Anarkali (lit.'pomegranate blossom') is a legendary lady said to be loved by the 16th-century Mughal Prince Salim, who later became Emperor Jahangir. According to some accounts, Anarkali was the nickname of the tawaif Sharf-un-Nisa,[1][2] though scholars hold varying opinions.[3][4]

The richly carved white marble cenotaph at the Tomb of Anarkali bears inscription: Could I behold the face of my beloved once more, I would thank God until the day of resurrection.

According to speculative and fictional accounts, Anarkali had an illicit relationship with Salim, the son of Mughal Emperor Akbar, who had her executed by immurement. The character often appears in movies, books and historical fiction, most notably depicted in the 1960 Bollywood film Mughal-e-Azam in which she is portrayed by Madhubala.[5]

Historicity and development

The possible Tomb of Anarkali, in the Pakistani city of Lahore.

Anarkali was first mentioned in the journal of the English tourist and trader William Finch, who visited the Mughal Empire on 24 August 1608.[6]

Western traveller accounts


The earliest Western accounts about the relationship between Salim and Anarkali were written by British travellers William Finch and Edward Terry. Finch reached Lahore in February 1611, 11 years after the supposed death of Anarkali, to sell indigo he had purchased at Bayana on behalf of the East India Company. His account, which was written in early 17th-century English, gives the following information.[7]

... is a faire monument for Don Sha his mother, one of the Akbar his wives, with whom it is said Sha Selim had to do ( her name was Immaeque Kelle, or Pomgranate kernell); upon notice of which the King [Akbar] caused her to be inclosed quicke within a wall in his moholl, where she died, and the King [Jahangir], in token of his love commands a sumptuous tomb to be built of stone in the midst of four square garden richly walled, with a gate and divers roomes over it. The convexity of the tomb he hath willed to be wrought in workes of gold with a large faire jounter with roomes over—head... (sic) ~ William Finch.[nb 1]

Anarkali had a relationship with Prince Salim. Upon notice of the relationship, Akbar ordered her to be enclosed within a wall of his palace, where she died. Subsequently, Jahangir, as a token of his love, ordered a stone tomb to be built in the centre of a walled, four-square garden surrounded by a gate. As per the description given by Finch, Jahangir ordered the dome of the tomb to be wrought in works of gold.[7][8]

Edward Terry, who visited a few years after William Finch, wrote that Akbar had threatened to disinherit Jahangir for his relationship with Anarkali, the emperor's most-beloved wife, but on his death-bed he repealed the threat.[9][10]

The legends


According to Lisa Balabanlilar, the majority of legends present Anarkali as a part of Akbar's harem as a spouse, a concubine or a servant.[11] Thus, as per Muni Lal, Anarkali was a maidservant in the household of Salim's mother, Mariam-uz-Zamani.[12] A common thread across the various accounts is that after realizing the likelihood of an amour between his son Salim and Anarkali, Akbar got incensed and ordered to ensepulchre Anarkali alive in a wall. This brutality enraged Salim and caused him to rebel against his father. Balabanlilar continues, however, that while captivating and widely believed, the legend cannot be verified and most likely does not reference a historical event.[11]

Scholarly claims and discourse




The gravestone in the tomb for Anarkali bears the inscription:[13]

Could I behold the face of my beloved once more,
I would thank God until the day of resurrection.
 ~ Majnun Salim Akbar

According to Andrew Topsfield, in his book Paintings from Mughal India, (p. 171 n. 18) Robert Skelton has identified these verses as being from the 13th-century poet Saʿdī.[13]

Jahangir as Majnun


According to Ebba Koch, Jahangir perceived himself as a Majnun prince king, who is almost mad in his love for his beloved. Ebba Koch says that he had his name inscribed as Majnun on the Anarkali's sarcophagus and had pictorials of himself painted as Majnun king; as late as 1618, he reared a pair of Sarus cranes, which are considered in Indian culture to be love birds named Layla and Majnun. Koch observed their breeding and wrote about them with keen interest.[13] According to art historian Ram Nath the Salim Anarkali love legend can not be entirely fabricated myth since nobody would have had the courage to inscribe his name in public as a Majnun (passionate lover) without his approval.[14] Nath says, Jahangir held his father Akbar in very high regard in his autobiography, still in 1599 he rebelled against Akbar and one most possible reason could be that his romance with Anarkali was frustrated by Akbar.[14]

Prominent guesses about who the Anarkali was

  • It was just a pomegranate garden.
  • Anarkali as a wife of Emperor Akbar who fell in love with his son Jahangir.
  • Anarkali was a concubine of Emperor Akbar(and Prince Daniyal's mother) who fell in love with his son Jahangir.
  • Anarkali was one of the wife of Jahangir speculated either Sahib-i Jamal or Nur Jahan
Just a pomegranate garden

According to Haroon Khalid, irrespective of incestuous relationship in popular imagination, it is very unlikely that an emperor's concubine would have fallen in love with his rebellious son.[3] Khalid says that the pomegranate garden is mentioned by Dara Shikoh, the grandson of Jahangir, in his work "Sakinat al-Auliya" as a location where the saint Mian Mir used to sit.[3] According to Subhash Parihar, Dara also mentions the existence of a tomb in the garden but does not give it a name.[15] According to Muhammed Baqir, the author of "Lahore Past and Present", Anarkali was originally just the name of the garden in which the tomb of Sahib-i-Jamal, one of the wife of Jahangir, was situated. The tomb later came to be named as that of Anarkali.[3]

Sahib-i Jamal

According to Muhammed Baqir, the tomb of Anarkali belonged to a woman named Sahib-i Jamal, a wife of Salim, the mother of the prince's second son Sultan Parvez and a daughter of the noble Zain Khan Koka. The daughter of Zain Khan was married to Salim on 18 June 1596. [citation needed]

According to Akbar Nama, Jahangir "became violently enamoured of the daughter of Zain Khan Koka. Akbar was displeased at the impropriety, but he saw that his heart was immoderately affected, he, of necessity, gave his consent"[16][additional citation(s) needed] The translator of Akbar Nama, H. Beveridge, said Akbar objected to the marriage because the Prince was already married "to Zain Khan's niece" (the daughter of paternal uncle of Zain Khan, and hence Zain Khan's cousin). Akbar objected to the marriage of near relations.[16][additional citation(s) needed]

According to Aniruddha Ray, the inscribed year 1599 and the name Salim are important since if it was built after he became emperor his regnal name Jahangir would have been used instead. Ray says according to historians Akbar left Lahore on 6 November 1598, so it would be difficult to assume Akbar gave the order for the entombment in 1599. Ray says that Sahib-i Jamal died in 1599 so the tomb may be hers.[17]


According to Haroon Khalid, a chronicler named Noor Ahmad Chishti in his Tehqiqat–i–Chishti first published in 1849 notes Anarkali or Sharf–un–Nissa as Emperor Akbar's favorite concubine. According to Tehqiqat–i–Chishti Anarkali expired when Akbar was on Deccan campaign. Khalid says while Chishti's book does not speak about a love affair with Jahangir, this was the same times when Jahangir rebelled against his father Akbar. Khalid says one possibility is Akbar might have built the mausoleum after his return from Deccan campaign.[3]

Khalid says the popular narrative remains that Anarkali was Akbar's concubine who crossed the red line and fell in love with Jahangir, Akbar's son.[3] He says that according to Tareekh-e-Lahore, a 1892 book by Sayed Abdul Latif, Anarkali's original name was Sharf-un-Nissa.[3] According to Ellison Banks Findly Anarkali's another name was Nadira Begum.[4] Findly reminds that according to European traveller Finch she was the mother of Daniyal.[4] Findly quotes Latif who described Anarkali as a concubine and narrated the legend given by him that Akbar observed Anarkali's return a smile to Jahangir in a mirror, suspected the worst and buried the lady alive in a wall,[3] The same had been mentioned by Finch ".. upon notice of which the King [Akabar] caused her to be inclosed quicke within a wall in his moholl, where shee dyed, .."[4] According to Lisa Balabanlilar, usually it is considered that Jahangir married at least 20 times.[5] Findly says that if the assumed dating of the death of Anarkali is correct then Jahangir would have already entered into several marriages and had three sons by then. Accordingly, it would have been out of character for Jahangir to have been madly in love in an incestuous relationship although the legend of Jahangir and Anarkali persists.[4] Khalid provides the same narrative as Latif which was developed by later fiction writers beginning with Imtiaj Ali Taj's 1922 play 'Anarkali'.[3]

Prince Daniyal's mother

Basing his analysis on the above two accounts, Abraham Eraly, the author of The Last Spring: The Lives and Times of the Great Mughals, wrote there "seems to have been an oedipal conflict between Akbar and Salim". He also considers it probable that Anarkali was the mother of Prince Daniyal Mirza.[18]

Eraly supports his hypothesis by quoting an incident recorded by Abul Fazl, Akbar's court historian, according to whom, Salim was assaulted one evening by the guards of Akbar's royal harem. A madman wandered into Akbar's harem because of the carelessness of the guards. According to Abul Fazl, Salim caught the man but was himself mistaken for the intruder.[18] The emperor arrived and was about to strike the "intruder" with his sword when he recognised Salim. According to this theory, the intruder might have been Prince Salim and that the story of the mad man was concocted to hide the prince's actions.[18]

According to Subhash Parihar, the accounts of the British travellers, and consequently the presumption of Eraly, is unlikely because Prince Daniyal's mother died in 1596, which does not match the dates inscribed on the sarcophagus.[15]

Nur Jahan

Nur Jahan's first husband Sher Afghan died in a skirmish with Jahangir's foster brother Qutbuddin Koka in 1607. Jahangir fell in love with Nur Jahan and married her on 25 May 1611.[19][20] According to Masudul Hasan and also Lisa Balabanlilar, a popular legend exists that Jahangir saw Nur Jahan in childhood and was attracted to her but Akbar had not given him permission to marry her; when Jahangir ascended the throne he got her husband killed and married her.[19] Art historian Ram Nath gives credence to this theory saying for unknown reasons Nur Jahan's first marriage to Sher Afghan took place in 1599 when she was almost 22, quite late for a woman of that time[citation needed]. Nath says it is quite possible that Jahangir might have seen her, and shown interest but his father Akbar denied permission taking political considerations into account. [21] Nath says that while modern biographers like Beniprasad do not put faith in this legend, there are contemporary mentions of the legend. Nath points out that De Laet mentioned that a contemporary traveler Pelsaert said that Jahangir loved Nur Jahan even before her marriage to Sher Afghan but Akbar intervened otherwise.[21] According to Nath, it is not impossible for Jahangir to have engineered the murder of Nur Jahan's first husband (1607) and suppressed the real cause of the conflict of his love interest.[21]

Hasan and also Balabanlilarsay say that this legend has been proven to be historically false. Jahangir became attracted to and married Nur Jahan when she was in her 30s and Jahangir in his 40s.[19][20] According to Archana Garodia Gupta, the legend of the prior love with Nur Jahan is unlikely because after Nur Jahan's first marriage with Sher Afgan, Jahangir had accompanied him on a campaign to Mewar and also awarded a title on Sher Afgan.[22]

According to other accounts[which?], after Akbar's death, Salim (Jahangir) recalled Anarkali and they married. She was given a new name, Nur Jahan.[citation needed]

Nur Jahan died in 1645, 18 years after Jahangir's death and she was buried in her tomb near the tomb of Jahangir at Shahdara, Lahore.[23][24]

Opinion of historian Ram Nath


Art historian R. Nath said Jahangir had no wife on record bearing the name or title Anarkali, to whom the emperor could have built a tomb and dedicated a couplet with a suffix Majnun.[25] He writes:

[it is] absolutely improbable that the grand Mughal emperor would address his married wife as yar, designate himself as majnun and aspire to see her face once again. Had he not seen her enough? Obviously she was not his married wife but only his beloved, to whom he would take the liberty to be romantic and a little poetic too, and it appears to be a case of an unsuccessful romance of a disappointed lover... The prince could not save her, though it is on record that he was so unhappy with his father in this year 1599 that he defied his orders and revolted. It may be recalled that Mehrunissa (later Nurjahan Begum) was also married to Sher Afgan the same year and the young Prince was so dejected and disturbed on the failure of his two romances and annihilation of his tender feelings of love that he went as far as to defy Akbar.[25][14]

Personalities and timeline

Personality Who is who Respective Time line
  • The lover in the legend of Emperor Jahangir - Anarkali;
  • Alternatively just the name of a historic pomegranate garden in Lahore.
Majnun Salim Akbar Emperor Jahangir himself 31 August 1569– 28 October 1627

Reign: 3 November 1605 – 28 October 1627

Akbar Mughal Emperor and father of Jahangir October 1542– 27 October 1605)

Reign:1556 to 1605

Daniyal Mirza Third son of Emperor Akbar the Great and the brother of the Emperor Jahangir. 11 September 1572 – 19 March 1605
Sahib i-Jamal Wife of Jahangir [26] mother of Salim's second son, Prince Parviz.[27] daughter of Khwaja Hasan of Herat, making her the cousin of Zain Khan Koka died c. 25 June 1599
Khas Mahal Daughter of Zain Khan Koka

Married to Salim on 18 June 1596

Daughter of Khawaja Hasan Wife of Salim i.e. Jahangir
Nur Jahan (born Mehr-un-Nissa, The twentieth (and last) wife of the Mughal emperor Jahangir married him in 1611. She was the favourite wife of Jahangir. 31 May 1577 – 18 December 1645[28]

Fictional portrayals


Anarkali has been the subject of a number of Indian, Bangladeshi and Pakistani books, plays and films. The earliest, most-celebrated historical play about her, Anarkali, was written by Imtiaz Ali Taj in Urdu and performed in 1922. The play was made into a film Loves of a Mughal Prince, which was released in India in 1928 and stars Taj as Akbar.[29] Another Indian silent film about the tawaif, Anarkali, was released in 1928 by R.S. Choudhury, who remade it in Hindi with the same title in 1935. Bina Rai portrayed Anarkali in Anarkali, a 1953 Indian film. In 1955, Akkineni Nageswara Rao and Anjali Devi starred in Anarkali. Kunchacko directed Anarkali, an Indian Tamil-language film, in 1966.[30]

Madhubala's role of Anarkali in Mughal-e-Azam (1960) is considered one of the finest depictions of the courtesan.

In 1960, K. Asif's landmark film Mughal-e-Azam was released in India with Madhubala in the role of Anarkali and Dilip Kumar as Prince Salim. According to Katherine Butler Schofield, while as per rumor peddled by European travelers, the emperor Akbar ensepulchred Anarkali alive, the movie Mughal‐e‐Azam gives the historical legend a twist wherein Akbar himself lets Anarkali run away clandestinely.[31] Schofield says in this case film producer seemingly twists the plot finding it difficult to reconcile an idealized national hero of modern times had been legendarily cruel enough to entomb a woman alive.[31] In 1979, Telugu superstar N. T. Rama Rao directed and acted in the film Akbar Salim Anarkali, featuring himself as Akbar, Nandamuri Balakrishna as Salim and Deepa as Anarkali.[30]

Jahangir and Anarkali. (A fictional depiction 1940)

In Pakistan, Anarkali was released in 1958 with Noor Jehan in the titular role, based on the Imtiaz Ali Taj play/script as adapted by Qamar Ajnalvi for Anwar Kamal Pasha's direction.[32][33] Iman Ali portrayed Anarkali in Shoaib Mansoor's short music video series on the theme Ishq (transl. love) in 2003.[33]

In the 2013 Ekta Kapoor's television series Jodha Akbar, she was portrayed by Heena Parmar while Saniya Touqeer played young Anarkali.[34][35][36] A daily soap titled "Dastan-e-Mohabbat...Salim Anarkali" in which Prince Salim is played by Shaheer Sheikh and his beloved Anarkali by Sonarika Bhadoria, was aired on Colors TV.[37][38]

In 2022 TAJ, a webseries, started. Following the first season 'Anarkali' played a prominent role in first half of the series. [citation needed]

See also


Bibliography non-fictional

  • Dad, Aisha. 2022. 'Through the Looking Glass': The Narrative Performance of Anarkali. Doctoral dissertation, Harvard University Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.
  • Nath, Prof R.. India As Seen by William Finch (1608-11 A.D): (With an Introduction to Medieval Travelogue). N.p., Independently Published, 2020.
  • Sen Gupta, Subhadra. MAHAL: Power and Pageantry in the Mughal Harem. India, Hachette India, 2019.
  • Early Travels in India, 1583-1619. India, Alpha Editions, 2020.
  • Choudhry, Zulfiqar Ali. Anarkali. United Kingdom, Whyte Tracks publishing, 2017.
  • Khawaja, Mabel Deane. “The Entombed Slave Girl of the Moguls: A Victim of Imperialism.” International Journal of Critical Cultural Studies, vol. 14, no. 2, June 2016, pp. 1–9. EBSCOhost,
  • Moosvi, Shireen. The invention and persistence of a legend—The Anārkalī story. Studies in People's History, Volume: 1 issue: 1, page(s): 63-68. Article first published online: June 1, 2014; Issue published: June 1, 2014
  • Schofield, Katherine Butler. (2012), The Courtesan Tale: Female Musicians and Dancers in Mughal Historical Chronicles, c.1556–1748. Gender & History, 24: 150-171.
  • Sharma, Sunil. “Forbidden Love, Persianate Style: Re-Reading Tales of Iranian Poets and Mughal Patrons.” Iranian Studies, vol. 42, no. 5, 2009, pp. 765–779., doi:10.1080/00210860903306044
  • Glover, William J.. Making Lahore Modern: Constructing and Imagining a Colonial City. United Kingdom, U of Minnesota Press, 2008.
  • Lal, Ruby. Domesticity and Power in the Early Mughal World. United Kingdom, Cambridge University Press, 2005.
  • Chaudhry, Nazir Ahmad. Anarkali, Archives and Tomb of Sahib Jamal: A Study in Perspective. Pakistan, Sang-e-Meel Publications, 2002.
  • Bāqir, Muḥammad. Lahore: Past And Present (being An Account Of Lahore Compiled From Original Sources). India, Low Price Publications, 1996.
  • Asher, Catherine Ella Blanshard, et al. Architecture of Mughal India. United Kingdom, Cambridge University Press, 1992. p 118.
  • Quayum, Mohammad A. "From A String of Sweet Pearls, Vol. II (1922)". The Essential Rokeya. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2013. Web.
  • H.Beveridge, Visit to Umarkot, Calcutta Review. India, University of Calcutta, 1900. Page 67, 68, 69
  • Jahangir (1829). Memoirs of the Emperor Jahangueir. Translated by David Prince. London: Oriental Translation Committee.
  • Panjab Gazetteer. India, n.p, 1883. Page 177.

Bibliography fiction and literature

  • Bombay Cinema's Islamicate Histories. United Kingdom, Intellect Books Limited, 2022.
  • Ray, Neil. The Autobiography of Time: The Saga of Human Civilization: Ambition, Greed and Power from the Dawn of Man. United Kingdom, Archway Publishing, 2020. Semi fiction
  • Sharma, Manimugdha. Allahu Akbar: Understanding the Great Mughal in Today's India. India, Bloomsbury Publishing. 2019
  • Isaac, Megan Lynn. Suzanne Fisher Staples: The Setting Is the Story. United Kingdom, Scarecrow Press, 2009.
  • Sundaresan, Indu. The Twentieth Wife: A Novel. United States, Washington Square Press, 2003.
  • Reviewed Work: Anarkali, a Sanskrit Play in ten acts, by V. Raghavan Palsule, G. B. Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, vol. 54, no. 1/4, 1973, pp. 301–03. JSTOR, JSTOR 41692219.
  • Taj, Afroz. Two Anarkalis: Saghar Nizami’s Dream Drama and the Deconstruction of the Parsi Theatre. Southeast Review of Asian Studies Volume 32 (2010), pp. 177–92.
  • DÉSOULIÈRES, ALAIN. Religious culture and folklore in the Urdu historical drama Anarkali, revisited by Indian cinema. Book: Indian Literature and Popular Cinema, 2007. Routledge ISBN 9780203933299
  • Rini Bhattacharya Mehta (2011) Ur-national and secular mythologies: popular culture, nationalist historiography and strategic essentialism, South Asian History and Culture, 2:4, 572-588, doi:10.1080/19472498.2011.605300


  1. ^ Don Sha his mother→ Mother of Daniyal Mirza
    Acbar→Emperor Akbar, Sha Selim Prince Salim i.e. Emperor Jahangir, Immaeque Kelle → Most probable misspelling of Anarkali by ~ William Finch (Later traveler Edward Terry spells it clear enough so they are referring to name 'Anarkali' William Finch is referring to Mother of Daniyal Mirza, While no proof she was a Akbar's wife but both the travellers seem to refer her as Akbar's wife.
    moholl→ Misspelling of word 'Mahal' meaning 'palace' From William Finch is referring to the tomb separately So not clear if place of death and tomb are same or different from his account
    Most likely construction of the tomb was incomplete until 1615 while Finch visited in 1611
    * Also see Anarkali#Personalities and timeline section below


  1. ^ "Legend: Anarkali: myth, mystery and history". Dawn. 11 February 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2021.
  2. ^ Munir, Sana (16 June 2019). "The chronicles of Anarkali". The News. Retrieved 21 July 2022.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Khalid, Haroon (17 August 2018). "Humble Origins". Imagining Lahore: the city that is, the city that was. Penguin Random House India. ISBN 978-93-5305-199-0. OCLC 1051299628.
  4. ^ a b c d e Findly, Ellison Banks (1993). Nur Jahan, empress of Mughal India. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 123. ISBN 1-4237-3663-X. OCLC 191946585.
  5. ^ a b Balabanlilar, Lisa (2021). The emperor Jahangir: power and kingship in mughal india. London: I.B. Tauris. pp. 122, 123, 124. ISBN 978-1-83860-045-7. OCLC 1151195232.
  6. ^ "Legend: Anarkali: myth, mystery and history". 11 February 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
  7. ^ a b Flinch, William (1921). Foster, William (ed.). William Flinch (PDF). Humphrey Milford Oxford University Press. p. 166. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  8. ^ Chida-Razvi, Mehreen (2015). "Where is the "greatest city in the East"? The Mughal city of Lahore in European travel accounts (1556–1648)". In Gharipour, Mohammad; Özlü, Nilay (eds.). The city in the Muslim world: depictions by Western travel writers. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. p. 90. ISBN 978-1-317-54822-5. OCLC 904547599.
  9. ^ Terry, Edward (1655). A Voyage to East-India. London: J. Wilkir. p. 408.
  10. ^ L. D. B. (February 1923). "History of Jahangir. By Beni Prasad, M.A. With foreword by Shafaat Ahmad Khan, Litt.D.". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 3 (1): 45–46. doi:10.1017/s0041977x00000161. ISSN 0041-977X.
  11. ^ a b Balabanlilar, Lisa (2021). The emperor Jahangir: power and kingship in Mughal India. London: I.B. Tauris. pp. 122, 123, 124. ISBN 978-1-83860-045-7. OCLC 1151195232. Most versions of the legend assert that the young Anarkali was a member of Akbar's household, either in the harem as a favourite wife or a beloved concubine or a palace servant. The various accounts agree that on discovering the relationship between his son and Anarkali, the enraged and jealous Akbar had the woman entombed alive within a wall in the fort, an act of such cruelty that it was credited by some for inspiring Salim's rebellion. ... The enticing and romantic gossip became popular legend, and even today the story of Salim and Anarkali is widely believed, however unsubstantiated and unlikely.
  12. ^ Lal 1980, p. 300.
  13. ^ a b c Koch, Ebba (2010). Necipoğlu, Gülru (ed.). The Mughal Emperor as Soloman, Majnun, and Orpheus, or The album as think tank for allegory. Leal Karen. BRILL. pp. 277–312 & Footnote:62. ISBN 978-90-04-18511-1. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  14. ^ a b c Nath, Ram (1982–2005). History of Mughal architecture. Vol. III. New Delhi: Abhinav. p. 79. ISBN 0-391-02650-X. OCLC 9944798.
  15. ^ a b Parihar, Subhash (8 April 2022). "The Tribune - Windows - Featured story". Retrieved 28 July 2022.
  16. ^ a b Beveridge, Henry (1907). Akbarnama of Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak - Volume III. Asiatic Society, Calcutta. pp. 1058–9 n. 3.
  17. ^ Ray, Aniruddha (2016). Towns and cities of medieval India: a brief survey. London. ISBN 978-1-351-99730-0. OCLC 960038823.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  18. ^ a b c Eraly, Abraham (1997). The last spring: the lives and times of the great Mughals. New Delhi. ISBN 978-93-5118-128-6. OCLC 983835171.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  19. ^ a b c Hasan, Masudul (2009). History of Islam (Rev. ed.). New Delhi: Adam Publishers & Distributors. p. 425. ISBN 978-81-7435-019-0. OCLC 241437504.
  20. ^ a b Balabanlilar, Lisa (2021). The emperor Jahangir: power and kingship in mughal india. London: I.B. Tauris. pp. 122, 123, 124. ISBN 978-1-83860-045-7. OCLC 1151195232. .. Popular legend suggests that Jahangir had met and fell in love with Mihrunnisa long before her husband's death; some versions even directly implicate Jahangir in his murder. These stories lack credibility. Had Jahangir been jealous of Istajlu's marriage to Mihrunnisa, it would be hard to explain Jahangir's years of patronage and extravagant reward for the warrior, or the nearly four years between the death of her husband and her subsequent marriage to the emperor. Mughal accounts support the claim that Jahangir met Mihrunnisa when she was a widow residing in the imperial harem, during the Nowruz festivities when the women of the Mughal family, joined by wives and daughters of the nobility, created a private Meena bazaar for themselves, selling small items to each other and donating the proceeds to charity ... Emperor Jahangir married Mihrunnisa on the 25th of May 1611.
  21. ^ a b c Nath, Ram (1982–2005). History of Mughal architecture. Vol. III. New Delhi: Abhinav. pp. 75–78. ISBN 0-391-02650-X. OCLC 9944798.
  22. ^ Gupta, Archana Garodia (2019). The Women Who Ruled India : Leaders. Warriors. Icons. Gurugram. ISBN 978-93-5195-153-7. OCLC 1274799925.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  23. ^ "Restoration of Nur Jahan's Tomb to begin soon". The Express Tribune. 16 July 2012. Retrieved 19 July 2022.
  24. ^ Findly, Ellison Banks (1993). Nur Jahan, Empress of Mughal India. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195074888. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  25. ^ a b Parihar, Subhash (8 April 2000). "The Tribune - Windows - Featured story". Retrieved 21 July 2022.
  26. ^ Hasan (2001), p. 117.
  27. ^ Balabanlilar, Lisa (2012). Imperial Identity in the Mughal Empire: Memory and Dynastic Politics in Early Modern South and Central Asia. London: I.B. Tauris. p. 10. ISBN 9781848857261.
  28. ^ Banks Findly 1993, p. 8.
  29. ^ "Loves of a Moghul Prince" – via
  30. ^ a b Rajadhyaksha, Ashish; Willemen, Paul (1999). Encyclopaedia of Indian cinema. British Film Institute. ISBN 9780851706696.
  31. ^ a b Schofield, Katherine Butler (April 2012). "The Courtesan Tale: Female Musicians and Dancers in Mughal Historical Chronicles, c.1556-1748". Gender & History. 24 (1): 150–171. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0424.2011.01673.x. S2CID 161453756. .. The most famous tale of a brave love and a horrible death is probably that of Salim and Anarkali, although there are no contemporary Mughal sources for the story, just gossipy European travel tales; ... Salim's father, the emperor Akbar, walled Anarkali up alive to punish the pair for defying his will. There is a twist in perhaps the most important film version of the tale, Mughal‐e‐Azam, wherein Akbar secretly lets Anarkali go. This seems to have been necessitated by the film‐makers' inability to reconcile modern notions of justice and tolerance, of which the nationalist hero Akbar was meant to be the epitome, with the patent cruelty of walling a woman up alive. ..
  32. ^ Karan Bai (19 March 2016). "The fascinating tales of the many Anarkalis".
  33. ^ a b "'Anarkali' screened at Mandwa". The News International (newspaper). 8 May 2016. Archived from the original on 23 February 2023. Retrieved 10 April 2023.
  34. ^ Jodha Akbar zeroes in on li'l Anarkali and Haider. Times of India.
  35. ^ Heena Parmar is Salim's Anarkali. Times of India.
  36. ^ Jodha Akbar. Zee5.
  37. ^ Salim Anarkali fame Sonarika Bhadoria writes a love-filled note for her former co-star Shaheer Sheikh. Times of India
  38. ^ Salim Anarkali. Voot.