American International Pictures
American International Pictures (AIP) was an independent film production and distribution company formed on April 2, 1954 as American Releasing Corporation (ARC) by James H. Nicholson, former Sales Manager of Realart Pictures Inc., and Samuel Z. Arkoff, an entertainment lawyer. It was dedicated to releasing low-budget films packaged as double features, primarily of interest to the teenagers of the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. Nicholson and Arkoff formed ARC in 1954; their first release was The Fast and the Furious in 1955.
|Fate||Acquired by Filmways|
|Founded||April 2, 1954|
|Founder||James H. Nicholson, Samuel Z. Arkoff|
|Roger Corman, Alex Gordon, Lou Rusoff, Herman Cohen|
Nicholson and Arkoff served as executive producers while Roger Corman and Alex Gordon were the principal film producers and, sometimes, directors. Writer Charles B. Griffith wrote many of the early films, along with Arkoff's brother-in-law, Lou Rusoff, who later produced many of the films he had written. Other writers included Ray Russell, Richard Matheson and Charles Beaumont. Floyd Crosby, A.S.C. famous for his camera work on a number of exotic documentaries and the Oscar winner, High Noon, was chief cinematographer. His innovative use of surreal color and odd lenses and angles gave AIP films a signature look. The early rubber monster suits and miniatures of Paul Blaisdell were used in AIP's science fiction films. The company also hired Les Baxter and Ronald Stein to compose many of its film scores.
Emphasis on teenagersEdit
When many of ARC/AIP's first releases failed to earn a profit, Arkoff quizzed film exhibitors who told him of the value of the teenage market as adults were watching television. AIP stopped making Westerns with Arkoff explaining: "To compete with television westerns you have to have color, big stars and $2,000,000".:126
AIP was the first company to use focus groups, polling American teenagers about what they would like to see and using their responses to determine titles, stars, and story content. AIP would question their exhibitors (who often provided 20% of AIP's financing:35) what they thought of the success of a title, then would have a writer create a script for it.:156 A sequence of tasks in a typical production involved creating a great title, getting an artist such as Albert Kallis who supervised all AIP artwork from 1955–73 to create a dynamic, eye-catching poster, then raising the cash, and finally writing and casting the film.
The ARKOFF formulaEdit
Samuel Z. Arkoff related his tried-and-true "ARKOFF formula" for producing a successful low-budget movie years later, during a 1980s talk show appearance. His ideas for a movie included:
- Action (exciting, entertaining drama)
- Revolution (novel or controversial themes and ideas)
- Killing (a modicum of violence)
- Oratory (notable dialogue and speeches)
- Fantasy (acted-out fantasies common to the audience)
- Fornication (sex appeal for young adults)
Later, the AIP publicity department devised a strategy called "the Peter Pan Syndrome":
a) a younger child will watch anything an older child will watch;
b) an older child will not watch anything a younger child will watch;
c) a girl will watch anything a boy will watch;
d) a boy will not watch anything a girl will watch;
to catch your greatest audience you zero in on the 19-year-old male.
American Releasing CompanyEdit
AIP began as the American Releasing Company, a new distribution company formed in the early 1950s formed by James H. Nicholson and Samuel Z. Arkoff.
They were interested in distributing a car chase movie produced by Roger Corman for his Palo Alto Productions, The Fast and the Furious (1955). Corman had received offers from other companies for the film, but ARC offered to advance money to enable Corman to make two other films. Corman agreed, The Fast and the Furious performed well at the box office and the company was launched.
Corman's next two films for the company were a Western, Five Guns West (1955), which Corman directed, and a science fiction film, The Beast with a Million Eyes (1955). The title from the latter had come from Nicholson.
ARC got Corman to direct another Western and science fiction double bill Apache Woman (1955) and Day the World Ended (1955). Both scripts were written by Arkoff's brother-in-law Lou Rusoff, who would become the company's leading writer in its early days. Apache Woman was produced by Alex Gordon, an associate of Arkoff's, Day was produced by Corman. Both were made by Golden State Productions, ARC's production arm.
Normally, B movies were made for the second part of a bill and received a flat rate. As television was encroaching on the B movie market, Nicholson and Arkoff felt it would be more profitable to make two low budget films and distribute them together on a double feature. Nicholson came up with a title for a film to support Day the World Ended, The Phantom from 10,000 Leagues (1955), but lacked the money to make both films. They split the costs with Dan and Jack Milner, film editors who wanted to get into production. The resulting double bill was very successful at the box office.
American International in the 1950sEdit
Arkoff and Nicholson had always wanted to name their company "American International Pictures", but the name was unavailable. When the name became available, they changed over.
There were three main production arms at AIP in the late 1950s: Roger Corman, Alex Gordon and Lou Rusoff, and Herman Cohen. Arkoff and Nicholson would buy films from other filmmakers as well, and import films from outside America.
Corman continued to be an important member of AIP (though he also worked for Allied Artists and his own Filmgroup company during this period). He had a big hit for the company with the science fiction film It Conquered the World (1956) from a script by Rusoff that was rewritten by Charles B. Griffith.
His films included Rock All Night (1956); Naked Paradise (1957), in which Arkoff had a small role; The Undead, Sorority Girl, The Saga of the Viking Women and Their Voyage to the Waters of the Great Sea Serpent (1957), Machine Gun Kelly with Charles Bronson, and Teenage Caveman (1958), with Robert Vaughn.
Alex Gordon and Lou RusoffEdit
The other key producer for AIP was Alex Gordon who mostly made films though his Golden State Productions outfit, usually written by Lou Rusoff. He made Girls in Prison (1956), with director Edward L. Cahn who would become one of AIP's most prolific directors. AIP released it on a double bill with Hot Rod Girl (1956).
Cahn also directed the following for Gordon: The She-Creature (released as a double feature with It Conquered the World); Flesh and the Spur, the last Western made by AIP; Shake, Rattle & Rock!, a rock musical with Mike Connors; Runaway Daughters (1956); Voodoo Woman, Dragstrip Girl (1957), with John Ashley; Motorcycle Gang (1957), again with Ashley; Jet Attack and Submarine Seahawk (1958). Most of these were written by Rusoff and directed by Edward L. Cahn.
Another key producer for AIP was Herman Cohen, who had a huge hit with I Was a Teenage Werewolf (1957) starring Michael Landon). He followed it with I Was a Teenage Frankenstein, Blood of Dracula (both also in 1957 as a double feature), How to Make a Monster (1958), The Headless Ghost and Horrors of the Black Museum (both in 1959).
Other key collaborators who worked for AIP in the late 1950s included:
- Norman T. Herman: Hot Rod Girl (1956)
- Robert Gurney: Invasion of the Saucer Men (1957; released as a double feature with I Was a Teenage Werewolf), Reform School Girl (1957) and Terror from the Year 5000 (1958)
- Bert I. Gordon: The Amazing Colossal Man (1957), Attack of the Puppet People (1958), War of the Colossal Beast (1958; the sequel to The Amazing Colossal Man) and Earth vs. the Spider (1958)
- Burt Topper: Hell Squad (1958), Tank Commandos (1959) and Diary of a High School Bride (1959)
- Edward Bernds: High School Hellcats (1958).
- Stanley Shpetne: The Bonnie Parker Story (1958) and Paratroop Command (1959).
- Stanley Kallis: Operation Dames (1959) and Roadracers (1959).
AIP would flesh out their distribution schedule by buying films made by outside producers. These included The Astounding She-Monster, the documentary Naked Africa, The Screaming Skull (1957), The Cool and the Crazy, Daddy-O, Dragstrip Riot and Tank Batallion (1958).
AIP developed a mutual relationship with Britain's Anglo-Amalgamated who would distribute AIP's product in the U.K. In return, AIP would distribute their films in the U.S., such as The Tommy Steele Story (1957) and Cat Girl (1957).
Late 1950s crisisEdit
AIP became a victim of its own success when other companies started copying its double feature strategy. Costs were rising and were not compensated by increased box office grosses. They shut down most of their production arms and focused on distributing films from Italy, while they decided what to do next.
AIP's 1960s outputEdit
In the late 1950s, AIP kept their company afloat by importing films from Italy. These included Sheba and the Gladiator (1959), Goliath and the Barbarians (1959) and Black Sunday (1960); the latter film proved to be one of the company's early successes.
There was also Atomic Agent (1959, France), The Angry Red Planet (1959, Denmark), Tiger of Bengal (1959) and The Indian Tomb (1960) from Fritz Lang in Germany, Portrait of a Sinner (1959, West Germany), The Professionals (1960, Great Britain), and Escape to Paradise (1960, the Philippines).
The Corman-Poe cycleEdit
In the early 1960s, AIP gained some kudos by combining Roger Corman, Vincent Price and the stories of Edgar Allan Poe into a series of horror films, with scripts by Richard Matheson, Charles Beaumont, Ray Russell, R. Wright Campbell and Robert Towne.
The original idea, usually credited[who?] to Corman and Lou Rusoff, was to take Poe's story "The Fall of the House of Usher", which had both a high name-recognition value and the merit of being in the public domain, and thus royalty-free, and expand it into a feature film. Corman convinced the studio to give him a larger budget than the typical AIP film so he could film the movie in widescreen and color, and use it to create lavish sets as well.
The success of House of Usher led AIP to finance further films based on Poe's stories. The sets and special effects were often reused in subsequent movies (for example, the burning roof of the Usher mansion reappears in most of the other films as stock footage), making the series quite cost-effective. All the films in the series were directed by Roger Corman, and they all starred Price except The Premature Burial, which featured Ray Milland in the lead. It was originally produced for another studio, but AIP acquired the rights to it.
As the series progressed, Corman made attempts to change the formula. Later films added more humor to the stories, especially The Raven, which takes Poe's poem as an inspiration and develops it into an all-out farce starring Price, Boris Karloff and Peter Lorre; Karloff had starred in a 1935 film with the same title. Corman also adapted H. P. Lovecraft's short novel The Case of Charles Dexter Ward in an attempt to get away from Poe, but AIP changed the title to that of an obscure Poe poem, The Haunted Palace, and marketed it as yet another movie in the series. The last two films in the series, The Masque of the Red Death and The Tomb of Ligeia, were filmed in England with an unusually long schedule for Corman and AIP.
Although Corman and Rusoff are generally credited with coming up with the idea for the Poe series, in an interview on the Anchor Bay DVD of Mario Bava's Black Sabbath, Mark Damon claims that he first suggested the idea to Corman. Damon also says that Corman let him direct The Pit and the Pendulum uncredited. Corman's commentary for Pit mentions nothing of this and all existing production stills of the film show Corman directing.
List of Corman-Poe filmsEdit
Of eight films, seven feature stories that are actually based on the works of Poe.
- House of Usher (1960) – based on the short story "The Fall of the House of Usher"
- The Pit and the Pendulum (1961) – based on the title of the short story of the same name
- The Premature Burial (1962) – based on the short story of the same name
- Tales of Terror (1962) – based on the short stories "Morella", "The Black Cat", "The Cask of Amontillado" and "The Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar"
- The Raven (1963) – based on the poem of the same name
- The Haunted Palace (1963) – based on H.P. Lovecraft's novella The Case of Charles Dexter Ward, using the title from Poe's 1839 poem
- The Masque of the Red Death (1964) – based on the short story of the same name with another Poe short story, "Hop-Frog", used as a subplot
- The Tomb of Ligeia (1964) – based on the short story "Ligeia"
Occasionally, Corman's 1963 film The Terror (produced immediately after The Raven) is recognized as being part of the Corman-Poe cycle, although the film's story and title are not based on any literary work of Poe.
Based in rented office space at the Chaplin Studios, during the early 1960s AIP concentrated on horror films inspired by the Poe cycle. In 1962, Arkoff said AIP was in a position similar to Columbia Pictures just before they made Submarine and Dirigible:
Before that they were on poverty row. Our better position will enable us to obtain more important writers, perhaps more important producers as well. We're a privately owned company at the moment but perhaps within two or three years we will become a public company.
Beach Party eraEdit
Beginning with 1963's Beach Party, AIP created a new genre of beach party films featuring Annette Funicello and Frankie Avalon. The original idea and the first script were Rusoff's. The highly successful and often imitated series ended in 1966 with the seventh film, The Ghost in the Invisible Bikini. Many actors from the beach films also appeared in AIP's spy-spoofs, such as Dr. Goldfoot and the Bikini Machine (1965) and car racing films like Fireball 500 (1966) and Thunder Alley. During this time, AIP also produced or distributed most of Corman's horror films, such as X: The Man with the X-ray Eyes.
In 1966, the studio released The Wild Angels starring Peter Fonda, based loosely on the real-life exploits of the Hells Angels motorcycle gang. This film ushered in AIP's most successful year and kicked off a subgenre of motorcycle gang films that lasted almost 10 years and included Devil's Angels, The Glory Stompers with Dennis Hopper, and The Born Losers—the film that introduced the Billy Jack character.
In 1968, AIP launched a $22 million film program. The psychedelic and hippie scenes of the late '60s were also exploited with films like The Trip, also with Fonda, Riot on Sunset Strip, Wild in the Streets, Maryjane, Gas-s-s-s and Psych-Out with Jack Nicholson. These "social protest" films were also highly successful. Horror movies also enjoyed a revival of popularity in the late 60s.
International American InternationalEdit
On a trip to Italy, Arkoff met Fulvio Lucisano, an Italian screenwriter and producer who eventually headed Italian International Film, which co-produced 25 films in Italy for AIP. Due to importing completed productions from other foreign countries being cheaper and more simplistic than producing their own in-house studio films in America, AIP had released many giallo, peplum, Eurospy and Macaroni Combat war films featuring many American stars and Italian stars such as the comedy team of Franco Franchi and Ciccio Ingrassia. However, AIP released only two Spaghetti Westerns (Massacre Time and God Forgives... I Don't!), perhaps recalling their failure with Westerns in the 1950s. Many of these films were edited, rewritten with different (dubbed English) dialogue, usually by Arkoff's nephew Ted Rusoff, and sometimes re-scored by Les Baxter.
AIP, through Henry G. Saperstein, is known for being the major U.S. distributor for Toho's Godzilla and Daiei's Gamera (kaiju) films of the '60s and '70s. AIP also distributed other Japanese science fiction films like Frankenstein Conquers the World, Monster from a Prehistoric Planet, The X from Outer Space and the South Korean production Yongary, Monster from the Deep, as well as two Japanese animated features from Toei Animation, Alakazam the Great and Jack and the Witch.
The studio also released edited and English-dubbed versions of several Eastern Bloc science fiction films that had the dialogue rewritten for the American market and in some cases had additional scenes filmed with American and British actors. These include the Soviet film Planeta Bur (Planet of Storms) which was released by AIP in two different English-dubbed versions, as Voyage to the Prehistoric Planet and Voyage to the Planet of Prehistoric Women and the highly regarded 1963 Czech science fiction film Ikarie XB-1, which was re-titled Voyage to the End of the Universe.
In 1964, AIP became one of the last film studios to start its own television production company, American International Productions Television (a.k.a. American-International Television or AIP-TV). AIP-TV at first released many of their 1950s films to American television stations, then filmed unsuccessful television pilots for Beach Party and Sergeant Deadhead. The company then made several color sci-fi/horror television films by Larry Buchanan that were remakes of black-and-white AIP films, and sold packages of many English-dubbed European, Japanese and Mexican films (the last type were produced by K. Gordon Murray) and foreign-made live-action and animated TV series (including Prince Planet). The best known animated series AIP-TV distributed was Sinbad Jr. and his Magic Belt.
In order to allay the fears of cinema owners who feared current releases would soon end up being shown on television, AIP issued a statement retroactive to 1963 that the company would not release any of their films to television until five years after cinema release, unless the film had not made back its original negative costs. AIP-TV also filmed specials for promotion of AIP films, such as The Wild Weird World of Dr. Goldfoot (1965, ABC) and An Evening of Edgar Allan Poe (1972, syndication), both with Vincent Price.
In 1970, they entered into an agreement with Commonwealth United Entertainment to issue their films. In 1971 they released 31 films, their greatest number to date, and were seen as one of the most stable companies in Hollywood. Despite their exploitation roots, they did not concentrate on R- or X-rated filmmaking during this period.
Resignation of NicholsonEdit
In 1972, James H. Nicholson resigned from AIP to set up his own production company working out of 20th Century Fox, called Academy Pictures Corporation; its only two releases were The Legend of Hell House and Dirty Mary, Crazy Larry. AIP bought out over 100,000 of Nicholson's shares. He died shortly thereafter of a cancerous brain tumor.
Arkoff continued on at AIP as president until the end of the decade. Heads of production during the 1970s included Larry Gordon and Jere Henshaw.
By the early 1970s, AIP felt the horror movie cycle was in decline and so switched to other genres, such as kung fu and gangsters. Notably, they produced some of that decade's blaxploitation films, like Blacula, and Foxy Brown. In a throwback to the old "studio days", the company is credited with making Pam Grier a household name, as the majority of her early '70s films were made under contract to American International.
In the mid- to late 1970s, AIP began to produce more mainstream films, such as Bunny O'Hare, Cooley High, The Great Scout & Cathouse Thursday, The Amityville Horror, Love at First Bite, Meteor, Force 10 from Navarone, Shout at the Devil, The Island of Dr. Moreau and C.H.O.M.P.S. The increased spending on these projects, though they did make some money, contributed to the company's downfall. In the meantime, the studio imported and released its final foreign film, an Australian film, Mad Max, dubbed into American English.
James Nicholson's first wife Sylvia was still a major shareholder of the company. She sued AIP for mismanagement, but this was resolved in 1978 when AIP bought out her shares.
Merger with FilmwaysEdit
By the late 1970s, costs of making movies continued to rise, AIP's tactic of moving into bigger budgeted quality pictures was not paying off at the box office, and Arkoff began to think of merging the company. "We've been the Woolworths of the movie business but Woolworths is being out priced", said Arkoff. Talks began with Filmways, Incorporated. Negotiations stalled for a while, but resumed a number of months later. In 1979, AIP was sold to Filmways for $30 million and became a subsidiary production unit thereof, renamed Filmways Pictures in 1980.
AIP-TV was absorbed as the wholly owned program syndication arm of Filmways Television. Filmways was later bought by Orion Pictures Company in 1982 and Filmways was later renamed Orion Pictures Corporation, but retained the distribution arm. This allowed Orion to establish its own distribution after utilizing Warner Bros. for distribution, which still has distribution rights to Orion films Warner Bros. distributed. Today, a majority of the AIP library is owned by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's subsidiary Orion Pictures Corporation. The American International name is still a registered trademark owned by MGM's Orion Pictures unit.
List of American International Pictures filmsEdit
|as American Releasing Corporation|
|1955||Operation Malaya||Documentary||David MacDonald|
|February 15, 1955||The Fast and the Furious||Crime||John Ireland|
|April 15, 1955||Five Guns West||Western||Roger Corman|
|May 15, 1955||Outlaw Treasure||Western||Oliver Drake|
|June 15, 1955||The Beast with a Million Eyes||Sci-fi||David Kramarsky|
|September 15, 1955||Apache Woman||Western||Roger Corman|
|December 1955||Day the World Ended||Sci-fi||Roger Corman|
|December 1955||The Phantom from 10,000 Leagues||Sci-fi||Dan Milner|
|June 15, 1956||The Oklahoma Woman||Western||Roger Corman|
|June 15, 1956||Female Jungle||Crime||Bruno VeSota|
|June 1956||Gunslinger||Western||Roger Corman|
|as American International Pictures|
|July 15, 1956||It Conquered the World||Sci-fi||Roger Corman|
|July 1956||Girls in Prison||Crime||Edward L. Cahn|
|July 1956||Hot Rod Girl||Action||Lew Landers|
|August 1956||The She-Creature||Horror||Edward L. Cahn|
|September 25, 1956||Flesh and the Spur||Western||Edward L. Cahn|
|November 1956||Runaway Daughters||Crime||Edward L. Cahn|
|November 1956||Shake, Rattle & Rock!||Musical||Edward L. Cahn|
|1957||The Astounding She-Monster||Sci-fi horror||Ronald V. Ashcroft|
|January 1957||Naked Paradise||Crime||Roger Corman|
|March 1, 1957||Voodoo Woman||Horror||Edward L. Cahn|
|April 24, 1957||Dragstrip Girl||Action||Edward L. Cahn|
|April 1957||Rock All Night||Crime||Roger Corman|
|March 1957||The Undead||Horror||Roger Corman|
|June 19, 1957||I Was a Teenage Werewolf||Horror||Gene Fowler Jr.|
|June 19, 1957||Invasion of the Saucer Men||Sci-fi||Edward L. Cahn|
|August 1957||Naked Africa||Documentary||Ray Phoenix|
|August 1957||Reform School Girl||Crime||Edward Bernds|
|August 1957||Rock Around the World||Musical||Gerard Bryant|
|August 1957||The White Huntress||Adventure||George P. Breakston|
|September 1957||Cat Girl||Horror||Alfred Shaughnessy|
|October 22, 1957||Motorcycle Gang||Outlaw biker||Edward L. Cahn|
|October 25, 1957||The Amazing Colossal Man||Sci-fi||Bert I. Gordon|
|October 1957||Sorority Girl||Drama||Roger Corman|
|November 23, 1957||I Was a Teenage Frankenstein||Horror||Herbert L. Strock|
|November 23, 1957||Blood of Dracula||Horror||Herbert L. Strock|
|December 1957||The Saga of the Viking Women and Their Voyage to the Waters of the Great Sea Serpent||Adventure||Roger Corman|
|January 1958||The Screaming Skull||Horror||Alex Nicol|
|January 1958||Terror from the Year 5000||Sci-fi||Robert J. Gurney Jr.|
|February 1958||Jet Attack||War||Edward L. Cahn|
|February 1958||Suicide Battalion||War||Edward L. Cahn|
|March 1958||The Cool and the Crazy||Drama||William Witney|
|March 1958||Daddy-O||Crime||Lou Place|
|March 1958||Dragstrip Riot||Drama||David Bradley|
|April 1958||Attack of the Puppet People||Sci-fi||Bert I. Gordon|
|May 28, 1958||The Bonnie Parker Story||Crime||William Witney|
|May 1958||Machine-Gun Kelly||Action||Roger Corman|
|June 1958||High School Hellcats||Crime||Edward Bernds|
|June 1958||Hot Rod Gang||Drama||Lew Landers|
|July 1, 1958||How to Make a Monster||Horror||Herbert L. Strock|
|July 1, 1958||Teenage Caveman||Sci-fi||Roger Corman|
|July 30, 1958||War of the Colossal Beast||Sci-fi||Bert I. Gordon|
|July 1958||Hell Squad||War||Burt Topper|
|July 1958||Tank Battalion||War||Sherman A. Rose|
|August 1958||Night of the Blood Beast||Sci-fi horror||Bernard L. Kowalski|
|August 1958||She Gods of Shark Reef||Adventure||Roger Corman|
|September 1958||The Brain Eaters||Sci-fi horror||Bruno VeSota|
|September 1958||Earth vs. the Spider||Sci-fi||Bert I. Gordon|
|December 1958||Submarine Seahawk||War||Spencer Gordon Bennet|
|February 1959||Paratroop Command||War||William Witney|
|March 1959||Operation Dames||War||Louis Clyde Stoumen|
|March 1959||Roadracers||Action||Arthur Swerdloff|
|March 1959||Tank Commandos||War||Burt Topper|
|April 29, 1959||The Headless Ghost||Horror||Peter Graham Scott|
|April 29, 1959||Horrors of the Black Museum||Horror||Arthur Crabtree|
|July 1959||Diary of a High School Bride||Romance||Burt Topper|
|July 1959||Ghost of Dragstrip Hollow||Horror||William J. Hole Jr.|
|September 23, 1959||Sheba and the Gladiator||Sword-and-sandal||Guido Brignone|
|October 21, 1959||A Bucket of Blood||Horror||Roger Corman|
|October 1959||Attack of the Giant Leeches||Sci-fi horror||Bernard L. Kowalski|
|November 23, 1959||The Angry Red Planet||Sci-fi||Sidney W. Pink|
|November 1959||Goliath and the Barbarians||Sword-and-sandal||Carlo Campogalliani|
|1970||Strawberries Need Rain||Fantasy||Larry Buchanan|
|1970||Pacific Vibrations||Documentary||John Severson|
|January 1970||The Savage Wild||Documentary||Gordon Eastman|
|January 1970||Scream and Scream Again||Sci-fi thriller||Gordon Hessler|
|January 14, 1970||The Dunwich Horror||Horror||Daniel Haller|
|March 24, 1970||Bloody Mama||Drama||Roger Corman|
|April 15, 1970||The Haunted House of Horror||Slasher||Michael Armstrong|
|May 8, 1970||Lola||Romantic comedy-drama||Richard Donner|
|June 1970||A Bullet for Pretty Boy||Action||Larry Buchanan|
|June 10, 1970||Count Yorga, Vampire||Horror||Bob Kelljan|
|July 29, 1970||Cry of the Banshee||Horror||Gordon Hessler|
|September 2, 1970||Angel Unchained||Outlaw biker||Lee Madden|
|September 9, 1970||Venus in Furs||Erotic thriller||Jesús Franco|
|October 22, 1970||The Vampire Lovers||Horror||Roy Ward Baker|
|February 17, 1971||Gas-s-s-s||Sci-fi comedy-drama||Roger Corman|
|February 18, 1971||Wuthering Heights||Romance||Robert Fuest|
|March 17, 1971||Blood and Lace||Horror||Philip S. Gilbert|
|April 22, 1971||The Hard Ride||Outlaw biker||Burt Topper|
|April 28, 1971||The Incredible 2-Headed Transplant||Sci-fi horror||Anthony Lanza|
|May 18, 1971||The Abominable Dr. Phibes||Comedy horror||Robert Fuest|
|August 20, 1971||Swedish Fly Girls||Drama||Jack O'Connell|
|September 29, 1971||Chrome and Hot Leather||Outlaw biker||Lee Frost|
|October 6, 1971||Murders in the Rue Morgue||Horror||Gordon Hessler|
|October 13, 1971||A Lizard in a Woman's Skin||Giallo||Lucio Fulci|
|October 18, 1971||Bunny O'Hare||Comedy||Gerd Oswald|
|October 27, 1971||Some of My Best Friends Are...||Drama||Mervyn Nelson|
|October 1971||1000 Convicts and a Woman||Drama||Ray Austin|
|December 22, 1971||Kidnapped||Adventure||Delbert Mann|
|January 19, 1972||Together||Mockumentary||Sean S. Cunningham|
|February 2, 1972||The Return of Count Yorga||Horror||Bob Kelljan|
|February 1972||Godzilla vs. the Smog Monster||Sci-fi||Yoshimitsu Banno|
|March 10, 1972||Frogs||Horror||George McCowan|
|March 15, 1972||Whoever Slew Auntie Roo?||Horror||Curtis Harrington|
|April 1972||Dr. Jekyll and Sister Hyde||Sci-fi horror||Roy Ward Baker|
|May 17, 1972||Blood from the Mummy's Tomb||Horror||Seth Holt|
|May 1972||Pickup on 101||Drama||John Florea|
|Wild in the Sky||Action comedy||William T. Naud|
|The Bloody Judge||Horror||Jesús Franco|
|June 14, 1972||Boxcar Bertha||Crime||Martin Scorsese|
|July 19, 1972||The Thing with Two Heads||Sci-fi||Lee Frost|
|July 21, 1972||F.T.A.||Documentary||Francine Parker|
|July 1972||Dr. Phibes Rises Again||Horror||Robert Fuest|
|August 16, 1972||Slaughter||Blaxploitation||Jack Starrett|
|August 25, 1972||Blacula||Blaxploitation||William Crain|
|August 1972||Deathmaster||Horror||Ray Danton|
|The Sandpit Generals||Drama||Hall Bartlett|
|September 1972||Tam-Lin||Horror||Roddy McDowall|
|October 10, 1972||Baron Blood||Horror||Mario Bava|
|November 1972||The Dirt Gang||Action drama||Jerry Jameson|
|November 10, 1972||Unholy Rollers||Action comedy||Vernon Zimmerman|
|November 22, 1972||Prison Girls||Crime||Thomas De Simone|
|January 19, 1973||Black Mama White Mama||Women in prison||Eddie Romero|
|January 1973||Manson||Documentary||Robert Hendrickson and Laurence Merrick|
|February 7, 1973||Black Caesar||Blaxploitation||Larry Cohen|
|March 27, 1973||Sisters||Horror||Brian De Palma|
|April 1973||Cannibal Girls||Comedy horror||Ivan Reitman|
|May 4, 1973||Deep Thrust||Action||Huang Feng|
|June 13, 1973||Coffy||Blaxploitation||Jack Hill|
|June 27, 1973||Scream, Blacula, Scream||Blaxploitation||Bob Kelljan|
|June 1973||Little Cigars||Crime comedy||Chris Christenberry|
|July 20, 1973||Dillinger||Crime||John Milius|
|August 8, 1973||Heavy Traffic||Animated comedy-drama||Ralph Bakshi|
|August 31, 1973||Slaughter's Big Rip-Off||Blaxploitation||Gordon Douglas|
|September 1973||Death Line||Horror||Gary Sherman|
|October 31, 1973||The Italian Connection||Action||Fernando di Leo|
|October 1973||The Screaming Tiger||Action||Lung Chien|
|November 21, 1973||Battle of the Amazons||Sword-and-sandal||Alfonso Brescia|
|December 1973||Hell Up in Harlem||Blaxploitation||Larry Cohen|
|January 30, 1974||The Bat People||Horror||Jerry Jameson|
|February 13, 1974||Bamboo Gods and Iron Men||Blaxploitation comedy||Cesar Gallardo|
|February 1974||Secret Life of a Schoolgirl Wife||Comedy-drama||Leon Capetanos|
|March 6, 1974||Deranged||Horror||Alan Ormsby|
|March 20, 1974||Sugar Hill||Blaxploitation horror||Paul Maslansky|
|April 5, 1974||Foxy Brown||Blaxploitation||Jack Hill|
|May 15, 1974||Truck Stop Women||Action||Mark L. Lester|
|May 22, 1974||Madhouse||Horror||Jim Clark|
|June 5, 1974||Thriller: A Cruel Picture||Rape and revenge||Alex Fridolinski|
|Dirty O'Neil||Crime thriller||Leon Capetanos|
|June 26, 1974||The Nine Lives of Fritz the Cat||Animated comedy||Robert Taylor|
|Truck Turner||Blaxploitation||Jonathan Kaplan|
|July 17, 1974||Golden Needles||Action||Robert Clouse|
|July 1974||Savage Sisters||Women in prison||Eddie Romero|
|August 8, 1974||Macon County Line||Action||Richard Compton|
|August 18, 1974||Act of Vengeance||Horror||Bob Kelljan|
|October 1974||Hangup||Action||Henry Hathaway|
|November 22, 1974||Sunday in the Country||Crime thriller||John Trent|
|December 25, 1974||Abby||Blaxploitation horror||William Girdler|
|1975||Vampira||Comedy horror||Clive Donner|
|February 1975||Super Stooges vs. the Wonder Women||Superhero comedy||Alfonso Brescia|
|March 26, 1975||Sheba, Baby||Blaxploitation||William Girdler|
|March 1975||House of Whipcord||Horror||Pete Walker|
|War Goddess||Adventure||Terence Young|
|The Wild Party||Comedy-drama||James Ivory|
|April 25, 1975||The Reincarnation of Peter Proud||Mystery horror||J. Lee Thompson|
|May 21, 1975||Cornbread, Earl and Me||Drama||Joseph Manduke|
|The Wild McCullochs||Drama||Max Baer Jr.|
|May 1975||What Have You Done to Solange?||Giallo||Massimo Dallamano|
|June 11, 1975||Murph the Surf||Biographical crime comedy||Marvin J. Chomsky|
|June 25, 1975||Cooley High||Comedy-drama||Michael Schultz|
|July 2, 1975||Bucktown||Blaxploitation||Arthur Marks|
|July 31, 1975||Hennessy||Thriller||Don Sharp|
|August 13, 1975||The Land That Time Forgot||Adventure fantasy||Kevin Connor|
|September 3, 1975||Return to Macon County||Drama||Richard Compton|
|September 28, 1975||Walking Tall Part 2||Crime||Earl Bellamy|
|December 17, 1975||Sixpack Annie||Action comedy||Graydon F. David|
|December 25, 1975||Friday Foster||Blaxploitation||Arthur Marks|
|January 14, 1976||Killer Force||Thriller||Val Guest|
|March 1976||Bobbie Jo and the Outlaw||Crime drama||Mark L. Lester|
|One Summer Love||Romantic drama||Gilbert Cates|
|April 21, 1976||Crime and Passion||Crime||Ivan Passer|
|May 1976||Annie||Drama||Massimo Dallamano|
|June 18, 1976||The Food of the Gods||Sci-fi thriller||Bert I. Gordon|
|June 23, 1976||The Great Scout & Cathouse Thursday||Comedy||Don Taylor|
|I Don't Want to Be Born||Horror||Peter Sasdy|
|July 9, 1976||A Small Town in Texas||Crime||Jack Starrett|
|July 30, 1976||Squirm||Horror||Jeff Lieberman|
|July 1976||At the Earth's Core||Sci-fi fantasy||Kevin Connor|
|Special Delivery||Crime comedy||Paul Wendkos|
|August 13, 1976||Futureworld||Sci-fi thriller||Richard T. Heffron|
|August 25, 1976||J.D.'s Revenge||Blaxploitation||Arthur Marks|
|September 17, 1976||Street People||Action||Maurizio Lucidi|
|October 7, 1976||A Matter of Time||Musical||Vincente Minnelli|
|October 8, 1976||Scorchy||Crime||Howard Avedis|
|November 24, 1976||Shout at the Devil||War||Peter R. Hunt|
|December 24, 1976||The Monkey Hustle||Blaxploitation||Arthur Marks|
|The Town That Dreaded Sundown||Horror||Charles B. Pierce|
|December 1976||Escape from Angola||Adventure||Leslie H. Martinson|
|January 23, 1977||The Day That Shook the World||Historical drama||Veljko Bulajić|
|February 2, 1977||Chatterbox||Sex comedy||Tom DeSimone|
|February 11, 1977||Strange Shadows in an Empty Room||Crime||Alberto De Martino|
|March 4, 1977||Death Weekend||Horror||William Fruet|
|April 1, 1977||Breaker! Breaker!||Action||Don Hulette|
|June 15, 1977||Tentacles||Horror||Ovidio G. Assonitis|
|June 29, 1977||Empire of the Ants||Sci-fi horror||Bert I. Gordon|
|July 6, 1977||The People That Time Forgot||Adventure fantasy||Kevin Connor|
|July 13, 1977||The Island of Dr. Moreau||Sci-fi fantasy horror||Don Taylor|
|August 10, 1977||The Little Girl Who Lives Down the Lane||Mystery thriller||Nicolas Gessner|
|August 17, 1977||Joyride||Adventure crime comedy||Joseph Ruben|
|August 31, 1977||Walking Tall: Final Chapter||Crime||Jack Starrett|
|October 14, 1977||Rolling Thunder||Neo-noir||John Flynn|
|December 28, 1977||Grayeagle||Western adventure||Charles B. Pierce|
|December 1977||The Incredible Melting Man||Sci-fi horror||William Sachs|
|The Private Files of J. Edgar Hoover||Biographical drama||Larry Cohen|
|February 1978||Record City||Comedy||Dennis Steinmetz|
|March 1978||Last Cannibal World||Horror||Ruggero Deodato|
|April 19, 1978||Holocaust 2000||Horror||Alberto De Martino|
|May 13, 1978||Jennifer||Horror||Brice Mack|
|May 24, 1978||Youngblood||Action||Noel Nosseck|
|May 26, 1978||Here Come the Tigers||Sports comedy||Sean S. Cunningham|
|High-Ballin'||Action comedy||Peter Carter|
|May 1978||Our Winning Season||Drama||Joseph Ruben|
|June 6, 1978||Cracking Up||Comedy||Rowby Goren|
|June 22, 1978||Matilda||Comedy||Daniel Mann|
|June 1978||Who Can Kill a Child?||Spanish horror||Narciso Ibáñez Serrador|
|July 14, 1978||Mean Dog Blues||Drama||Mel Stuart|
|October 5, 1978||The Norsemen||Adventure||Charles B. Pierce|
|December 8, 1978||Force 10 from Navarone||War||Guy Hamilton|
|April 18, 1979||The Evictors||Crime horror||Charles B. Pierce|
|April 27, 1979||Love at First Bite||Comedy horror||Stan Dragoti|
|June 1, 1979||Sunnyside||Action||Timothy Galfas|
|July 27, 1979||The Amityville Horror||Horror||Stuart Rosenberg|
|September 14, 1979||California Dreaming||Comedy-drama||John D. Hancock|
|September 1979||Seven||Action crime||Andy Sidaris|
|October 5, 1979||Something Short of Paradise||Romantic comedy||David Helpern|
|October 19, 1979||Meteor||Disaster||Ronald Neame|
|November 1979||Jaguar Lives!||Action||Ernest Pintoff|
|December 21, 1979||C.H.O.M.P.S.||Sci-fi comedy||Don Chaffey|
|February 15, 1980||Mad Max||Action||George Miller||Australian sci-fi dystopian film dubbed in American English|
|March 14, 1980||Defiance||Action||John Flynn|
|March 14, 1980||The Visitor||Sci-fi horror||Michael J. Paradise||Initially planned for AIP release, but sold off to independent distributor The International Picture Show|
|March 28, 1980||Nothing Personal||Romantic comedy||George Bloomfield|
|May 1, 1980||Gorp||Sex comedy||Joseph Ruben|
|July 11, 1980||How to Beat the High Cost of Living||Crime comedy||Robert Scheerer|
The following films were announced for production by AIP, but never made:
- an adaptation of H. Rider Haggard's She (1958, dir. Roger Corman)|* Even and the Dragon (1958, dir. Stanley Shpetner)|* Take Me to Your Leader (1958) – a part-animated feature|* Aladdin and the Giant (1959) – produced by Herman Cohen|* In the Year 2889 (1959) – from the novel by Jules Verne
- The Talking Dog (1959) – a comedy
- When the Sleeper Wakes from the novel by H. G. Wells (1960–62) – Vincent Price was announced as a star in 1965|* a color remake of Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1961)|* Genghis Khan (1960s, dir. Jacques Tourneur) – a Roadshow production with a $4.5 million budget|* The Great Deluge – story of Noah's Ark|* War of the Planets (1962) – a $2 million sci-fi epic starring Vincent Price and Boris Karloff based on a script by Harlan Ellison|* Off on a Comet (1962) – a filming of Jules Verne's novel advertised in comic books|* Stratofin (1962) based on Jules Verne's Master of the World
- It's Alive (1963) with Peter Lorre, Harvey Lembeck and Elsa Lanchester
- Something in the Walls (1963)
- The Magnificent Leonardi (1963) – with Ray Milland
- Sins of Babylon (1963)
- Rumble (1963) with Avalon and Funicello from a book by Harlan Ellison about New York gangs
- The Graveside Story (1964) – with Price, Karloff, Lorre and Elsa Lanchester
- The Gold Bug (1964) with Price, Lorre and Lanchester
- The Chase (circa 1965) – a silent comedy starring Buster Keaton
- Malibu Madness (1965)
- The Haunted Palace (1965)
- Seven Footprints to Satan (1965)
- The Jet Set or Jet Set Party (1964, dir. William Asher) – with Avalon and Funicello
- Malibu Madness (1965)|* Robin Hood Jones (1966, dir. William Asher) – a musical about Robin Hood starring Price, Avalon, Funicello and Susan Hart
- Cruise Party (1966) – with Avalon and Dwayne Hickman
- The Girl in the Glass Bikini (1966, dir. William Asher) – a sci-fi/comedy with Avalon, Funicello and Aron Kincaid
- The Girl in the Glass Castle (1966) – a musical comedy with a $1 million budget
- The Hatfields and the McCoys (1966) – a musical with Avalon and Funicello
- It (1967) – based on Richard Matheson's story "Being"
- The Golem (1967)
- Johnson, John Cheap Tricks and Class Acts, 1996, McFarland, p.265
- "Artist Interviews » Les Baxter". www.artistinterviews.eu. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
- Scheuer, Philip K. (September 17, 1958). "Shocker Pioneers Tell How to Make Monsters: Want to Make a Monster? Experts Tell How It's Done". Los Angeles Times. p. E1.
- Samuel Z Arkoff Biography, Fancast, archived from the original on 2011-07-23.
- Doherty, Thomas (1988), Teenagers and Teenpics, Unwin-Hyman.
- Booker, M. Keith. Historical dictionary of American cinema. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p. 22. ISBN 0-8108-7192-0.
- Albert Kallis – bio, Learn about movie posters, archived from the original on 2008-03-21.
- Bean, Robin and Austen, David U.S.A. Confidential p. 215 Films and Filming November 1968 quoted in p. 157 Doherty, Thomas Teenagers and Teenpics Unwin-Hyman 1988
- Scheuer, Philip K. (September 21, 1958). "Shocker Pioneers Tell How to Make Monsters: Want to Make a Monster? Experts Tell How It's Done". Los Angeles Times. p. E1.
- Gordon, Alex (May 1983). "The Pit and the Pen". Fangoria. No. 27. pp. 34–37.
- Corman, Roger and Jerome, Jim (1998). "How I Made Over a Hundred Movies in Hollywood and Never Lost a Dime". DaCapo Press.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Alpert, Don (July 15, 1962). "Who Needs High Salaried Stars? Horrors! Film Makers Find Audiences Prefer Action". Los Angeles Times. p. A8.
- "AIP Reveals Its 1968 Film Program". Los Angeles Times. Jan 13, 1968. p. b7.
- VINCENT CANBY (Mar 2, 1969). "Bye, Bye, Beach Bunnies: Bye, Bye, Beach Bunnies". New York Times. p. D1.
- Italian International Film on IMDb
- p. 96 + p. 214 Arkoff, Sam and Trubo, Richard Flying Through Hollywood by the Seat of My Pants 1990 Carol Publishing
- "International Secret Police". tokyo street report. 2009-04-16. Archived from the original on 2010-07-04. Retrieved 2010-08-02.
- "American-International Television (AIP-TV) – IMDbPro". imdb.com. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
- Heffernan, Kevin Ghouls Gimmicks and Gold: Horror Films and the American Movie Business, 2004, Duke University Press, p.167
- Nielsen Business Media, Inc (1959-06-08). Billboard – Internet Archive. p. 9. Retrieved 2010-08-02.
american international records.
- "American International Records – CDs and Vinyl at Discogs". Discogs.com. Retrieved 2010-08-02.
- "Together/AIR Album Discography". Bsnpubs.com. 2000-04-12. Retrieved 2010-08-02.
- "American International Pictures". The Wall Street Journal. 3 June 1969. p. 29.
- "American International Pictures". The Wall Street Journal. 10 July 1969. p. 27.
- "American International Pictures Enters Film Accord". The Wall Street Journal. Apr 10, 1970. p. 22.
- Warga, Wayne (Jan 28, 1971). "30 FEATURES SET: AIP ANNOUNCES PLANS FOR BUSIEST FILM YEAR". Los Angeles Times. p. g11.
- "X-Rated Movies: On the Downswing?". The Washington Post, Times Herald. Mar 31, 1971. p. B4.
- "Nicholson to Quit American International Pictures Post". The Wall Street Journal. January 17, 1972. p. 18.
- "Nicholson Plans Own Film Firm". Los Angeles Times. 22 January 1972. p. b6.
- "California Film Maker Buys Own Stock From Ex-Officer". The Wall Street Journal. 19 September 1972. p. 43.
- "J.H. Nicholson, Film Maker, Dies of Cancer". Los Angeles Times. December 11, 1972. p. 26.
- Taylor, Clarke (Oct 8, 1978). "LARRY GORDON ROLLS HIS DICE". Los Angeles Times. p. n35.
- "The dime-store way to make movies-and money by Aljean Harmetz". New York Times. Aug 4, 1974. p. 202.
- "Policy Shift Set by American International Pictures Inc". The Wall Street Journal. May 25, 1972. p. 7.
- "American International Pictures Buys Shares From Sylvia Nicholson". The Wall Street Journal. Apr 19, 1978. p. 36.
- "Filmways Inc. Signs Accord in Principle For Movie Maker". The Wall Street Journal. Oct 10, 1978. p. 48.
- "American International Pictures, Filmways Inc. Terminates Merger Plan". The Wall Street Journal. Dec 11, 1978. p. 20.
- Jones, John A. (Feb 12, 1979). "May Revive Merger Talks With Filmways, AIP Says". Los Angeles Times. p. d12.
- "Filmways Says Assets Were Overstated For American International Pictures Inc". The Wall Street Journal. Dec 3, 1979. p. 8.
- "AIP BITES DUST AS FILMWAYS RENAMES STUDIO". Los Angeles Times. Mar 13, 1980. p. f3.
- "President of Filmways' American International Pictures Resigns Post". The Wall Street Journal. Dec 6, 1979. p. 30.
- "Filmways Inc. Pays Ex-Aide $1.4 Million". The Wall Street Journal. 8 July 1980. p. 8.
- Welles, Chris (May 15, 1983). "How Accountants Helped Orion Pictures Launch Its Financial Comeback". Los Angeles Times. p. f1.
- "Smith p. 97".
- "Smith p. 98".
- "Smith p. 99".
- "Smith p. 114".
- Smith p. 118
- "Smith p 159".
- Smith p. 249
- "Smith p. 161".
- "Smith p. 188, 230".
- "Smith p. 188".
- "Smith p. 192".
- "First Kiss (January 1962), Charlton Comics".
- pp.219-220 Palmer, Randy Paul Blaisdell, Monster Maker: A Biography of the B Movie Makeup and Special Effects Artist McFarland, 1 Jan. 1997
- Scheuer, Philip K. (July 12, 1963). "Grand Guignol Set at Vine St. Cabaret: Huston 'Sells' Kipling Yarn; Sinatra, AIP Think Young". Los Angeles Times. p. D11.
- Smith p. 208
- Scheuer, Philip K. (Jan 2, 1964). "AIP Millions for Poe, Beach Parties: 'Flowers' Oscar Hopeful; Burton Buys, May Direct". Los Angeles Times. p. C11.
- "Hollywood To Make A Big Silent Film". The Times. London. 3 March 1965. p. 15 – via The Times Digital Archive.
- Dorothy Kilgallen (June 11, 1964). "Howard Hughes, Aide Part Company". The Washington Post. p. E22.
- "Smith p. 262".
- Smith p. 289
- "American Film Executive On Study Visit". South China Morning Post and Hongkong Telegraph. 15 Sep 1965. p. 7.
- "MOVIE CALL SHEET: Spiegel to Film 'Swimmer'". Los Angeles Times. 19 March 1965. p. D13.
- "American International Expanding Operations". Los Angeles Times. May 4, 1966. p. e13.
- Smith p. 315
- "American International Pictures' Profit Steady: Company Says Results for Third Fiscal Quarter Were About the Same as for Year-Ago Period". The Wall Street Journal. Oct 12, 1971. p. 37.
- "American International Pictures". The Wall Street Journal. May 9, 1973. p. 19.
- Getze, John (20 Feb 1974). "Horror or Horrid Films, AIP Quickies Score at Box Office: FILMS". Los Angeles Times. p. d10.(Turn on hit highlighting for speaking browsers)
- "Stockholder Meeting Briefs". The Wall Street Journal. 26 June 1973. p. 35.
- "American International Will Be 'Happy' if Net Matches Fiscal 1975's". The Wall Street Journal. Oct 27, 1975. p. 18.
- Bry, Barbara (Jan 5, 1979). "AMERICAN INTERNATIONAL EPIC: CHINESE BOOK U.S. FILM 'FUTUREWORLD'". Los Angeles Times. p. d16.
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