In Buddhism, an anāgāmin (Sanskrit; Pāli: anāgāmī, lit. "non-returning") is a partially enlightened person who has cut off the first five chains that bind the ordinary mind. Anāgāmins are the third of the four aspirants.
|Chinese||不還 or 阿那含 |
(Pinyin: bùhuán or Ānàhán)
|Japanese||不還 or 阿那含 |
(rōmaji: fugen or anagon)
|Korean||불환 or 아나함 |
(RR: bulhwan or anaham)
Wylie: phyir mi 'ong ba
THL: chir mi ongwa
|Vietnamese||Bất hoàn or A-na-hàm|
|Glossary of Buddhism|
Requisites for becoming an anāgāminEdit
An anāgāmin is free from the lowest five chains or fetters (Sanskrit: pañcāvarabhāgīya-saṃyojana; Pali: pañcorambhāgiyāni-saṃyojanāni; 五下分結) which are as follows:
- Belief in ātman or self (Sanskrit: satkāya-dṛṣṭi or svakāya-dṛṣṭi; Pāli: sakkāya-diṭṭhi; 有身見)
- Attachment to rites and rituals (Sanskrit: śīlavrata-parāmarśa-dṛṣṭi; Pāli: sīlabbata-parāmāsa-diṭṭhi; 戒禁取見)
- Skeptical doubt (Sanskrit: vicikitsā; Pali: vicikicchā; 疑)
- Sensuous craving (kāmarāga; 欲貪)
- Ill will or aversion (vyāpāda or byāpāda; 瞋恚)
The remaining five higher fetters (Sanskrit: pañca-ūrdhvabhāgiya-saṃyojana; Pali: pañcuddhambhāgiyāni-saṃyojanāni; 五上分結) from which an anāgāmin is not yet free are:
- Craving for fine-material existence (the first 4 jhanas) (rūparāga; 色貪)
- Craving for immaterial existence (the last 4 jhanas) (arūparāga; 無色貪)
- Conceit or pride (māna; 慢)
- Restlessness (Sanskrit: auddhatya; Pali: uddhacca; 掉挙)
- Ignorance (Sanskrit: avidyā; Pali: avijjā; 無明)
Kāmarāga and vyāpāda, which they are free from, can also be interpreted as craving for becoming and non-becoming, respectively.
Five types of anāgāminEdit
The Pali Puggalapannatti and the Sanskrit texts Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra and the Sarvāstivādin-Vaibhaṣika Abhidharma both describe five classes of anāgāmin. When an anāgāmin is reborn in the Pure Abodes, one of the five following scenarios will occur:
- He will attain arhatship immediately after rebirth or within the first half of his life in the Pure Abodes. Such a being is called "one who reaches Nibbāna within the first half of the life" (Sanskrit: antarāparinirvāyin; Pali: antarā-parinibbāyī).
- He will attain arhatship within the latter half of his life in the Pure Abodes or at the moment of death. Such a being is called "one who reaches Nibbāna after crossing half the life-time" (Sanskrit: upapadyaparinirvāyin; Pali: upahacca-parinibbāyī).
- He exerts himself to the point of attaining arhatship. Such a being is called "one who reaches Nibbāna with exertion" (Sanskrit: sābhisaṃskāraparinirvāyin; Pali: sasankhāra-parinibbāyī).
- He does not exert himself, yet attains arhatship. Such a being is called "one who reaches Nibbāna without exertion" (Sanskrit: anabhisaṃskāraparinirvāyin; Pali: asankhāra-parinibbāyī).
- He traverses the five heavens of the Pure Abodes in order from lowest to highest before attaining arhatship. Such a being is called "one who passes up-stream to the highest gods" (Sanskrit: ūrdhvasrotas; Pali: uddhamsota-akanittha-gāmī)."
Anāgāmins in literatureEdit
Several figures who appear in the literature achieve the state of an anāgāmin. Some of these people include:
- Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), pp. 31, 95, entries for "Anāgāmin" (retrieved 17 November 2018 at https://dsalsrv04.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/app/pali_query.py?qs=An%C4%81g%C4%81min&searchhws=yes) and "Āgāmin" (at https://dsalsrv04.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/app/pali_query.py?qs=%C4%80g%C4%81min&searchhws=yes).
- "Byāpāda". Pali Text Society Pali-English Dictionary. Retrieved November 17, 2018.
- "Anagamin, aka: Anāgāmin, Anāgamin; 4 Definition(s)". Wisdom Library. 2019-08-24. Retrieved 2019-10-25.
- "Anāgāmī". Buddhist Dictionary of Pali Proper Names. Retrieved 2019-10-25.
- Buswell Jr, Robert E.; Lopez Jr., Donald S. (2013). The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9781400848058.
- Mingun Sayadaw (1990). "40". The Great Chronicle of Buddhas. Myanmar: Tipitaka Nikaya Sasana Organization.
- Tin, Daw Mya (2019). The Dhammapada: Verses & Stories. Pariyatti Publishing. ISBN 9781681721200.
- Karashima, Seishi; Vorobyova-Desyatovskaya, Margarita I., eds. (2015). "The Avadāna Anthology from Merv, Turkmenistan" (PDF). Buddhist Manuscripts from Central Asia: The St. Petersburg Sanskrit Fragments (STPSF). Tokyo: The Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Russian Academy of Sciences; The International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology; Soka University. 1. Retrieved 2019-10-25.
- Thomas Rhys Davids & William Stede (eds.) (1921-5). The Pali Text Society’s Pali–English Dictionary. Chipstead: Pali Text Society. A general on-line search engine for the PED is available at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/pali/.
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