An Alpine Symphony
An Alpine Symphony (Eine Alpensinfonie), Op. 64, is a tone poem for large orchestra written by German composer Richard Strauss in 1915. It is one of Strauss's largest non-operatic works; the score calls for about 125 players and a typical performance usually lasts around 50 minutes. The program of An Alpine Symphony depicts the experiences of eleven hours (from daybreak just before dawn to the following nightfall) spent climbing an Alpine mountain.
|An Alpine Symphony|
|by Richard Strauss|
|Native name||Eine Alpensinfonie|
|Dedication||Count Nicolaus Seebach|
|Duration||About 50 minutes|
|Date||October 28, 1915|
Strauss's An Alpine Symphony was completed in 1915, eleven years after the completion of its immediate predecessor in the genre of the tone poem, Symphonia Domestica. In 1911, Strauss wrote that he was "torturing [himself] with a symphony – a job that, when all's said and done, amuses me even less than chasing cockroaches".
One point of influence comes from Strauss's love of nature. As a boy, Strauss experienced an Alpine adventure similar to the one described in his An Alpine Symphony: he and a group of climbers lost their way heading up a mountain and were caught in a storm and soaked on the way down. Strauss loved the mountains so much that in 1908 he built a home in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Bavaria, that boasted stunning views of the Alps. This interest in nature can also point to Strauss's followings of the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche.
The original drafts of An Alpine Symphony began in 1899. It was to be written in memory of the Swiss painter, Karl Stauffer-Bern, and the work was originally titled Künstlertragödie (Tragedy of an Artist). This fell by the wayside, but Strauss began a new four-movement work called Die Alpen (The Alps) in which he used parts of the original 1899 draft. The first movement of Die Alpen evolved into the core of An Alpine Symphony. Sketches were made, but Strauss eventually left the work unfinished.
Years later, upon the death of his good friend Gustav Mahler in 1911, Strauss decided to revisit the work. In his journal the day after he learned of Mahler's death, Strauss wrote:
- The death of this aspiring, idealistic, energetic artist [is] a grave loss ... Mahler, the Jew, could achieve elevation in Christianity. As an old man the hero Wagner returned to it under the influence of Schopenhauer. It is clear to me that the German nation will achieve new creative energy only by liberating itself from Christianity ... I shall call my alpine symphony: Der Antichrist, since it represents: moral purification through one's own strength, liberation through work, worship of eternal, magnificent nature.
The resulting draft of the work was to be a two-part work titled Der Antichrist: Eine Alpensinfonie; however, Strauss never finished the second part. Instead, he dropped the first half of the title (named after an 1888 book by Nietzsche) and called his single-movement work simply An Alpine Symphony. After so many years of intermittent composition, once Strauss began work on the piece in earnest the progress was quick. Strauss even went so far as to remark that he composed An Alpine Symphony "just as a cow gives milk". Orchestration for the work began on November 1, 1914, and was completed by the composer only three months later. In reference to this, his final purely symphonic work, Strauss famously commented at the dress rehearsal for An Alpine Symphony's premiere that at last he had learned to orchestrate. The entire work was finished on February 8, 1915. The score was dedicated "in profound gratitude" to Count Nicolaus Seebach, director of the Royal Opera in Dresden, where four of the six operas Strauss had written by that time had been premiered.
Scoring and structureEdit
An Alpine Symphony is scored for a large orchestra consisting of:
Strauss further suggested that the harps and some woodwind instruments should be doubled if possible and indicated that the stated number of string players should be regarded as a minimum.
The use of "Samuel's Aerophon" is suggested in the instrumentation listing. (Strauss probably misunderstood the name – it was originally called the Aerophor.) This long-extinct device, invented by Dutch flautist Bernard Samuels in 1911 to assist wind players in sustaining long notes without interruption, was a foot-pump with an air-hose stretching to the player's mouth. However, modern wind players make use of the technique of circular breathing, whereby it is possible to inhale through the nose while still sustaining the sound by matching the blowing pressure in the mouth.
Another oddity with the scoring is that the part written for the heckelphone goes down to F2, while the lowest note the heckelphone can play is A2. Attempts to address this issue have led to the invention of the lupophone.
Although performed as one continuous movement, An Alpine Symphony has a distinct program which describes each phase of the Alpine journey in chronological order. The score includes the following section titles (not numbered in the score):
- Nacht (Night)
- Sonnenaufgang (Sunrise)
- Der Anstieg (The Ascent)
- Eintritt in den Wald (Entry into the Forest)
- Wanderung neben dem Bache (Wandering by the Brook)
- Am Wasserfall (At the Waterfall)
- Erscheinung (Apparition)
- Auf blumigen Wiesen (On Flowering Meadows)
- Auf der Alm (On the Alpine Pasture)
- Durch Dickicht und Gestrüpp auf Irrwegen (Through Thickets and Undergrowth on the Wrong Path)
- Auf dem Gletscher (On the Glacier)
- Gefahrvolle Augenblicke (Dangerous Moments)
- Auf dem Gipfel (On the Summit)
- Vision (Vision)
- Nebel steigen auf (Mists Rise)
- Die Sonne verdüstert sich allmählich (The Sun Gradually Becomes Obscured)
- Elegie (Elegy)
- Stille vor dem Sturm (Calm Before the Storm)
- Gewitter und Sturm, Abstieg (Thunder and Tempest, Descent)
- Sonnenuntergang (Sunset)
- Ausklang (Quiet Settles)
- Nacht (Night)
In terms of formal analysis, attempts have been made to group these sections together to form a "gigantic Lisztian symphonic form, with elements of an introduction, opening allegro, scherzo, slow movement, finale, and epilogue." In general, however, it is believed that comparisons to any kind of traditional symphonic form are secondary to the strong sense of structure created by the piece's musical pictorialism and detailed narrative.
Themes, form, and analysisEdit
Though labelled as a symphony by the composer, An Alpine Symphony is rather a tone poem as it forgoes the conventions of the traditional multi-movement symphony and consists of twenty-two continuous sections of music. Strauss's An Alpine Symphony opens on a unison B♭ in the strings, horns, and lower woodwinds. From this note, a dark B♭ minor scale slowly descends. Each new note is sustained until, eventually, every degree of the scale is heard simultaneously, creating an "opaque mass" of tone representing the deep, mysterious night on the mountain. Trombones and tuba emerge from this wash of sound to solemnly declaim the mountain theme, a majestic motive which recurs often in later sections of the piece.
This passage is a rare instance of Strauss's use of polytonality, as the shifting harmony in the middle part of the mountain theme (which includes a D minor triad) clashes intensely with the sustained notes of the B♭ minor scale.
As night gives way to daylight in "Sunrise", the theme of the sun is heard—a glorious descending A major scale which is thematically related to the opening scale depicting night time. A secondary theme characterized by a tied triplet figure and featured numerously in the first half of the piece appears immediately afterwards and fully establishes itself 7 measures later in D♭ major (the relative major of B♭ minor).
In terms of form, the section labelled "The Ascent" can be seen as the end of An Alpine Symphony's slow introduction and beginning of the work's allegro proper. Harmonically, this passage moves away from the dark B♭ minor of the opening and firmly establishes the key of E♭ major. It is in "The Ascent" that Strauss presents two more main musical motives which will prominently return throughout the entire piece. The first is a marching theme full of dotted rhythms which is presented in the lower strings and harp, the shape of which actually suggests the physical act of climbing through the use of large upwards leaps.
It is just after the appearance of this second climbing motive that we hear the distant sounds of a hunting party, deftly represented by Strauss through the use of an offstage band of twelve horns, two trumpets, and two trombones. As Norman Del Mar points out, "the fanfares are wholly non-motivic and neither the hunting horns nor their phrases are heard again throughout the work". The use of unique musical motives and instrumentation in this passage reinforces the idea of distance created by the offstage placement—these sounds belong to a party of people on an entirely different journey.
Upon entering the wood there is an abrupt change of texture and mood—the "instrumental tones deepen as thick foliage obscures the sunlight". A new meandering theme is presented by the horns and trombones followed by a more relaxed version of the marching theme. Birdcalls are heard in the upper woodwinds and a solo string quartet leads the transition into the next musical section.
The following portion of the piece can be interpreted as a large development-like section which encompasses several different phases of the climb. In "Wandering by the Brook", there is an increasing sense of energy—rushing passage-work gives way to cascading scale figures in the winds and strings and marks the beginning of the section which takes place "At the Waterfall". The brilliant, glittering instrumental writing in this passage makes it one of the most "vividly specific" moments of tone painting within An Alpine Symphony.
The later section "On Flowering Meadows" also makes extensive use of orchestral pictorialism—the meadow is suggested by a gentle backdrop of high string chords, the marching theme is heard softly in the cellos, and isolated points of color (short notes in the winds, harp, and pizzicato in the violas, representing small Alpine flowers) dot the landscape. In this section, a wavy motif in the strings appears and will feature more prominently at the summit as a majestic dotted rhythm.
In the following section, which takes place "On the Alpine Pasture", the use of cowbells, bird calls, a yodeling motive first heard on the English horn, and even the bleating of sheep (depicted through flutter tonguing in the oboe and E♭ clarinet) creates both a strong visual and aural image. The first horn and top strings introduce another secondary figure similar to the secondary motif during "sunrise", a secondary rhythm to be featured at the summit.
As the climbers move along the going gets a bit rougher, however, and in "Dangerous Moments" the idea of insecurity and peril is cleverly suggested by the fragmentary nature of the texture and the use of the pointed second climbing theme.
Suddenly, we are "On the Summit" as four trombones present a theme known as "the peak motive", the shape of which (with its powerful upward leaps of fourths and fifths) is reminiscent of Strauss's famous opening to Also Sprach Zarathustra. This passage is the centerpiece of the score, and after a solo oboe stammers out a hesitant melody the section gradually builds up using a succession of themes heard previously in the piece, finally culminating in what Del Mar calls the "long-awaited emotional climax of the symphony": a recapitulation of the sun theme, now gloriously proclaimed in C major.
With a sudden switch of tonality to F♯ major, however, the piece is propelled into the next section, entitled "Vision." This is a somewhat developmental passage which gradually incorporates several of the main musical subjects of the symphony together and which is composed of unstable, shifting harmonies. It is during this portion of the piece that the organ first enters, adding even more depth to Strauss's already enormous performing forces. With the declamation of the mountain motive in the original key of B♭ minor by the full brass section at the end of this passage, Del Mar believes "the sense of fulfilment is complete, the recapitulation has begun, and the structure of the symphony has, in Bruckner-like manner, found its logical climax."
Just after this musical climax, however, there is an abrupt shift of mood and character as the section titled "Mists Rise" begins. This atmosphere of tension and anxiety continues to grow through the next two sections ("The Sun Gradually Becomes Obscured" and "Elegy"). By the time the piece reaches the "Calm Before the Storm", a combination of a motif heard during the Elegy and the stammering oboe motive heard previously at the peak is repeated ominously and quietly in a minor key.
In this section, an ominous drum roll, stammering instruments, isolated raindrops (short notes in the upper woodwinds and pizzicato in the violins), flashes of lightning (in the piccolo), the use of a wind machine, and suggestions of darkness (through the use of a descending scale motive reminiscent of the opening "Night" theme) lead the piece into the full fury of the storm.
"Thunder and Tempest, Descent" marks the start of the last phase of the journey described in An Alpine Symphony. It is in this passage that Strauss calls for the largest instrumentation in the entire piece, including the use of a thunder machine (Donnermaschine) and heavy use of organ. In modern performances, these storm sounds can be supplemented with synthesized sound effects to create an even more tremendous effect. As the sodden climbers quickly retrace their steps down the mountain and pass through one familiar scene after another, many of the musical ideas introduced earlier in the piece are heard once again, though this time in reverse order, at a very quick pace, and in combination with the raging fury of the tempest.
Eventually, however, the musical storm begins to subside. The heavy, driving rain is replaced once again by isolated drops in the woodwinds and pizzicato strings, the mountain theme is proclaimed by the brass in the original key of B♭ minor, and the piece is gradually ushered into a beautiful "Sunset". It is here that some believe the symphony's "coda" begins—rather than present any new musical material, these last three sections are full of "wistful nostalgia" for the beautiful moments earlier in the piece.
In "Sunset", the established sun theme is given a slow, spacious treatment, eventually reaching a radiant climax which dies away into "Ausklang (Quiet Settles)". This section, marked to be played "in gentle ecstasy", parallels the earlier "Vision" section, but with a much softer, more peaceful character. Eventually, the harmony moves from the E♭ major established in "Ausklang" (a key which parallels that of "The Ascent", the start of An Alpine Symphony's "exposition") back to the darkness and mystery of B♭ minor. In these shadowy final moments of the piece, the sustained descending scale from the opening "Night" is heard once more, reaching a depth of six full octaves. As the brass emerge from the sound to deeply proclaim the mountain theme one final time, it is almost as if "the giant outlines of the noble mass can just be discerned in the gloom". In the final few measures, the violins play a slow, haunting variation of the marching theme, ending with a final, dying glissando to the last note.
Premiere and receptionEdit
An Alpine Symphony was premiered on October 28, 1915, with Strauss conducting the orchestra of the Dresden Hofkapelle in Berlin. The performance provoked mixed reactions. Some even called it "cinema music". Strauss was happy with how this piece turned out, however, and wrote to a friend in 1915 that "you must hear the Alpine Symphony on December 5; it really is quite a good piece!"
It is generally believed that the American premiere of An Alpine Symphony was performed by Ernst Kunwald leading the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra on 25 April 1916. Kunwald and certain "influential Cincinnatians" had taken great pains to get the piece from wartime Germany and to be the first orchestra to perform Strauss's new work in America. As a result, An Alpine Symphony had originally been scheduled to be premiered in Cincinnati on 4 May of that year. However, when Leopold Stokowski suddenly announced that he would premiere the work with the Philadelphia Orchestra on 28 April, Kunwald and the Cincinnati Orchestra immediately began preparation of the piece. On 25 April, the orchestra was finally able to rehearse An Alpine Symphony all the way through at a rehearsal in Cincinnati and, two days later, sent word to local papers inviting patrons to a performance of the piece that very day at noon. Ultimately, two thousand people attended this unofficial American premiere of the work. This premiere took place a little over 24 hours before the Philadelphia performance.
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Oskar Fried recorded the work in 1925 with the Berlin State Opera Orchestra. Strauss himself conducted the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra in the work's next recording, in 1936. His more ambitious 1941 recording, with the Bavarian State Orchestra, utilized the full orchestral forces called for by the score and was later issued on LP and CD.
Due to the wide dynamic range of the music, the symphony became very popular for high fidelity and stereophonic recordings. The first test pressing of a compact disc was of An Alpine Symphony.
|Oskar Fried||Staatskapelle Berlin||1925||Music & Arts||MACD1167|
|Richard Strauss||Munich Radio Symphony Orchestra||1936||Music & Arts||MACD1057|
|Karl Böhm||Berlin Radio Symphony Orchestra||1939|||
|Richard Strauss||Bavarian State Orchestra||1941||Preiser Records||90205|
|Dimitri Mitropoulis||New York Philharmonic-Symphony Orchestra||1947||Music & Arts||CD-1213|
|Hans Knappertsbusch||Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra||1952||Altus||ALT 074|
|Franz Konwitschny||Orchestra of the Munich State Opera||1952||Urania||URN22.247+|
|Carl Schuricht||Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra||1955||Hänssler Classic||CD 93.151|
|Dimitri Mitropoulos||Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra||1956||Orfeo||C 586 021 B|
|Karl Böhm||Staatskapelle Dresden||1957||Deutsche Grammophon||463190|
|Evgeny Svetlanov||USSR Symphony Orchestra||1962||Melodiya||(LP only)|
|Yevgeny Mravinsky||Leningrad Philharmonic Orchestra||1964||Melodiya||74321294032|
|Rudolf Kempe||Royal Philharmonic Orchestra||1966||RCA/Testament||SBT 1428|
|Yuzo Toyama||NKH Symphony Orchestra||1966||Naxos||NYNN-0020|
|Rudolf Kempe||Staatskapelle Dresden||1971||EMI Classics||64350|
|Zubin Mehta||Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra||1975||Decca||470954|
|Georg Solti||Symphonieorchester des Bayerischen Rundfunks||1979||Decca||4406182|
|Herbert von Karajan||Berliner Philharmoniker||1980||Deutsche Grammophon||439017|
|Andrew Davis||London Philharmonic Orchestra||1981||Sony||SBK61693|
|Norman Del Mar||BBC Symphony Orchestra||1982||IMP||15656 91572|
|André Previn||Philadelphia Orchestra||1983||EMI||72435741162|
|Pierre Bartholomée||Orchestre philharmonique de Liège||1983||Cypres||CYP7650-12|
|Kurt Masur||Gewandhausorchester Leipzig||1983||Decca||446 101-2|
|Herbert von Karajan||Berliner Philharmoniker (DVD)||1983||Sony||88697195429|
|Bernard Haitink||Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra||1985||Philips||416 156-2|
|Neeme Järvi||Royal Scottish National Orchestra||1986||Chandos||CHAN 8557|
|Vladimir Ashkenazy||Cleveland Orchestra||1988||Decca||4251122|
|Herbert Blomstedt||San Francisco Symphony||1988||Decca||421815|
|Horst Stein||Bamberg Symphony Orchestra||1988||Eurodisc||69012-2-RG|
|Edo de Waart||Minnesota Orchestra||1989||Virgin Classics||7234 5 61460 2 0|
|André Previn||Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra||1990||Telarc||80211|
|Zubin Mehta||Berliner Philharmoniker||1989||Sony||SMK 60030|
|Takashi Asahina||NDR Symphony Orchestra||1990||NDR Klassik||NDR10152|
|Rafael Frühbeck de Burgos||London Symphony Orchestra||1990|||
|Mariss Jansons||BBC Welsh Symphony Orchestra||1991||BBC Music Magazine||Vol.1 no.5|
|James Judd||European Community Youth Orchestra||1991||Regis||RRC1055|
|Daniel Barenboim||Chicago Symphony Orchestra||1992||Warner Elatus||097749837 2|
|Giuseppe Sinopoli||Staatskapelle Dresden (Also on DVD)||1993||Deutsche Grammophon||439- 899-2|
|Zdeněk Košler||Czech Philharmonic Orchestra||1994||Supraphon||SU0005-2 031|
|Choo Hoey||Singapore Symphony Orchestra||1994||DW Labs|||
|Friedrich Haider||Göteborgs Symfoniker||1995||Nightingale Classics||NC 261864-2|
|Emil Tabakov||Sofia Philharmonic Orchestra||1996||Laserlight Classics||24 418/2|
|Seiji Ozawa||Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra||1996||Philips||454 448-2|
|Rafael Frühbeck de Burgos||Vienna Symphony Orchestra||1996||Calig||CAL 50981|
|Marek Janowski||Orchestre Philharmonique de Radio France||1997||Radio France||CMX378081.84|
|Takashi Asahina||Osaka Philharmonic Orchestra||1997||Canyon Classics||PCCL-00540|
|Andreas Delfs||Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra||1998|||
|Lorin Maazel||Symphonieorchester des Bayerischen Rundfunks||1998||RCA||74321 57128 2|
|Vladimir Ashkenazy||Czech Philharmonic Orchestra||1999||Ondine||ODE 976-2|
|Hartmut Haenchen||Netherlands Philharmonic Orchestra||1999||Brilliant Classics||6366/3|
|Kazimierz Kord||Warsaw Philharmonic||2000||Accord||ACD 073-2|
|Christian Thielemann||Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra||2000||Deutsche Grammophon||469519|
|David Zinman||Zurich Tonhalle Orchestra (Also on DVD)||2002||Arte Nova Classics||74321 92779 2|
|Gerard Schwarz||Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra||2003||RLPO Live||RLCD401P|
|Andrew Litton||National Youth Orchestra of Great Britain||2004||Kevin Mayhew||1490160|
|Eliahu Inbal||Orchestre de la Suisse Romande||2005||Denon||COCO-70763|
|Gabriel Feltz||Philharmonisches Orchester des Theaters Altenburg-Gera||2005|
|Franz Welser-Möst||Gustav Mahler Jugendorchester||2005||Warner Classics||3345692|
|Markus Stenz||Ensemble Modern Orchestra||2005||Ensemble Modern Medien||EMCD-003|
|Antoni Wit||Staatskapelle Weimar||2006||Naxos||8.557811|
|Rafael Frühbeck de Burgos||Dresdner Philharmonie||2006||Genuin||GEN 86074|
|Kent Nagano||Deutsches Symphonie-Orchester Berlin (DVD)||2006||Arthaus Musik||101 437|
|Mariss Jansons||Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra||2007||RCO Live||RCO08006|
|Jonas Alber||Brunswick State Orchestra||2007||Coviato||COV 30705|
|Marin Alsop||Baltimore Symphony Orchestra||2007|||
|Rico Saccani||Budapest Symphony Orchestra||2007||BPO Live|
|Neeme Järvi||Residente Orchestra The Hague||2008||Video Artists International||4411|
|Fabio Luisi||Staatskapelle Dresden||2009||Sony||88697558392|
|Marek Janowski||Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra||2009||Pentatone Classics||PTC5186339|
|Philippe Jordan||Orchestre de l'Opéra National de Paris||2009||Naive||V 5233|
|Bernard Haitink||London Symphony Orchestra||2009||LSO Live||LSO0689|
|Semyon Bychkov||WDR Sinfonieorchester||2007||Profil Medien||PH09065|
|Marcello Rota||Czech National Symphony Orchestra||2009||Victor||VICC-6|
|Roman Brogli-Sacher||Philharmonisches Orchester Der Hansedtadt Lübeck||2010||Klassic Center||M 56937|
|Andris Nelsons||City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra||2010||Orfeo||C 833 111 A|
|Charles Dutoit||Philadelphia Orchestra||2010||Philadelphia Orchestra|
|Franz Welser-Möst||Symphonieorchester des Bayerischen Rundfunks||2010||BR Klassik||900905|
|Edo de Waart||Royal Flemish Philharmonic Orchestra||2010||RFP Live||RFP001|
|Gustav Kuhn||Orchester der Tiroler Festspiele Erl||2010||Col Legno||WWE 1CD 60022|
|Kurt Masur||Orchestre National de France||2010||Radio France||FRF005|
|Christian Thielemann||Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra (DVD/Blu-ray)||2011||Opus Arte||OA BD 7101D|
|Frank Shipway||Sao Paolo Symphony Orchestra||2012||BIS||BIS1950|
|Vladimir Jurowski||London Philharmonic Orchestra||2012||London Philharmonic Orchestra||LPO-0106|
|Leon Botstein||American Symphony Orchestra||2012||American Symphony Orchestra||ASO251|
|Jakub Hrůša||Tokyo Metropolitan Symphony Orchestra||2013||Exton||OVCL-00534|
|Rafael Frühbeck de Burgos||Danish National Symphony Orchestra (DVD/Blu-ray)||2014||DRS||2110433-35BD|
|Toshiro Ozawa||Kanagawa University Symphonic Band||2014||Kafua||CACD-0219|
|Daniel Harding||Saito Kinen Orchestra||2014||Decca||4786422|
|Christian Thielemann||Staatskapelle Dresden||2014||Unitel Classica||726504|
|François-Xavier Roth||SWR Sinfonieorchester Baden-Banden und Freiburg||2014||SWR Music||CD93.335|
|Michael Seal||City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra Youth Orchestra||2015|||
|Kent Nagano||Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra||2016||Farao||B108091|
|Semyon Bychkov||BBC Symphony Orchestra||2016||BBC Music Magazine||Vol.25 no.10|
|Andrew Davis||Melbourne Symphony Orchestra||2016||ABC Classics||ABC 481 6754|
|Mariss Jansons||Symphonieorchester des Bayerischen Rundfunks||2016||BR Klassik||900148|
|Thomas Dausgaard||Seattle Symphony Orchestra||2017||Seattle Symphony Media||SSM1023|
|James Judd||European Union Youth Orchestra||2017||Alto||ALC1346|
|Jung-Ho Pak||Texas All-State Symphonic Orchestra||2018||Mark Recordings|||
|Andrés Orozco-Estrada||Frankfurt Radio Symphony Orchestra||2018||Pentatone||PTC5186628|
|Vasily Petrenko||Oslo Philharmonic Orchestra||2017||LAWO||LWC1192|
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The first test CD was Richard Strauss's Eine Alpensinfonie, and the first CD actually pressed at a factory was ABBA's The Visitors, but that disc wasn't released commercially until later.
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- Richard Strauss online
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