Anantapur district

Anantapur district officially: Anantapuramu district[4] is one of the eight districts in the Rayalaseema region of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The district headquarters is located at Anantapur city. It is one of the driest places in South India.[5] As of 2011 census of India, it was the largest district in the state by area and with a population of 2,241,105. Later in the year 2022, as part of re-organisation of districts, Sri Sathya Sai district was carved out and so its area and population reduced by half.

Anantapuram district
Anantapuramu district
Chinthalavenkataramana Swami Temple.jpg
Anantapur Clock tower at night.jpg
15th century Bugga Ramalingeswara temple, Tadipatri, Andhra Pradesh, India - 193.jpg
Gooty Granary and Store House.jpg
HILLS ANANTAPUR AP - panoramio.jpg
Clockwise from top-left: Chintalarayaswami Temple, Anantapur Clock Tower, Granary at Gooty Fort, Hills near Reddipalle, Bugga Ramalingeswara temple
Etymology: Telugu: Anantasagara (Big Tank)
Anantapur in Andhra Pradesh (India).svg
Coordinates: 14°42′N 77°36′E / 14.700°N 77.600°E / 14.700; 77.600Coordinates: 14°42′N 77°36′E / 14.700°N 77.600°E / 14.700; 77.600
Country India
StateAndhra Pradesh
RegionRayalaseema
Named forBig Tank
HeadquartersAnantapur
Administrative Divisions
Government
 • District collectorSmt K.Nagalakshmi
 • Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha list
 • Assembly
Area
 • Total10,205 km2 (3,940 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)[2]
 • Total2,241,105
 • Density220/km2 (570/sq mi)
 • Sex ratio
977 (females per 1,000 males)
Languages
 • OfficialTelugu
Literacy
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Postal Index Number
515xxx
Area codes+91–8554
ISO 3166 codeIN-AP
Vehicle registrationAP-02 (former) AP–39 (from 30 January 2019)[3]
Websiteananthapuramu.ap.gov.in

EtymologyEdit

The name Anantapur was named after a big tank called Anantasagara.[citation needed] It existed during reign of Vijayanagara Empire, which was named after Ananthamma, wife of Bukkaraya, one of the founders of the empire.[6]

HistoryEdit

Gooty fort was a stronghold of the Marathas, but was taken from them by Hyder Ali. In 1789 it was ceded by his son Tipu Sultan to the Nizam of Hyderabad, and in 1800 the nizam ceded the surrounding districts to the British in payment for a subsidiary British force.[7] In 1882, Anantapuram district was formed by carving out from Bellary district.[8]

GeographyEdit

It is one of the largest district of Andhra Pradesh district in spanning an area of 10,205 square kilometres (3,940 sq mi),[9] comparatively equivalent to Japan's Shikoku Island.[10] It is bounded on the north by Kurnool district and Nandyal district , on the east by YSR district, and South by Sri Sathya Sai district and on the southwest and west by Chitradurga district And Bellary district in Karnataka state.[11] It is part of Rayalaseema region on the state. Its northern and central portions are a high plateau, generally undulating, with large granite rocks or low hill ranges rising occasionally above its surface. In the southern portion of the district the surface is more hilly, the plateau there rising to 2,000 ft (610 m). above the sea.[7] Six rivers flow within the district: Penna, Chithravathi, Vedavathi, Papagni, Swarnamukhi, and Thadakaleru. The district receives an average annual rainfall of 381 millimetres. Anantapur district mostly falls under the rainshadow region of the Western Ghats, with a Hot semi-arid climate. Red soil and vertisol are the most common soils. The driest parts of India after the Thar desert are in this region, as well as adjoining Chitradurga district and Ballari district of Karnataka, and parts of Kurnool district and Kadapa district.[citation needed]

Anantapur city is 485 km (301 mi) from Vijayawada, 354 km (220 mi) from Hyderabad, and 200 km (120 mi) from the neighbouring state capital of Bengaluru. Anantapur connects Hyderabad and Bangalore through National Highway 7. Kempegowda International Airport, Bengaluru is the nearest international airport to Ananthapuramu town. Other small-scale domestic airports are there in neighboring districts of Kurnool and Kadapa which are around 150 km and 200 km away respectively.[citation needed]

DemographicsEdit

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
19011,025,322—    
19111,053,449+0.27%
19211,040,166−0.13%
19311,138,081+0.90%
19411,273,079+1.13%
19511,483,591+1.54%
19611,767,464+1.77%
19712,115,321+1.81%
19812,548,012+1.88%
19913,180,863+2.24%
20013,640,478+1.36%
20114,081,148+1.15%
source:[12]

As of 2011 census of India, Anantapur district has a population of 4,081,148 with 9,68,160 households, ranking it as the 7th most populous district in the state.[1] It is the largest district in the state with an area of 19,130 km2 (7,390 sq mi).[1] Anantapur has a sex ratio of 977 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 64.28%. Urban population in the district is 28.9% of total population.[1]

Religion in Anantapur district (2011)[13]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
88.45%
Islam
10.37%
Christianity
0.69%
Other or not stated
0.49%
Distribution of religions

After bifurcation Anantapur district had a population of 22,41,105, of which 753,354 (33.62%) lived in urban areas. Anantapur district had a sex ratio of 978 females per 1000 males. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes make up 3,34,142 (14.91%) and 70,161 (3.13%) of the population respectively.[1]: 78–83 

LanguageEdit

Languages of Anantapuram district (2011)[14]

  Telugu (84.59%)
  Urdu (9.64%)
  Kannada (3.03%)
  Lambadi (1.42%)
  Others (1.32%)

At the time of the 2011 census, 84.59% of the population spoke Telugu, 9.64% Urdu, 3.03% Kannada and 1.42% Lambadi as their first language.[14]

EconomyEdit

The Gross District Domestic Product (GDDP) of the district is 35,838 crore (US$4.5 billion) and it contributes 6.8% to the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP). For the FY 2013–14, the per capita income at current prices was 69,562 (US$870). The primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the district contribute 9,944 crore (US$1.2 billion), 7,752 crore (US$970 million) and 18,142 crore (US$2.3 billion) respectively to the GDDP.[15]

Agriculture and allied services Paddy and Groundnut are major agricultural crops in the district. When it comes to horticulture Banana and Papaya are heavily cultivated.[citation needed]

Industries Industries like Constructions, Manufactures and Electricity are major contributors for GVA.[15] Anantapur has a major potential for development of industry due to its strategic location between BengaluruChennai and BengaluruHyderabad routes and availability of vast tracts of land. In 2006 the Indian government named Anantapur one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640).[16] It is one of the thirteen districts in Andhra Pradesh currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).[16]

Minerals Anantapur is a major producer of dolomite and iron ore minerals.[citation needed]

Power plants Solar thermal power plant of 50 MW was commissioned at this village under Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission which was named as Megha Solar Plant. It is one of the 7 solar thermal plants in the country.[17][18]

Tadipatri region in Anantapur is an industrialised town famous for Granite and Cement production. Ultra Tech Cements a unit of Industrial major Larsen & Toubro has a major Cement production unit near the town.[citation needed]

Agriculture

The economy is principally agrarian with a developing industrial sector. Anantapur receives very less rainfall due to its location in the rain shadow area of Indian Peninsula. Prominent crops include groundnut, sunflower, rice, cotton, maize, chillies, sesame, and sugarcane. Silk trade, limestone quarrying, iron and diamond mining. Anantapur town is known as Groundnut City in reference to the neighbouring Bengaluru being called as Garden City.[citation needed]

Religious tourism

The Gooty Fort, also known as Ravadurg, is a ruined fort located on a hill in the Gooty town of Anantapur Andhra Pradesh, India. The word Gooty (locally pronounced "Gutti") is derived from the town's original name, Gowthampuri. It is one of the centrally protected Monuments of National Importance.[citation needed]

Administrative divisionsEdit

 
Anantapur District Revenue Divisions and Mandals

The District has three Revenue Divisions: Anantapur, Guntakal and Kalyandurg. These revenue divisions are further divided into 31 mandals.[1]: 14 

 
Satellite view of Anantapur District Mandals

The mandals of the district are listed in the following table:

# Anantapur Division Guntakal division Kalyandurg Division
1 Anantapur Uravakonda Rayadurg
2 Tadipatri Vidapanakal D.Hirehal
3 Kudair Vajrakarur Kanekal
4 Raptadu Guntakal Bommanahal
5 Peddapappur Gooty Gummagatta
6 Singanamala Pamidi Kalyandurg
7 Garladinne Yadiki Brahmasamudram
8 Putlur Peddavadugur Settur
9 Yellanur Kundurpi
10 Narpala Kambadur
11 Bukkarayasamudram Beluguppa
12 Atmakur

Parliament segmentsEdit

Anantapur (Lok Sabha constituency), Hindupur (Lok Sabha constituency)

Assembly segmentsEdit

Anantapur and Hindupur Lok Sabha constituency comprises the following Legislative Assembly segments:[19]

Constituency number Name Reserved for
(SC/ST/None)
Parliament
155 Raptadu None Hindupur Lok Sabha constituency
148 Rayadurg None Anantapur Lok Sabha constituency
149 Uravakonda None Anantapur Lok Sabha constituency
150 Guntakal None Anantapur Lok Sabha constituency
151 Tadpatri None Anantapur Lok Sabha constituency
152 Singanamala SC Anantapur Lok Sabha constituency
153 Anantapur Urban None Anantapur Lok Sabha constituency
154 Kalyandurg None Anantapur Lok Sabha constituency

Erstwhile Talukas in DistrictEdit

S.No. Erstwhile Talukas in 1971 Newly formed Talukas in 1978 Newly formed Mandals in 1985
1. Anantapuram Anantapuram Anantapuram, Kudair, Atmakur, Raptadu, Garladinne [part]
Singanamala [12] Singanamala, B.K. Samudram, Narpala, Garladinne [part]
2 Gooty Gooty Gooty, Guntakal, Pamidi, Peddavadugur
3 Urvakonda Urvakonda Urvakonda [part], Vidapanakal, Vajrakarur
4 Rayadurgam Rayadurgam Rayadurgam, D.Hirehal, Gummagatta
Kanekallu [13] Kanekallu, Bommanahal, Urvakonda [part]
5 Kalyanadurgam Kalyanadurgam Kalyanadurgam, Belugappa
Kambadur [14] Kambadur, Kundurpi, Settur, Brahmasamudram
6 Penukonda Penukonda Penukonda, Roddam, Somanandipalle
Puttaparthi [Satya Sai Taluka] [15] Puttaparthi, Bukkapatnam, Kothacheruvu
7 Madakasira Madakasira Madakasira, Rolla, Agali, Gudibanda, Amarapuram
8 Hindupuram Hindupuram Hindupuram, Parigi, Gorantla, Lepakshi, Chilamathur
9 Kadiri Kadiri Kadiri, Nallacheruvu, Tanakal, Gandlapenta, Talapula, Nambulipulikunta
Nallamada [16] Nallamada, Obula devara Cheruvu, Amadagur, Mudigubba
10 Dharmavaram Dharmavaram Dharmavaram, Bathalapalle, Tadimarri
Chennekothapalle [17] Chennekothapalle, Kanaganapalle, Ramagiri
11 Tadipatri Tadipatri Tadipatri, Yadiki, Yallanuru, Putlur, Peddapappur

Towns in DistrictEdit

The Following are the towns in old district.

Municipal Bodies in Anantapuramu District
S.No. Town Civic Status of Town Municipality

Formation

Year

No. of

Wards

2011 Census

Population

2001 Census

Population

1991 Census

Population

1981 Census

Population

1971 Census

Population

1961 Census

Population

1951 Census

Population

1 Anantapur Municipal Corporation 1869 50 3,40,613 2,52,298 1,74,924 1,19,531 80,069 52,280 31,952
2 Guntakal Municipality Selection Grade 1948 37 1,28,142 1,17,103 107,592 84,599 66,320 48,083 31,341
3 Tadipatri Municipality Special Grade 1920 36 1,20,990 86,843 71,068 53,920 31,618 23,129 19,369
4 Rayadurgam Municipality Grade - 2 1963 32 61,749 54,125 40,848 32,745 26,154 23,779 19,738
5 Gooty Municipality Grade - 3 2011 25 48,658 43,389 37,814 29,302 21,706 19,507 15,437
6 Kalyanadurgam Municipality Grade - 3 2012 24 39,855 29,266 23,106 17,049 13,260 10,256 8,163
7 Pamidi Nagar Panchayat 2012 20 26,886 22,585 19,697 14,615 10,963 - -
Erstwhile Taluka HQs of District
S.No. Town Civic Status of Town 2011 Census

Population

2001 Census

Population

1991 Census

Population

1981 Census

Population

1971 Census

Population

1961 Census

Population

1951 Census

Population

1 Urvakonda Census Town 35,565 31,856 27,679 21,754 19,754 17,926 16,662
2 Kambadur Grama Panchayat 15,441 - - - - - -
3 Nallamada Grama Panchayat 10,944 - - - - - -
4 Chennekothapalle Grama Panchayat 7,387 - - - - - -
5 Singanamala Grama Panchayat 4,986 - - - - - -
Remaining Census Towns in District
S.No. Town Civic Status of Town 2011 Census

Population

1 Somandepalle Census Town 18,895

TransportEdit

The total road length of state highways in the district is 1,298 km (807 mi), the longest in the state.[20] It has a total Rail Network of which 340 km (210 mi) is Broad gauge and 249 km (155 mi) is Meter gauge. The major railways stations are Guntakal Junction, Gooty Junction,Rayadurg Junction Ananthapuramu, Tadipatri railway stations.

EducationEdit

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools, under the School Education Department of the state.[21][22] As per the school information report for the academic year 2015–16, there are a total of 5,024 schools. They include, 28 government, 3,435 mandal and zilla parishads, 4 residential, 1,154 private, 25 model, 62 Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV), 261 municipal and 55 other types of schools.[23] The total number of students enrolled in primary, upper primary and high schools of the district are 563,710.[24] The total number of students enrolled in primary, upper primary and high schools of the district are 563,266.[24]

When it comes to Union (Central) government schools, Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya (JNV) is located nearby Lepakshi, Sri Satyasai district but it serves both Sri Satyasai and Ananthapuramu districts as Lepakshi was part of Ananthapuramu district earlier and after bifurcation, a new JNV is yet to be established in new Ananthapuramu district.[citation needed] Also there are three Central schools (Kendriya Vidyalayas) in the district, located in Guntakal, Gooty and Ananthapuramu.[citation needed]

Anantapur is an important education centre with many educational, schools, colleges and universities situated in the district.[citation needed] Anantapur city has become a major hub with many education institutions situated in its vicinity. Some of the institutions include Sri Krishnadevaraya University, JNTU Ananthapur, Sri Sathya Sai University, Government Medical College, Government polytechnic anantapur, Srinivasa Ramanujan Institute of Technology, Government Polytechnic Hindupur, Gates Institute of Technology, Central University of Andhra Pradesh, Dalavai Chalapathi Rao

TemplesEdit

The following sixty five temples under the management of Endowments Department[25]

Notable peopleEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "District Census Hand Book – Anantapur" (PDF). Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  2. ^ "District Census Hand Book - Anantapur" (PDF). Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  3. ^ "New 'AP 39' code to register vehicles in Andhra Pradesh launched". The New Indian Express. Vijayawada. 31 January 2019. Archived from the original on 21 November 2020. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  4. ^ "Anantapur district to be renamed Anantapuram". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 14 April 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
  5. ^ "Anantapur Assembly Constituency : Triangular contest on the cards". thehansindia.com. 20 January 2019. Archived from the original on 24 July 2019. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  6. ^ "There is history behind names of places". The Hindu. 30 March 2009. Archived from the original on 7 April 2021. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  7. ^ a b   One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Anantapur". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 913.
  8. ^ Rayudu, C. S. (1 January 1991). Rural Credit in India: A Study of Andhra Pradesh. Mittal Publications. p. 2. ISBN 9788170992486.
  9. ^ Srivastava, Dayawanti; et al., eds. (2010). "States and Union Territories: Andhra Pradesh: Government". India 2010: A Reference Annual (54th ed.). New Delhi, India: Additional Director General, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India), Government of India. pp. 1111–1112. ISBN 978-81-230-1617-7.
  10. ^ "Island Directory Tables: Islands by Land Area". United Nations Environment Program. 18 February 1998. Archived from the original on 8 February 2021. Retrieved 11 October 2011. Shikoku 18,545km2
  11. ^ "Historical Background". Archived from the original on 15 May 2013.
  12. ^ Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901
  13. ^ "Population by Religion - Andhra Pradesh". censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 2011.
  14. ^ a b "Table C-16 Population by Mother Tongue: Andhra Pradesh". Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  15. ^ a b "Economy of Anantapur District". Andhra Pradesh Economic Development Board. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  16. ^ a b Ministry of Panchayati Raj (8 September 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme" (PDF). National Institute of Rural Development. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 April 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  17. ^ "Megha Solar Plant". National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Archived from the original on 28 April 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  18. ^ "Anantapur Gets Solar Power Plant". The New Indian Express. Hyderabad. 14 November 2014. Archived from the original on 27 September 2020. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  19. ^ "Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies Order, 2008" (PDF). The Election Commission of India. p. 31.
  20. ^ "Existing State Highways" (PDF). Andhra Pradesh Road Development Corporation. Government of Andhra Pradesh. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 September 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  21. ^ "School Education Department" (PDF). School Education Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  22. ^ "The Department of School Education – Official AP State Government Portal". ap.gov.in. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  23. ^ "School Information Report". Commissionerate of School Education. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original on 8 November 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  24. ^ a b "Student Information Report". Commissionerate of School Education. Child info 2015–16, District School Education – Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  25. ^ "Trust Boards Abstract". AP Temples Portal, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 24 July 2018.

External linksEdit