Ancient Theatre of Epidaurus

The Ancient Theatre of Epidaurus is a theatre in the Greek city of Epidaurus, located on the southeast end of the sanctuary dedicated to the ancient Greek God of medicine, Asclepius. It is built on the west side of Cynortion Mountain, near modern Lygourio, and belongs to the Epidaurus Municipality. Constructed in late 4th century BC,[1] it is considered to be the most perfect ancient Greek theatre with regard to acoustics and aesthetics.[2] Because of its exceptional architecture and aesthetics, the theatre was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1988 along with the Temple of Asclepius.[3]

Theatre of Epidaurus
Θέατρο της Επιδαύρου
Ancient Theatre of Epidaurus is located in Greece
Ancient Theatre of Epidaurus
Shown within Greece
Location Greece, Epidaurus
Coordinates37°35′46″N 23°04′45″E / 37.59611°N 23.07917°E / 37.59611; 23.07917
Part ofAncient Greek theaters
Founded4th century BC
CulturesGreek, Roman
Site notes
Excavation datessince 1879
ArchaeologistsPanagiotis Kavvadias
Conditionpartly restored ruins
ManagementArchaeological Society of Athens
Public accessArchaeological park
Official nameSanctuary of Asklepios at Epidaurus
CriteriaCultural: i, ii, iii, iv, vi
Inscription1988 (12th Session)
Area1,393.8 ha
Buffer zone3,386.4 ha

History edit

According to Pausanias, the ancient theatre was constructed at the end of the 4th century BC, circa 340-300 BCE[4], [5] by the architect Polykleitos the Younger.[6] Pausanias praises the theatre for its symmetry and beauty.[7] At a maximum capacity of 13,000 to 14,000 spectators, the theatre hosted music, singing and dramatic games that were included in the worship of Asclepius. It was also used as a means to heal patients, since there was a belief that the observation of dramatic shows had positive effects on mental and physical health.

Today, the monument attracts a large number of Greek and foreign visitors and is used for the performance of ancient drama plays.[8] The first modern performance conducted at the theatre was Sophocles's tragedy Electra. It was played in 1938, directed by Dimitris Rontiris, starring Katina Paxinou and Eleni Papadaki.[9]

Performances stopped due to World War II. Theatrical performances, in the framework of the organized festival, began again in 1954. In 1955 they were established as an annual event for the presentation of ancient drama. The Epidaurus Festival continues today and is carried out during the summer months.

The theatre has been sporadically used to host major musical events. In the framework of the Epidaurus Festival, well-known Greek and foreign actors have appeared, including the Greek soprano Maria Callas, who performed Norma in 1960 and Médée in 1961.

Description edit

The monument retains the characteristic tripartite structure of a Hellenistic theatre that has an theatron, orchestra, and skene. During Roman times, the theatre (unlike many Greek theatres) did not suffer any modifications.

The auditorium is divided vertically into two unequal parts, the lower hollow or theatre and the upper theatre or epitheatre. The two sub-sections are separated by a horizontal corridor for the movement of spectators (width 1.82 m.), the frieze. The lower part of the auditorium wedge is divided into 12 sections, while the upper part is divided into 22 sections. The lower rows of the upper and lower auditoriums have a presidency form, namely places reserved for important people. The design of the auditorium is unique and based on three marking centres. Due to this special design, the architects achieved both optimal acoustics and an opening for better viewing.

The circular orchestra, with a diameter of 20 m, constitutes the centre of the theatre. In the centre is a circular stone plate, the base of the altar or thymele. The orchestra is surrounded by a special underground drainage pipeline of 1.99 m width, called the euripos. The euripos was covered by a circular stone walkway.

Opposite the auditorium and behind the orchestra develops the stage building of the theatre (skene), which was constructed in two phases:[10] the first is placed at the end of the 4th century BCE and the second in the middle of the 2nd century BCE. The format of the skene (which is partly preserved today) is dated up to the Hellenistic period and consisted of a two-storey stage building and a proscenium in front of the stage. There was a colonnade in front of the proscenium and on both of its sides, the two backstages slightly protruded. East and west of the two backstages there were two small rectangular rooms for the needs of the performers. Two ramps lead to the roof of the proscenium, the logeion, where the actors later played. Finally, the theatre had two gates, which are now restored.

Excavations edit

The first systematic excavation of the theatre began in 1881 by the Archaeological Society, under the direction of archaeologist Panayis Kavvadias[11] and preserved in very good condition thanks to the restorations[12] of P. Kavvadias (1907), of A. Orlandos (1954–1963) and the Preservation Committee for Epidaurus Monuments[13] (1988 to 2016). With the work done, the theatre has been recovered – except the stage building – almost entirely in its original form.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Ancient Theatre in Epidaurus, Greece | Greeka".
  2. ^ Vassilantonopoulos, Stamis; Hatziantoniou, Panagiotis; Tatlas, Nicolas-Alexander; Zakynthinos, Tilemachos; Skarlatos, Dimitrios; Mourjopoulos, John N. (September 2011). "Measurements and analysis of the acoustics of the ancient theatre of Epidaurus" (PDF). The Acoustics of Ancient Theatres Conference. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
  3. ^ "Sanctuary of Asklepios at Epidaurus". UNESCO World Heritage Convention. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization. Retrieved 12 November 2022.
  4. ^
  5. ^ According to the explanation text in front of the Theatre.
  6. ^ "Ελλάδος περιήγησις/Κορινθιακά". Ἐπιδαυρίοις δέ ἐστι θέατρον ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ μάλιστα ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν θέας ἄξιον: τὰ μὲν γὰρ Ῥωμαίων πολὺ δή τι [καὶ] ὑπερῆρε τῶν πανταχοῦ τῷ κόσμῳ, μεγέθει δὲ Ἀρκάδων τὸ ἐν Μεγάλῃ πόλει: ἁρμονίας δὲ ἢ κάλλους ἕνεκα ἀρχιτέκτων ποῖος ἐς ἅμιλλαν Πολυκλείτῳ γένοιτ' ἂν ἀξιόχρεως; Πολύκλειτος γὰρ καὶ θέατρον τοῦτο καὶ οἴκημα τὸ περιφερὲς ὁ ποιήσας ἦν
  7. ^ Παπαχατζής, Νικόλαος (1989). Παυσανίου Ελλάδος Περιήγησις βιβλίο 2ο ΛΑΚΩΝΙΚΑ. Αθήνα.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  8. ^ Γώγος Σάββας, Γεωργουσόπουλος Κωνσταντίνος – Ομάδα Θεατρολόγων, Σάββας, Κωνσταντίνος (2004). ΕΠΙΔΑΥΡΟΣ: το Αρχαίο Θέατρο και οι Παραστάσεις. Αθήνα: ΜΙΛΗΤΟΣ. p. 452. ISBN 978-960-8460-46-1.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ "Ιστορία του Φεστιβάλ Επιδαύρου". Archived from the original on 2015-03-28. Retrieved 2016-07-20.
  10. ^ Von Gerkan, Müller -Wiener, Armin, Wiener (1961). Das Theater von Epidaurus. Stuttgart.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link) CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ Καββαδίας, Παναγής (2006). Το Ασκληπιείο της Επιδαύρου (Επανέκδοση του έργου: Το Ιερόν του Ασκληπιού εν Επιδαύρω και η θεραπεία των ασθενών). Αθήνα.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  12. ^ Μπολέτης, Κωνσταντίνος (2002). "Ιστορικό των νεότερων επεμβάσεων στο θέατρο του Ασκληπιείου Επιδαύρου και στον ευρύτερο χώρο του έως το 1989". Αθήνα: Αρχαιολογικό Δελτίο, Ανάτυπο, Μέρος Α΄: Μελέτες, Τόμος 57.
  13. ^ Ομάδα Εργασίας για τη συντήρηση των μνημείων Επιδαύρου, Ο.Ε.Σ.Μ.Ε. (1999). Το Ασκληπιείο της Επιδαύρου: η έδρα του θεού γιατρού της αρχαιότητα, η συντήρηση των μνημείων του. Πελοπόννησος: Περιφέρεια Πελοποννήσου. p. 95.

Further reading edit

  • Defrasse A. and Lechat H., Epidaure: restauration et description des principaux monuments d u sanctuaire d'Asclépios, Paris, 1895
  • Γώγος Σ., Γεωργουσόπουλος Κ. – Ομάδα Θεατρολόγων, «ΕΠΙΔΑΥΡΟΣ: το Αρχαίο Θέατρο και οι Παραστάσεις», Αθήνα 2004
  • Fossum, Andrew (1926). "Harmony in the Theatre at Epidauros". American Journal of Archaeology. 30 (1): 70–75. doi:10.2307/497923. JSTOR 497923.
  • A. von Gerkan, W. Müller-Wiener, Das Theater von Epidaurus, Stuttgart 1961
  • Hartigan, Karelisa V. 2009. Performance and Cure: Drama and Healing in Ancient Greece and Contemporary America. Classical Interfaces. London: Duckworth.
  • Καββαδίας Π., Το Ασκληπιείο της Επιδαύρου Επανέκδοση του έργου Το Ιερόν του Ασκληπιού εν Επιδαύρω και η θεραπεία των ασθενών (Αθήνα 1900)
  • Καζολιάς Ε., Μελέτη προστασίας, συντήρησης και αποκατάστασης του σκηνικού οικοδομήματος του αρχαίου θεάτρου Επιδαύρου, α΄φάση: άμεσα μέτρα προστασίας και αποκατάστασης των ευπαθών τμημάτων. Επίδαυρος 2010
  • Β. Λαμπρινουδάκης, Ε. Καζολιάς, Μ. Σοφικίτου, Το πρόγραμμα έρευνας, αποκατάστασης και ανάδειξης του αρχαίου θεάτρου Ασκληπιείου Επιδαύρου, εισήγηση στο Διεθνές Συνέδριο «Το αρχαιολογικό έργο στην Πελοπόννησο», Τρίπολη, 7-11 Νοεμβρίου 2012.
  • Μπολέτης Κ., Ιστορικό των νεότερων επεμβάσεων στο θέατρο του Ασκληπιείου Επιδαύρου και στον ευρύτερο χώρο του έως το 1989, Αρχαιολογικό, Δελτίο,Ανάτυπο, Μέρος Α΄: Μελέτες, Τόμος 57, 2002
  • Ομάδα Εργασίας για τη συντήρηση των μνημείων Επιδαύρου, Το Ασκληπιείο της Επιδαύρου: η έδρα του θεού γιατρού της αρχαιότητα, η συντήρηση των μνημείων του, Περιφέρεια Πελοποννήσου, 1999
  • Παπαχατζής Νικ. Δ. Παυσανίου Ελλάδος Περιήγησις, βιβλίο 2ο: ΛΑΚΩΝΙΚΑ, Μετάφραση, Αθήνα, 1989
  • Vassilantonopoulos, S. L.; Zakynthinos, T.; Hatziantoniou, P. D.; Tatlas, N.-A.; Skarlatos, D.; Mourjopoulos, J. N. (2004). Μετρήσεις και Ανάλυση της Ακουστικής του Θεάτρου της Επιδαύρου [Measurement and Analysis of Acoustics of Epidaurus Theatre] (PDF). Helina 2004 conference (in Greek). Thessaloniki: Hellenic Institute of Acoustics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-12-08. Retrieved 2014-06-07.
  • The Acoustic Harmony of the Epidaurus Theatre

External links edit

  Media related to Theatre of Epidaurus at Wikimedia Commons