Anakbayan (transl. Sons and Daughters of the People;[3] abbreviated as AB[4]) is a comprehensive, militant[5][6] left-wing youth-led national democratic mass organization in the Philippines. It is part of the broader Bagong Alyansang Makabayan, a multi-sectoral alliance of left-wing political organizations in the Philippines.

Anakbayan
ChairpersonJeann Miranda
Vice-ChairpersonSally Loreto
Secretary GeneralAlicia Lucena
Founded30 November 1998[1]
MembershipMore than 20,000
IdeologyNational democracy
Colours     
Mother partyBagong Alyansang Makabayan
NewspaperTinig ng Kabataang Makabayan[2]

IdeologyEdit

Anakbayan subscribes to the national democracy movement, a Filipino left-wing alliance of various socialist, communist, and Marxist–Leninist–Maoist organizations that oppose foreign imperialism, landlordism, monopolistic capitalism, and corrupt government officials. It is an activist group that advocates for jobs, livable wages, land reform, education, social services, justice, and human rights.[7][8]

HistoryEdit

BackgroundEdit

Starting on the November 30, 1998, Anakbayan unites Filipino youth of ages 18 to 35 from different backgrounds to promote national democracy, specifically in the Philippines. They believe that the country is not truly free or democratic and seek to make real the democratic rights of the people.

ManilaToday claims Anakbayan draws inspiration from the revolutionary movement of the Katipunan and the influential martial-law era youth organization Kabataang Makabayan.[9] Issues within the National Democratic Movement[clarification needed] during the 90s led to the idea of forming a comprehensive youth organization that tackles social issues in the Philippines.[10]

Early yearsEdit

In order to form a comprehensive youth organization by the National Democratic Movement, a National Organizing Committee was formed by members of League of Filipino Students (LFS), as well as other activists from University of the Philippines, Polytechnic University of the Philippines, and University of the East. The committee held its conferences in Del Pan Sports Complex, Tondo, Manila that started on November 28, 1998, through the help of the community and League of Tondo Youth. Youth delegates came from different regions across the Philippines. Anakbayan was formally established on November 30, in commemoration of the 135th birthday of Andrés Bonifacio, co-founder of the Katipunan, and the 34th anniversary of the Kabataang Makabayan. As the League of Tondo Youth merged with newly established organization, Anakbayan's first members also came from LFS, Student Christian Movement of the Philippines (SCMP), Center for Nationalist Studies, among other progressive youth organizations.[11]

Anakbayan was participative of the movement, called Estrada Resign Youth Movement, to oust Philippine President Joseph "Erap" Estrada, describing him as "anti-youth", especially with budget cuts on the education sector.[12][11] The movement culminated in People Power II, in which Anakbayan was instrumental in the participation of about 200,000 youth against Estrada. The organization popularized the call, “Sobra nang pahirap, patalsikin si Erap!” (Too much oppression, oust Erap!) which reverberated nationwide.[13]

Post-EDSA IIEdit

During the early administration of President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, a youth initiative called Youth Movement for Justice and Meaningful Change, composed of Anakbayan, LFS, SCMP, College Editors' Guild of the Philippines, and National Union of Students of the Philippines met at the office of Anakbayan in Padre Noval, Sampaloc, Manila, to discuss plans to advance the interests of the Filipino youth. Talks were made due to the disillusionment brought by the new administration. Eventually, these talks culminated in the formation of Anak ng Bayan Youth Party (Kabataan Partylist) on June 19, 2001, coinciding with the birthday of José Rizal.[14] Anakbayan also campaigned against President Macapagal-Arroyo, forming Youth Dare or Youth Demanding Arroyo's Removal, a broad alliance that campaigned for the ouster of the president.[15]

Born out of criticisms against globalization and the effects of neoliberalism, specifically inspired by the 1999 Seattle WTO protests, Filipino students in Washington organized the first chapter of Anakbayan in the United States, Anakbayan-Seattle. Established on November 30, 2002, the Seattle chapter inspired other Filipino-American youth to form chapters which include New York-New Jersey, Chicago, Hawaii, Los Angeles, San Diego, Silicon Valley, and East Bay Area. Between 2011 and 2012, the New York-New Jersey chapters split into individual chapters. They are collectively grouped under Anakbayan-USA[10]

During 2012, Vencer Crisostomo, then-national chairperson, said the Noynoying poses reflected how Aquino had done nothing to cushion the impact of or prevent the increase in oil prices and tuition rates. He defined Noynoying as "when you do nothing when in fact you have something to do."[16]

In 2015, Anakbayan called for the resignation of President Benigno Aquino III. According to Crisostomo, "We no longer want a government ruled by a corrupt, liar, US puppet, haciendero brat. Game over na, Noynoy. Time to step down." Over a hundred other youth and student organizations have called for his resignation. On February 27, thousands of students in Manila and other cities staged a walk-out against tuition increases and other education issues. Specifically for state and local universities and colleges, Anakbayan expressed dissent against socialized tuition schemes, instead of free education. Students in Manila culminated in Mendiola.[8][17]

Duterte administrationEdit

 
A student protest by Anakbayan and other youth groups held on April 5, 2019, condemning martial law under President Duterte.
 
Youth groups, including Anakbayan participated in a protest demanding press freedom.
 
Youth Strike in front of Ateneo de Manila, November 17, 2020.

Anakbayan has been highly vocal against President Rodrigo Duterte.[18][19]

In 2017, Anakbayan said that protests lead to urge President Duterte to sign the law granting free education for public universities, citing as a victory for students, parents, and administrators.[20] Months after, however, they criticized the policy as a lie, saying that it became a way to rehash socialized tuition schemes for public universities and colleges.[21]

As groups staged a series protests from November 9–14, 2017 against the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Summit hosted by the Philippines and the visit of United States President Donald Trump.[22][23] a group of protesters led by Anakbayan managed to reached the gate of Philippine International Convention Center, despite tight security.[24]

On early 2018, Anakbayan was participative in "Black Friday Protests" due to the revocation of online news site Rappler by Securities and Exchange Commission, among other issues concerning press freedom.[25]

Following the shooting of 37-year-old priest Mark Ventura on April 29, 2018 Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines, Senator Francis Pangilinan, and Anakbayan condemned the murder of Ventura, with Anakbayan called it "a fascistic, tyrannical, and mafia-style rule" by the Duterte administration.[26]

On February 4, 2020, Anakbayan gathered in front of the Philippine General Hospital to protest the government's lack of action to prevent the coronavirus from spreading in the country.[27] Anakbayan also led online and physical protests, criticizing Duterte administration's response to the COVID-19 pandemic. This includes a Youth Strike that physically started on November 17, 2020, in which students from various universities gathered in front of Ateneo de Manila University, the school where the first petitioners of the strike study.[28][29] The concerns of the petitions include criticism on national government response of COVID-19, disaster response after Typhoon Ulysses, and the condition of education and studentry amidst the pandemic.[30]

Anakbayan was pointed to be involved in an alleged abduction of a young activist named Alicia Jasper Lucena. However, on September 15, 2020, the Supreme Court has junked the plea for protective writs filed by Francis and Relissa Lucena, the parents of Alicia Jasper, the alleged missing activist after it was found out that she was not missing after all.[31][32]

 
Vinz Simon, representing Anakbayan, speaking at the International Human Rights Day protest in Manila, December 10, 2020.

Especially under the administration of Duterte, Anakbayan has also been a subject of "redtagging", or linking the group to the Communist Party of the Philippines. Alex Danday, a former spokesperson, said that it is a way for the government to "discredit activism" and as a way to stifle student power.[7]

MembershipEdit

 
Relief work by national democratic organizations, December 2020.

Anakbayan is open to Filipino youth aged 13–35.[10] As a grassroots organization, Anakbayan goes into communities to hold activities such as alternative classes, forums, discussions, political education, integration among impoverished communities, relief operations, dialogue and engagement among government officials and other civic groups, and various forms of protest actions.[3][33] Panday Sining serves as the cultural arm of Anakbayan.[34]

As of 2019, Anakbayan has more than 20,000 members worldwide, found through chapters all around the Philippines and abroad.[33] Aside from its chapters in the United States, Anakbayan chapters are also present in other areas with Filipino diaspora, such as in Canada,[35] Europe,[36] Japan,[37] and Australia.[38]

ControversiesEdit

Alleged connections to the CPP-NPAEdit

Anakbayan, along with other allied organizations within the Bagong Alyansang Makabayan, has been accused of supporting—or being directly involved, with the Communist Party of the Philippines and its armed wing, the New People's Army. The organization has been tagged as being allegedly involved in recruitment in universities by the Philippine government.[39][40][41] Officials have accused Anakbayan as being part of the armed organization that aims to overthrow the government.[42] Anakbayan has repeatedly condemned these accusations, which they call a form of red-tagging.[43][44][45]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Flora, Noah (June 10, 2019). "In the Philippines, a Youth Movement Stands Between Duterte and Dictatorship" – via www.thenation.com.
  2. ^ "Tinig ng kabataang makabayan : opisyal na pahayagan ng Anakbayan". search.iisg.amsterdam.
  3. ^ a b Flora, Noah (2019-06-10). "In the Philippines, a Youth Movement Stands Between Duterte and Dictatorship". The Nation. ISSN 0027-8378. Retrieved 2020-11-29.
  4. ^ "ABOUT". ANAKBAYAN SILICON VALLEY. 2012-03-02. Retrieved 2020-11-29.
  5. ^ "Anakbayan: 'Missing' youth activist is free and safe". Rappler. Retrieved 2020-12-12.
  6. ^ "In the Philippines, a Youth Movement Stands Between Duterte and Dictatorship". The Nation. 2019-06-10.
  7. ^ a b "Women Youth Voices: Alex Danday believes in the voice of the youth". Preen.ph. 2019-08-21. Retrieved 2020-11-29.
  8. ^ a b Umil, Anne Marxze (2017-01-15). "Progressive youths to fight for 'free public education at all levels'". Bulatlat. Retrieved 2020-11-29.
  9. ^ "What Millennials Should Know About the Kabataang Makabayan". manilatoday.net. Retrieved 2020-11-29.
  10. ^ a b c "Anak Bayan USA". Retrieved 2020-11-29.
  11. ^ a b "Mula Tondo hanggang EDSA-Mendiola: Unang 3 taon ng Anakbayan (1998—2001)". like a rolling stone. 2015-11-29. Retrieved 2020-11-29.
  12. ^ "Grupo_com: OUST ERAP PRIMER". www.geocities.ws. Retrieved 2020-11-29.
  13. ^ "Comprehensive view of the history of Anakbayan and main lessons (19982010) Draft for the 6th National Congress of Anakbayan, May 2011" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 9, 2020. Retrieved November 30, 2020.
  14. ^ "Anak ng Bayan Youth Party". webcache.googleusercontent.com. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  15. ^ "Demanding Change", Making Revolution in Egypt, I.B.Tauris, 2018, doi:10.5040/9781350987081.ch-006, ISBN 978-1-78673-304-7, retrieved 2020-11-29
  16. ^ Gamil, Jaymee T. (2012-03-16). "Planking is out, 'Noynoying' is in". INQUIRER.net. Retrieved 2020-11-29.
  17. ^ Corrales, Nestor (2015-02-27). "Students join protest, call for resignation of President Aquino". INQUIRER.net. Retrieved 2020-11-29.
  18. ^ Flora, Noah (June 10, 2019). "In the Philippines, a Youth Movement Stands Between Duterte and Dictatorship". The Nation. Retrieved February 3, 2021.
  19. ^ "Expose Duterte's Tokhang-style harassment, conversion tactics against youth leaders and their families!". Facebook. January 17, 2021. Retrieved 2021-02-03.
  20. ^ BicolToday.com (2017-08-04). "Anakbayan statement on signing of free college education into law". BICOL TODAY. Retrieved 2020-11-29.
  21. ^ Umil, Anne Marxze (2017-04-25). "'Duterte's free tuition policy is a lie' – youth groups". Bulatlat. Retrieved 2020-11-29.
  22. ^ "Violence marks ASEAN 2017 protests in Manila". Rappler. Archived from the original on 2017-11-15.
  23. ^ "Schedule: Protest activities during ASEAN Summit 2017". Rappler. Archived from the original.
  24. ^ "Small group of ASEAN summit protesters reach PICC gate". Rappler.
  25. ^ "TV Patrol: 'Black Friday' protest at concert, isinagawa sa UP" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News — via YouTube.
  26. ^ "CBCP condemns murder of Cagayan priest Mark Ventura". Rappler. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  27. ^ "Kasalukuyang nagsasagawa ng protesta ang iba't ibang grupo sa harap ng Philippine General Hospital (PGH) para kondinahin ang kawalan ng malinaw na plano sa proteksyon ng mamamayan at matamlay na kilos ng gobyerno upang pigilan ang paglanap ng Novel Coronavirus (nCov)". Anakbayan (in Tagalog). Retrieved February 5, 2020 – via Facebook.
  28. ^ "Filipino students threaten to strike amid disaster fallout - UCA News". ucanews.com. Retrieved 2020-11-18.
  29. ^ @News5PH (November 20, 2020). "Mga kuha mula sa protesta ng ilang mga grupo sa harap ng Ateneo de Manila University kaninang hapon para manawagan ng accountability mula sa administrasyon ni Pres. Duterte dahil sa naging pagtugon nito sa mga nagdaang kalamidad" (Tweet). Retrieved November 25, 2020 – via Twitter.
  30. ^ "Ateneo students go on academic strike, slam gov't inaction during disasters, pandemic". Rappler. Retrieved 2020-11-18.
  31. ^ "Supreme Court junks petition accusing Anakbayan of coercing teenager". GMA News. September 18, 2020. Retrieved September 18, 2020.
  32. ^ "Not missing: SC junks protective writs plea by parents of "missing" activist". ABS CBN News. September 18, 2020. Retrieved September 18, 2020.
  33. ^ a b "Women Youth Voices: Alex Danday believes in the voice of the youth". August 21, 2019.
  34. ^ "Youth group sorry, but justifies Manila underpass vandalism". CNN Philippines.
  35. ^ "ANAKBAYAN-CANADA". ANAKBAYAN-CANADA. Retrieved 2020-11-29.
  36. ^ Irabon, Franklin (2020-09-11). "Hands Off Anakbayan-Europe!". Migrante Europe. Retrieved 2020-11-29.
  37. ^ "A Call to Strike!". Anakbayan Online. 2010-11-21. Retrieved 2020-11-29.
  38. ^ "An open letter to the Australian Government from the Philippine community and supporters in Australia". The Pen. 2019-04-22. Retrieved 2020-11-29.
  39. ^ Share; Twitter; Twitter; Twitter. "Anakbayan preys on young minds to join NPA, Cabinet exec says". www.pna.gov.ph. Retrieved 2021-02-03. {{cite web}}: |last2= has generic name (help)
  40. ^ "UST issues show-cause orders to 2 student activists for joining unrecognized organization". Manila Bulletin. 2021-01-24. Retrieved 2021-02-03.
  41. ^ Lalu, Gabriel Pabico (2021-01-19). "Rally set at UP Diliman after DND scraps 'no cops, no troops on campus' deal". INQUIRER.net. Retrieved 2021-02-03.
  42. ^ "Lawyers' group asks to junk petition vs. Anakbayan over alleged disappearance of student". cnn. Retrieved 2021-02-03.
  43. ^ Cabico, Gaea Katreena (April 3, 2018). "Youth group condemns 'red-tagging' of activists". Philippine Star. Retrieved February 3, 2021.
  44. ^ Umali, Justin (October 23, 2020). "Quezon groups denounce Parlade's red-tagging, harassment against human rights defenders". Bulatlat. Retrieved February 3, 2021.
  45. ^ Cutin, Monica (June 14, 2020). "Youth groups alarmed over latest red-tagging incident". Northern Dispatch. Retrieved February 3, 2021.