most prominent of all Korean scholars, came from Andong. Yi Hwang retired back to his homeland late in life and started the establishment of the great Confucian academy Dosan Seowon there, which was finished after his death. During this period Andong and its principal families were influential within Korean political circles, of which the three notable families were the Andong Kim, Andong Jang and Andong Kwon clans.

After the 16th century Andong became less influential until the early 19th century, when a marriage of the local Kim family resulted in strong influence on the royal family.

Andong was the site of intense fighting during the Korean War in the early 1950s, the Battle of Andong. Although the city was almost destroyed, it was quickly rebuilt. In 1976 the Andong Dam was built, providing the city with a reliable source of electricity.

In 1999, Her Majesty the Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom celebrated her 73rd birthday in the city.[1] There is an exhibit dedicated to this historic visit at Hahoe folk village museum. Andong soju is made using traditional methods that are centuries old unlike its popular modern counterparts. It is protected by government regulation to preserve authenticity and commands a steep premium in the marketplace.

Administrative divisionsEdit

 
Map of Andong's eup, myeon and dong. Note that the map is in Hangeul and Hanja.
 
Map of Andong city core.

Andong is divided into 1 eup, 13 myeon and 10 dong. The following is a list of eup, myeon and dong:

Name Hangeul Hanja
Pungsan-eup 풍산읍 豊山邑
Waryeong-myeon 와룡면 臥龍面
Bukhu-myeon 북후면 北後面
Seohu-myeon 서후면 西後面
Pungcheon-myeon 풍천면 豊川面
Iljik-myeon 일직면 一直面
Namhu-myeon 남후면 南後面
Namseon-myeon 남선면 南先面
Imha-myeon 임하면 臨河面
Giran-myeon 길안면 吉安面
Imdong-myeon 임동면 臨東面
Yean-myeon 예안면 禮安面
Dosan-myeon 도산면 陶山面
Nokjeon-myeon 녹전면 祿轉面
Junggu-dong 중구동 中區洞
Myeongryun-dong 명륜동 明倫洞
Yongsang-dong 용상동 龍上洞
Seogu-dong 서구동 西區洞
Taehwa-dong 태화동 太華洞
Pyeonghwa-dong 평화동 平和洞
Angi-dong 안기동 安奇洞
Ok-dong 옥동 玉洞
Songha-dong 송하동 松下洞
Gangnam-dong 강남동 江南洞

Local specialty foodsEdit

Andong has famous local foods that originated in the city such as heotjesabap, Andong jjimdak, Andong soju (a rice wine), Andong sikhye (a punch), Geonjin guksu (a noodle dish), and salted mackerel.[2]

Heotjesabap is a variety of bibimbap, served with soy sauce (ganjang) instead of the gochujang (hot pepper paste) that is more commonly used. Heotjesa bab consists mainly of several types of namul (young sprouted vegetables) over white rice. It is also served with grilled fish, shark, and jeon (Korean pancake). The dish originated in Andong. The term, Heotjesa bap literally means "dishes for fake jesa" that are ceremonies for death anniversary and ancestor veneration held in Korea. The reason it is considered fake is that it is not covered in incense ash, as would happen to any food sacrificed in a jesa ritual.

Andong jjimdak is a variety of jjim (a Korean steamed or braised dish), made with chicken, cellophane noodles, and various vegetables marinated in a ganjang (Korean soy sauce) based sauce. The name literally means "steamed chicken of Andong."[3][4] There are many speculations on the origins of the dish. One is that the it is a specialty food of the inner rich village of Andong during the Joseon period, prepared and eaten for special occasions.[5] The more likely explanation is that during the 1980s in the Dak golmok (닭골목, literally "chicken alley") of the "Andong Old Market," restaurant owners there made a dish including ingredients that regulars demanded, which became the current Andong jjimdak.[6] Restaurateurs in the area claim it was invented by five local old women who had limited chicken supplies and wanted to stretch it out.[7] The most plausible speculation among existing assumptions is that merchants of the Dak golmok at the market created the dish to keep their position against the rapid expansion of Western fried chicken shops.[4]

Andong Soju is a specialty of the region. It is made with natural ingredients, unlike mass-produced brands, it was historically used for medicinal purposes, and was developed during the Silla dynasty. The traditions of Andong Soju were almost lost during the '60s and '70s due to government legislation, but they were brought back by Cho Ok-hwa, the current skillholder. Andong soju was traditionally made by the wife of a household, and she passed down the secrets to her daughters-in-law.[8][9]

Mackerel is another popular local delicacy. Caught downstream where the Nakdong River meets the sea, in ancient times the fish would spoil before being brought further inland. Using special salting techniques, Andong was the furthest inland the fish could be brought, so aristocrats would travel to Andong specially for the salted fish.[10]

Sikhye is a fermented rice punch served across Korea. The Andong variety, however, is particularly spicy, made with powdered red pepper, ginger, and radish. Sikhye contains lactobacillus, a benign strain of bacteria found in the gastrointestinal tract, and often used as a digestive aid in dishes including kimchi, yogurt, and sauerkraut, among others.[10]

CultureEdit

MuseumsEdit

  • Andong Soju and Traditional Food Museum
  • Gyeongsangbuk-do Forest Science Museum
  • Kwon Jeong Saeng Fairy Tale Museum
  • Municipal Folk Museum
  • Seonseonghyun Cultural Heritage Complex
  • Traditional Cultural Contents Museum

ParksEdit

  • Gyemyeongsan Recreation Forest
  • Amsan Pleasure Ground

VillagesEdit

  • Andong Gunja Village
  • Yeumteo Village
  • Jirye Arts Village
  • Andong Hahoe Folk Village

MountainsEdit

  • Gallasan Mountain
  • Cheondeungsan Mountain

MonumentsEdit

  • Gyeongsangbuk-do Independence Movement Memorial

ExperiencesEdit

  • Dosan Hot Spring
  • Andong Maskdance Festival
  • Hakgasan Hot Spring
  • Top-bliss Golf Club
  • Imhaho Camping Water Leisure Town
  • HuGreen Golf Club
  • Danho Sand Park Camping Site
  • Danho Sand Park Camping Site
  • HuGreen Golf Club
  • Top-bliss Golf Club
  • Ontrepieum

ArchitectureEdit

HistoricalEdit

  • Bongjeongsa, a Buddhist monastery
  • Nongam Jongtaek
  • Andong imcheonggak
  • Taesamyo
  • Confucian Land

ModernEdit

  • Gyeongbuk Provincial Government Office

EducationEdit

  • Dosanseowon Confucian School
  • Andong Manner School
  • Advanced Center for Korean Studies

SportsEdit

  • Andong Gymnasium

Visitor attractions in AndongEdit

The Hahoe Folk Village is perhaps the most notable folk village in South Korea. This village is listed by the South Korean government with UNESCO as a World Heritage site with Yangdong Folk Village in 2010.

Andong is also a home of Confucian studies and academies during the Joseon Dynasty. The notable examples of seowon, or Confucian academy are Dosan Seowon that enshrines Yi Hwang, Byeongsan Seowon for Yu Seong-ryong, Imcheon Seowon for Kim Seong-il, Gosan Seowon, Hwacheon Seowon and others. Other notable visitor destinations are Sisadan, Jirye Artists' Colony, Bongjeongsa temple and Andong Icheondong Seokbulsang aka Jebiwon Stone Buddha.

Andong also has Andong Dam. In the area where Andong Dam is located, there is a monument to the Andong Samil Movement to honor the March 1st Movement. In addition, there are Wonmom theme parks and Unbu parks.[11]

FestivalEdit

ClimateEdit

Andong is located in the mountainous region of central South Korea and is part of the temperate climate. Temperatures vary widely, fog is high at 79 days per year, seasonal winds are northwest in winter and northwest in summer.[12]

Climate data for Andong (1981–2010, extremes 1983–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13.2
(55.8)
21.3
(70.3)
25.5
(77.9)
32.1
(89.8)
35.1
(95.2)
35.7
(96.3)
37.6
(99.7)
38.0
(100.4)
34.8
(94.6)
29.0
(84.2)
25.1
(77.2)
17.0
(62.6)
38.0
(100.4)
Average high °C (°F) 3.6
(38.5)
6.4
(43.5)
11.8
(53.2)
19.4
(66.9)
24.2
(75.6)
27.4
(81.3)
29.0
(84.2)
29.8
(85.6)
25.5
(77.9)
20.3
(68.5)
12.8
(55.0)
6.0
(42.8)
18.0
(64.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.2
(28.0)
0.2
(32.4)
5.3
(41.5)
12.2
(54.0)
17.4
(63.3)
21.4
(70.5)
24.3
(75.7)
24.8
(76.6)
19.8
(67.6)
13.2
(55.8)
6.1
(43.0)
0.0
(32.0)
11.9
(53.4)
Average low °C (°F) −7.4
(18.7)
−5.3
(22.5)
−0.5
(31.1)
5.2
(41.4)
10.8
(51.4)
16.1
(61.0)
20.6
(69.1)
20.9
(69.6)
15.4
(59.7)
7.7
(45.9)
0.6
(33.1)
−5.2
(22.6)
6.6
(43.9)
Record low °C (°F) −20.4
(−4.7)
−18.6
(−1.5)
−11.5
(11.3)
−4.3
(24.3)
1.8
(35.2)
6.1
(43.0)
11.8
(53.2)
12.0
(53.6)
4.0
(39.2)
−4.2
(24.4)
−11.8
(10.8)
−16.0
(3.2)
−20.4
(−4.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 20.1
(0.79)
26.9
(1.06)
44.9
(1.77)
68.2
(2.69)
91.5
(3.60)
136.8
(5.39)
244.3
(9.62)
217.8
(8.57)
131.9
(5.19)
36.9
(1.45)
30.6
(1.20)
16.6
(0.65)
1,066.4
(41.98)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 5.3 5.8 7.4 7.9 9.2 10.1 14.1 13.2 9.5 5.9 6.2 5.4 100
Average snowy days 6.2 3.9 3.1 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 4.0 18.0
Average relative humidity (%) 61.6 60.1 59.8 56.7 63.0 71.3 79.3 78.6 77.8 73.3 68.8 64.4 67.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 185.4 183.0 200.6 218.7 224.5 190.4 148.9 167.1 150.9 181.7 164.7 177.8 2,193.6
Percent possible sunshine 59.9 59.7 54.1 55.6 51.4 43.4 33.4 39.8 40.5 52.0 53.5 58.9 49.3
Source: Korea Meteorological Administration[13][14][15] (percent sunshine and snowy days)[16]

GalleryEdit

Sister citiesEdit

Partnership of kindness with:

People from AndongEdit

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Queen Elizabeth cherishes memory of birthday party in Korea". Korea Times. June 6, 2016. Retrieved June 20, 2018.
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-04-02. Retrieved 2011-11-09.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ "Genuine and Timeless Treasures in Confucian Country". Korea Tourism Organization. Archived from the original on 2012-06-30.
  4. ^ a b 안동찜닭 (in Korean). Doosan Encyclopedia.[permanent dead link]
  5. ^ Yun Tae-ha (윤태하) (2008-09-04). "Archived copy" 희동이세상 - 안동의 전통음식 (in Korean). andong.net. Archived from the original on 2011-07-23. Retrieved 2009-03-11.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ "Andong, the Home of Confucianism and the Noble Class". Archived from the original on 2012-06-30.
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-03-12. Retrieved 2011-11-09.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-07. Retrieved 2011-11-09.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-04-02. Retrieved 2011-11-09.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-04-02. Retrieved 2011-11-09.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  11. ^ "안동관광정보센터". www.tourandong.com. Retrieved 2019-05-20.
  12. ^ "안동시", 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전 (in Korean), 2019-01-11, retrieved 2019-05-02
  13. ^ 평년값자료(1981−2010) 안동(136) (in Korean). Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
  14. ^ 기후자료 극값(최대값) 전체년도 일최고기온 (℃) 최고순위, 안동(136) (in Korean). Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
  15. ^ 기후자료 극값(최대값) 전체년도 일최저기온 (℃) 최고순위, 안동(136) (in Korean). Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
  16. ^ "Climatological Normals of Korea" (PDF). Korea Meteorological Administration. 2011. p. 499 and 649. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 December 2016. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
  17. ^ "City to forge ties with South Korea, Indonesia". Sun.Star Bacolod. 2008-09-27. Archived from the original on 2008-10-01. Retrieved 2008-09-28.
  18. ^ "International Exchange". List of Affiliation Partners within Prefectures. Council of Local Authorities for International Relations (CLAIR). Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  19. ^ "Kim Mi Soon". World Archery. Retrieved 4 October 2019.