Amherst, Nova Scotia
Amherst (// AM-urst) is a town in northwestern Nova Scotia, Canada. Amherst is located at the northeast end of the Cumberland Basin, an arm of the Bay of Fundy, at 22 km south of the Northumberland Strait. Amherst is situated on the eastern boundary of the Tantramar Marshes 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) east of the interprovincial border with New Brunswick and 65 kilometres (40 mi) southeast of the city of Moncton. It is 60 kilometres (37 mi) southwest of the New Brunswick abutment of the Confederation Bridge to Prince Edward Island at Cape Jourimain. Amherst is the county seat and largest population centre in the Cumberland region.
Downtown Amherst, Nova Scotia in the morning
|Incorporated||December 18, 1889|
|• Mayor||David Kogon|
|• Deputy Mayor||Sheila Christie|
|• MLA||Elizabeth Smith-McCrossin PC Party of Nova Scotia|
|• MP||Bill Casey (Liberal)|
|• Land||12.07 km2 (4.66 sq mi)|
|• Urban||12.38 km2 (4.78 sq mi)|
|Elevation||22.11 m (72.54 ft)|
|• Density||779.7/km2 (2,019/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||770/km2 (2,000/sq mi)|
|• Change 2011-16||3.1%|
|• Census Ranking||401 of 5,162|
|Time zone||UTC−4 (AST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−3 (ADT)|
|Access Routes |
Hwy 104 (TCH)
|Median Income*||$36,539 CAD|
According to Dr. Graham P. Hennessey, "The Micmac name was Nemcheboogwek meaning 'going up rising ground', in reference to the higher land to the east of the Tantramar Marshes. The Acadians who settled here as early as 1672 called the village Les Planches. The village was later renamed Amherst by Colonel Joseph Morse in honour of Lord Amherst, the commander-in-chief of the British Army in North America during the Seven Years' War."
The town was first settled in 1764 by immigrants from Yorkshire following the expulsion of the Acadians, with the original settlement being located 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) southwest of the present town on the shore of the Bay of Fundy. These settlers were joined by United Empire Loyalists (Loyalists who fled the American colonies during the American Revolution). A mill was built on the current townsite, and the residents moved there to be closer to work.
During the 19th century, Amherst became an important regional centre for shipbuilding and other services to outlying communities. An indication of the town's importance in Canadian history is seen with its four Fathers of Confederation: Edward B. Chandler, Robert B. Dickey, Jonathan McCully, and Sir Charles Tupper.
During the late 19th century, local industrialists and entrepreneurs constructed many fine Victorian and Edwardian homes along Victoria Street East, leading toward the farming hamlet of East Amherst. Many notable residents have lived in this district, including Tupper, Senator Thomas R. Black, the Barker Family, the Lamy Family, the Pugsley Family and Mary (Molly) Simmons Critchley.
Amherst gained brief notoriety in the late 19th century as the location of alleged poltergeist phenomena afflicting Amherst resident Esther Cox in 1878 and 1879, which became known as the Great Amherst Mystery after the publication of a popular book on the affair.
Amherst experienced unprecedented industrialization in the late 1870s after the Intercolonial Railway of Canada constructed its main line from Halifax to Quebec through the town in 1872. The location of the railway line away from the Bay of Fundy coast further consolidated the town at its present location as industry and commercial activity centred around this important transportation link. The economic boom created by the arrival of the Intercolonial Railway lasted through World War I and numerous foundries, factories and mills opened, giving rise to the nickname "Busy Amherst".
In 1908, the manufacturing output of Amherst's industries was not exceeded by any centre in the Maritime Provinces. Many of the fine old buildings along Victoria Street are considered industrial artifacts because they were constructed during a period of tremendous industry growth. Local contractors employed local craftsmen, who used local materials. Notice the emphasis on sandstone and brick, both locally produced and delightful detail which reflects the skilled craftsmanship prevalent in the 19th century.
Amherst's prosperity would not last as the failed economic policies of the federal and provincial governments, coupled with World War I, saw the town's industrial economy begin a slow decline during the 1910s. A prisoner-of-war and enemy alien camp was set up at Malleable Iron Foundry in Amherst from April 1915 to September 1919, and Russian revolutionary Leon Trotsky was incarcerated there for one month after he was arrested in Halifax, Nova Scotia in April 1917. Trotsky was transferred to the isolated Kapuskasing Internment Camp in northern Ontario until his release and expulsion after Soviet Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, ending their involvement in the war.
During the Amherst general strike in 1919, worker unrest over social and economic conditions led to mass protests in sympathy with the Winnipeg general strike.
The eventual closure of companies such as Robb Engineering & Manufacturing (purchased by Canada Car and Foundry and then closed) and Amherst Pianos, among others led to a resignation of lost dreams as the town was overtaken by other newer manufacturing centres in central Canada during the 20th century. Amherst had a modest-sized industrial park constructed during the 1960s when the Trans-Canada Highway was being developed. Today the majority of the town's major employers are located there, including Emmerson Packaging and IMP Aerospace.
Amherst is the retail centre for the Cumberland region and the southeastern part of Westmorland County (New Brunswick). The town has several national retailers including Walmart, Sobeys, Atlantic Superstore, Canadian Tire, Kent Building Supplies, Giant Tiger and Dollarama in addition to fast food restaurants and auto dealerships. The Amherst Centre Mall is home to retailers Coles, Northern Reflections, Marks Work Wearhouse, Eclipse, and Charm Diamond Centres, as well as the Amherst Artisan Gallery.
The heritage downtown draws visitors to specialty retailers Deanne Fitzpatrick Studio, Mrs. Pugsley's Emporium, and Birkinshaw's Tea Room. Dayle's Grand Market houses several businesses in a historic department store with a grand staircase and tin ceilings. Shops include an antique coin dealer, a vintage clothing shop, a ladies clothing and shoe store, and a collaboration of more than 100 local artisans.
Amherst is home of the Amherst Ramblers, a Junior A Hockey League team from the Maritime Hockey League. All home games are played out of the 2,500 seat Amherst Stadium. The season usually runs from mid-September to early March every year. The Ramblers draw some of the largest crowds in the Maritime Hockey League, and have placed third in average attendance over the past few years. They won the Centennial Cup in 1993.
Amherst is home to a popular running club known as the 'Amherst Striders' that are recognized at almost every race in the Maritimes. Amherst Striders meet 3 to 4 times a week, do not charge any membership fees and open to anyone interested in running and living a healthy lifestyle.
Every August, Amherst hosts an eight-team little league baseball tournament, featuring four teams from New England.
Amherst experiences a humid continental climate (Dfb). The highest temperature ever recorded was 34.4 °C (94 °F) on 18 August 1935. The coldest temperature ever recorded was −37.2 °C (−35 °F) on 18 February 1922.
|Climate data for Nappan, 1981−2010 normals, extremes 1890−present[a]|
|Record high °C (°F)||16.8
|Average high °C (°F)||−2.7
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−7.7
|Average low °C (°F)||−12.6
|Record low °C (°F)||−36.7
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||106.1
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||47.9
|Average snowfall cm (inches)||62.4
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm)||14.3||11.9||13.2||13.0||14.7||14.2||13.1||12.3||11.7||13.6||15.1||14.0||161.2|
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm)||5.3||4.9||6.9||10.0||13.8||13.6||12.7||12.1||11.4||12.8||12.3||6.9||122.6|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm)||10.4||8.4||7.3||3.6||0.52||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.09||2.8||7.6||40.7|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||93.9||108.6||137.9||146.5||186.0||208.5||229.7||218.0||161.1||130.7||76.2||79.3||1,776.1|
|Percent possible sunshine||33.1||37.2||37.4||36.2||40.2||44.4||48.4||49.8||42.7||38.4||26.7||29.3||38.6|
|Source: Environment Canada|
In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Town of Amherst recorded a population of 9,413 living in 4,372 of its 4,745 total private dwellings, a change of −3.1% from its 2011 population of 9,717. With a land area of 12.07 km2 (4.66 sq mi), it had a population density of 779.9/km2 (2,019.8/sq mi) in 2016.
|Canada 2006 Census|
|Ethnic Origin||Population||% of Total Population|
- Willard Boyle, co-inventor of the charge-coupled device (CCD), for which he shared a 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics
- Alfred Paul Rogers, American Orthodontist
- Roger Stuart Bacon, former Premier of Nova Scotia
- Bill Casey, politician
- Edward Barron Chandler, politician
- Robert C. Coates, politician
- Alex Colville, Painter
- George Barton Cutten, university president
- Mac Davis, NHL player
- Robert Barry Dickey, politician
- Leslie Feist, musician
- Sandy Goss, Olympian
- Rocky Johnson, professional wrestler, WWE Hall of Fame inductee, father of Dwayne "The Rock" Johnson
- Jonathan McCully, politician
- Willard M. Mitchell, artist and architect
- James Pearson Newcomb, Secretary of State of Texas
- William Thomas Pipes, former Premier of Nova Scotia
- Edgar Nelson Rhodes, former Premier of Nova Scotia
- Bill Riley, third Black player to play in the NHL
- Norman McLeod Rogers, politician
- Sir Charles Tupper, 6th Prime Minister of Canada
- English novelist Wyndham Lewis is reputed to have been born on his father's yacht in Amherst's Cumberland Basin.
- Amherst News (weekly)
- Citizen - Record (weekly)
- "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2016 and 2011 censuses – 100% data (Nova Scotia)". Statistics Canada. February 8, 2017. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
- The Canadian Press (2017), The Canadian Press Stylebook (18th ed.), Toronto: The Canadian Press
- Hubbell, Walter (1882). The Haunted House: A True Ghost Story. New York: Brentano. Archived from the original on 2009-07-14.
- "Internment Camps in Canada during the First and Second World Wars, Library and Archives Canada".
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-05-08. Retrieved 2015-06-05.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Nappan CDA, Nova Scotia". 1981–2010 Canadian Climate Normals. Environment Canada. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
- "Daily Data Report for December 2008". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- "Daily Data Report for October 2010". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- "Daily Data Report for March 2012". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- "Daily Data Report for February 2016". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- "Nappan Auto". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- , Censuses 1871-1941
- , Census 1941-1951
- 104.pdf Archived 2016-04-23 at the Wayback Machine, Canada Year Book 1932
- 140.pdf Archived 2016-01-14 at the Wayback Machine, Canada Year Book 1955
- 126.pdf Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine, Canada Year Book 1957–58
- , Canada Year Book 1967
- [permanent dead link], E-STAT Table
- , 1996 Census of Canada: Electronic Area Profiles
- , Community Profiles from the 2006 Census, Statistics Canada
- , Census Profile - Census Subdivision
- , Ethnocultural Portrait from the 2006 Census, Statistics Canada
- Richard Cork, "Lewis, (Percy) Wyndham (1882–1957)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.
- Climate data was recorded at Nappan, located approximately 9 km southwest of Amherst.
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Amherst (Nova Scotia).|
- Town of Amherst
- Environment Canada - Amherst Weather
- Cumberland County Genealogical Society - Amherst - The Local Newspaper Compares Amherst and its newspaper in 1939 and 1914.