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Ammonium hydrosulfide

Ammonium hydrosulfide is the chemical compound with the formula (NH4)HS.

Ammonium hydrosulfide
Ammonium-2D.svg
Hydrogen sulfide ion.svg
Names
IUPAC name
ammonium hydrosulfide
Other names
ammonium bisulfide
ammonium hydrogen sulfide
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.031.974
EC Number 235-184-3
RTECS number BS4900000
UNII
UN number 2683
Properties
(NH4)HS
Molar mass 51.111 g/mol
Appearance Yellow-orange fuming liquid.
Density 1.17 g/cm3[1]
Boiling point 56.6 °C (133.9 °F; 329.8 K)
Miscible
Solubility soluble in alcohol, liquid ammonia, liquid hydrogen sulfide; insoluble in benzene, hexane and ether
1.74
Hazards
Main hazards Toxic
GHS pictograms The corrosion pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)The environment pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
GHS signal word Danger
H314, H400.
P260, P264, P273, P280, P301+330+331, P303+361+353, P304+340, P305+351+338, P310, P321, P363, P391, P405, P501
NFPA 704
Flammability code 3: Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions. Flash point between 23 and 38 °C (73 and 100 °F). E.g., gasolineHealth code 3: Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. E.g., chlorine gasReactivity (yellow): no hazard codeSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
3
3
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
168 mg/kg (rat, oral)[2]
Related compounds
Other anions
Ammonia solution
Other cations
Sodium hydrosulfide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Contents

CompositionEdit

It is the salt derived from the ammonium cation and the hydrosulfide anion. The salt exists as colourless, water-soluble, micaceous crystals. On Earth the compound is encountered mainly as a solution, not as the solid, but NH4SH ice is believed to be a substantial component of the cloud decks of the gas-giant planets Jupiter and Saturn, with sulfur produced by its photolysis responsible for the color of some of those planets' clouds. It can be generated by mixing hydrogen sulfide and ammonia.

PreparationEdit

Solutions of ammonium hydrosulfide can be prepared by passing hydrogen sulfide gas through concentrated ammonia solution.[3] According to a detailed 1895 report, hydrogen sulfide reacts with concentrated aqueous ammonia solution at room temperature to give (NH4)2S·2NH4HS. When this species is cooled to 0 °C and treated with additional hydrogen sulfide, one obtains (NH4)2S·12NH4HS.[4] An ice-cold solution of this substance kept at 0 °C and having hydrogen sulfide continually passed through it gives the hydrosulfide.

The common "stink bomb" consists of an aqueous solution of ammonium sulfide. The mixture easily converts to ammonia and hydrogen sulfide gases. This conversion illustrates the ease of the following equilibrium:

(NH4)SH⇌ NH3 + H2S

Both ammonia and hydrogen sulfide have a powerful and unpleasant smell.

"Ammonium sulfide"Edit

Aqueous solutions of ammonium sulfide (CAS registry number 12135-76-1), also known as diammonium sulfide are commercially available, although the composition of these solutions is uncertain as they could consist of a mixture of ammonia and (NH4)SH. Ammonium sulfide solutions are used occasionally in photographic developing, to apply patina to bronze, and in textile manufacturing. Also, due to its offensive smell, it is the active ingredient in a variety of pranks including the common stink bomb. It can be used as a selective reducing agent (cf Clonitazene), where there are two nitro groups only one of them is selectively reduced.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Pradyot Patnaik. Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. McGraw-Hill, 2002, ISBN 0-07-049439-8
  2. ^ Record of ammonium hydrosulfide in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, accessed on October 22, 2010.
  3. ^ Goodman, J. T.; Rauchfuss, T. B. (2002). "Tetraethylammonium-tetrathioperrhenate [Et4N][ReS4]". Inorganic Syntheses. 33: 107–110. doi:10.1002/0471224502.ch2.
  4. ^ W. P. Bloxam (1895). "The Sulphides and Polysulphides of Ammonium". J. Chem. Soc., Trans. 67: 283. doi:10.1039/CT8956700277.