American Horror Story
American Horror Story (sometimes abbreviated as AHS) is an American anthology horror television series created by Ryan Murphy and Brad Falchuk. Each season is conceived as a self-contained miniseries, following a different set of characters and settings, and a storyline with its own "beginning, middle, and end." Some plot elements of each season are loosely inspired by true events. The only actors to be present in all iterations are Evan Peters and Sarah Paulson with Lily Rabe and Frances Conroy appearing in all but one of the seasons each.
|American Horror Story|
|Starring||see List of American Horror Story cast members|
|Theme music composer|
|Country of origin||United States|
|No. of seasons||8|
|No. of episodes||94 (list of episodes)|
|Camera setup||Single camera|
|Running time||37–73 minutes|
|Original release||October 5, 2011 –|
The first season, retroactively subtitled Murder House, takes place in Los Angeles, California, during the year 2011, and centers on a family that moves into a house haunted by its deceased former occupants. The second season, subtitled Asylum, takes place in Massachusetts during the year 1964, and follows the stories of the patients and staff of an institution for the criminally insane. The third season, subtitled Coven, takes place in New Orleans, Louisiana, during the year 2013, and follows a coven of witches who face off against those who wish to destroy them. The fourth season, subtitled Freak Show, takes place in Jupiter, Florida, during the year 1952, and centers around one of the last remaining American freak shows and their struggle for survival. The fifth season, subtitled Hotel, takes place in Los Angeles, California, during the year 2015, and focuses on the staff and guests of a supernatural hotel. The sixth season, subtitled Roanoke, takes place in North Carolina during the years 2014–2016, and focuses on the paranormal events that take place at an isolated farmhouse haunted by the deceased Roanoke colony. The seventh season, subtitled Cult, takes place in the fictional suburb of Brookfield Heights, Michigan, during the year 2017, and centers on a cult terrorizing the residents in the aftermath of the 2016 U.S. presidential election. The eighth season, subtitled Apocalypse, takes place in California during the years 2018-2021 and features the return of the witches from Coven as they battle the Antichrist from Murder House, Michael Langdon, and attempt to prevent the apocalypse.
The series is broadcast on the cable television channel FX in the United States. On January 12, 2017, the series was renewed for a ninth season, with a two-season renewal alongside Apocalypse. On August 3, 2018, the series was greenlit for a tenth season.
Although reception to individual seasons has varied, American Horror Story largely has been well received by television critics, with the majority of the praise going towards the cast, particularly Jessica Lange, who won two Emmy Awards, a Golden Globe Award, and a Screen Actors Guild Award for her performances. Kathy Bates and James Cromwell each won an Emmy Award for their performances, while Lady Gaga won a Golden Globe Award. The series draws consistently high ratings for the FX network, with its first season being the most-viewed new cable series of 2011.
|First aired||Last aired|
|1||Murder House||12||October 5, 2011||December 21, 2011|
|2||Asylum||13||October 17, 2012||January 23, 2013|
|3||Coven||13||October 9, 2013||January 29, 2014|
|4||Freak Show||13||October 8, 2014||January 21, 2015|
|5||Hotel||12||October 7, 2015||January 13, 2016|
|6||Roanoke||10||September 14, 2016||November 16, 2016|
|7||Cult||11||September 5, 2017||November 14, 2017|
|8||Apocalypse||10||September 12, 2018||November 14, 2018|
Murder House (2011)Edit
Set in the year 2011, the season follows the Harmons, consisting of wife and mother Vivien (Connie Britton), her psychiatrist husband Ben (Dylan McDermott), and their teenage daughter Violet (Taissa Farmiga), as they move from Boston to Los Angeles to make a fresh start after Vivien's miscarriage led to Ben having an affair with one of his students, which almost tore their family apart. They move into a restored mansion and soon encounter the residence's housekeeper, Moira O'Hara (Frances Conroy and Alexandra Breckenridge), as well as their neighbors – the eccentric Langdon family consisting of Constance (Jessica Lange) and her daughter Adelaide (Jamie Brewer). The Harmons' lives are troubled by the meddling Langdons, the incompetent realtor Marcy (Christine Estabrook), as well as by the disfigured Larry Harvey (Denis O'Hare), a former resident of the mansion who is secretly in love with Constance, and the scorned Hayden McClaine (Kate Mara), Ben's former student who follows him to Los Angeles after deciding not to abort the baby that was a result of her and Ben's affair. Ben and Vivien try to rekindle their relationship while Violet, suffering from depression, finds comfort in Tate (Evan Peters), the ghost of Constance's psychopathic son who was killed after murdering several students at Westfield High in a school shooting. The family soon discovers that the home is haunted by the ghosts of anyone who has ever died on the property, including its creators Charles (Matt Ross) and Nora Montgomery (Lily Rabe); and their deformed son Thaddeus (Ben Woolf) who is sometimes referred to as the 'Infantata'. Flashbacks depict the mansion's previous homeowners throughout the last century, dating back to its construction in the 1920s.
Set in the year 1964, the season follows the patients and staff members of the church-owned Briarcliff Manor, located in Massachusetts, which was founded to treat and house the criminally insane. Kit Walker (Evan Peters), accused of being a prolific serial killer named "Bloody Face" after the disappearance of his wife Alma (Britne Olford)—though he claims she was abducted by aliens—is incarcerated at Briarcliff. This piques the interest of ambitious lesbian journalist Lana Winters (Sarah Paulson), who is yearning to find a story for her big break. At Briarcliff, Kit meets the other patients, many of whom claim to be unjustly institutionalized, including microcephalic Pepper (Naomi Grossman), who was framed for her nephew's murder; nymphomaniac Shelley (Chloe Sevigny), whose husband hypocritically committed her after finding her in bed with two guys; and the unassuming Grace Bertrand (Lizzie Brocheré) from France, who appears to be harboring a deep secret of her own. Believed to be a violent serial killer, he becomes the subject of interest of pragmatic psychiatrist Oliver Thredson (Zachary Quinto) and the sadistic Dr. Arthur Arden (James Cromwell), the latter of whom routinely conducts scientific operations on patients. The institution is run under the watchful eye of the stern Sister Jude (Jessica Lange), as well as her second-in-command, the naive Sister Mary Eunice (Lily Rabe), and the founder of the institution, Monsignor Timothy Howard (Joseph Fiennes). Briarcliff's inhabitants are routinely subject to supernatural and scientific influences, including demonic possession and extraterrestrial abduction.
Set in the year 2013, the season follows the dwindling descendants of the witches who survived the Salem Witch Trials and their struggle to hide their identity in the modern world. Those who share this genetic affliction are being subjected to violent attacks from outside forces, such as voodoo practitioners and witch hunters. Zoe Benson (Taissa Farmiga), a young teenager completely unaware of the existence of witches, discovers her identity as a Salem descendant after a violent accident that causes the death of her boyfriend. She is sent to an all-girls boarding school in New Orleans which aims to protect and house young women who carry this unique bloodline, and keep them from the dangers of the outside world. There, she meets the other students, narcissistic film star Madison Montgomery (Emma Roberts), outspoken Queenie (Gabourey Sidibe), and enigmatic Nan (Jamie Brewer), and gets romantically entangled with Kyle Spencer (Evan Peters), a non-witch and good-natured college student. The school is run by headmistress Cordelia Foxx (Sarah Paulson), head of the Witches Council, eccentric fashionista Myrtle Snow (Frances Conroy), and the mute butler Spalding (Denis O'Hare). Cordelia's mother, Fiona Goode (Jessica Lange), is the Supreme and most powerful witch of her generation, though she regularly avoids her responsibilities, much to the chagrin of Cordelia and her long-time rival Myrtle. After a mob of townspeople discover and nearly kill a young witch living in the swamps named Misty Day (Lily Rabe), Fiona returns to the school to ensure the safety of the other young witches, but also to fulfill her own hidden agenda. Events reveal a long-held rivalry between the witches of Salem and the voodoo practitioners of New Orleans, as well as a historic grudge between Voodoo Queen Marie Laveau (Angela Bassett) and socialite serial killer Delphine LaLaurie (Kathy Bates), who tortured and murdered her slaves in the 1830s. In addition to this, the coven is also being targeted by an organization of witch hunters.
Freak Show (2014–15)Edit
Set in the year 1952, the season follows a struggling freak show led by Elsa Mars (Jessica Lange) in the quiet town of Jupiter, Florida. Decades have passed since the public has looked upon freak shows as a form of entertainment, but Elsa dreams of finding a home for her "monsters", as well as for her own fame and fortune. Other members of her troupe include Jimmy Darling (Evan Peters), a boy born with syndactyly who dreams of living a normal life, and his mother Ethel (Kathy Bates), a bearded lady who is Elsa's second-in-command by maintaining law and order under the tent. A strongman from Ethel's past and Jimmy's biological father named Dell Toledo (Michael Chiklis), and his three-breasted wife Desiree Dupree (Angela Bassett), arrive to join the freak show. To drum up business and save her troupe once and for all, Elsa also recruits conjoined twin sisters Bette and Dot Tattler (Sarah Paulson) to perform for her show. In a time when the era of television is beginning to reign high above sideshow acts, these individuals must overcome those who persecute them based on their looks. However, as the season unfolds, it is revealed that multiple dark entities have taken up residence in Jupiter, with all of their eyes being set on the freaks. A conman named Stanley (Denis O'Hare), posing as a Hollywood executive, arrives with his young protege Maggie Esmerelda (Emma Roberts), with the intention of murdering the freaks and sending their bodies to a museum for profit. The wealthy and spoiled Dandy Mott (Finn Wittrock), enabled by his doting mother Gloria (Frances Conroy), develops an unhealthy obsession with the freaks, particularly Bette and Dot. Perhaps the most dangerous of them all is a mysterious, deformed killer clown, only known as Twisty (John Carroll Lynch), who wreaks havoc among the town and appears to be targeting freaks and townspeople alike.
Set in the year 2015, the season follows the strange and dangerous happenings that seem to center around the retro Hotel Cortez in downtown Los Angeles, California, initially built as a secret torture chamber to fulfill the violent desires of founder James March (Evan Peters). Detective John Lowe (Wes Bentley) arrives at the hotel, based on intel from an anonymous tip, to investigate a grisly string of murders, each of which exemplify a sin in violation of one of the Ten Commandments. He has become estranged from his wife Alex (Chloe Sevigny), who suffers from depression, and his daughter Scarlett (Shree Crooks), after the disappearance of their son Holden (Lennon Henry) five years earlier. As the season unfolds, the Lowes discover that the disappearance of Holden may be related to the strange activities at the hotel, led by March's fashionista widow Elizabeth Johnson (Lady Gaga), also known as the Countess—who was turned into a vampire by her former lovers, actor Rudolph Valentino (Finn Wittrock) and his wife Natacha Rambova (Alexandra Daddario)—and her current lover Donovan (Matt Bomer). Throughout his investigation, John also becomes entangled with the spirits of heroin junkie named Sally (Sarah Paulson), hotel maid Hazel Evers (Mare Winningham), and James Patrick March, who is looking for a protege to continue the violent acts he started when he was alive. The hotel's tireless staff includes the surly front desk manager Iris (Kathy Bates), Donovan's mother, and her best friend, the transgender bartender Liz Taylor (Denis O'Hare), both of whom hesitantly cater to Elizabeth and her vampiric children, one out of a desire to remain close to her son and the other out of a sense of loyalty. Elizabeth's relationship with Donovan becomes troubled with the arrival of male model and cocaine addict Tristan Duffy (Finn Wittrock), New York fashion designer Will Drake (Cheyenne Jackson), and her scorned ex-lover Ramona Royale (Angela Bassett), all of whom become entangled in her violent life.
Set in the years 2014-2016, the season follows the supernatural events that occur in a renovated farmhouse in North Carolina, which is situated on the land where the Roanoke Colony moved after their infamous 1580s disappearance. In 2015, Shelby Miller (Lily Rabe), her husband Matt (André Holland), along with Matt's sister Lee Harris (Adina Porter) recount their harrowing experience living in the farmhouse a year prior in a popular documentary series titled My Roanoke Nightmare, including their encounters with the ghosts of the house's previous residents, the violent ghosts of the Roanoke Colony, the cannibalistic Polk family who live nearby, and the beautiful, yet terrifying Celtic goddess, Scáthach (Lady Gaga). The documentary becomes a huge success, featuring dramatic reenactments of the Millers' story starring Audrey Tindall (Sarah Paulson) as Shelby, Dominic Banks (Cuba Gooding Jr.) as Matt, Monet Tumusiime (Angela Bassett) as Lee, Agnes Mary Winstead (Kathy Bates) as Thomasin White - also known as The Butcher, leader of the ghost colony, Audrey's husband Rory Monahan (Evan Peters) as Edward Philippe Mott, the creator and first owner of the house, William van Henderson (Denis O'Hare) as Dr. Elias Cunningham, a professor who becomes entranced with the paranormal happenings of the area, and Dylan (Wes Bentley) as Ambrose White, Thomasin's son and accomplice. In 2016, the success of the documentary leads to a sequel titled Return to Roanoke: Three Days In Hell, spearheaded by the producer of the original series, Sidney Aaron James (Cheyenne Jackson), who invites the Millers, as well as many of the reenactment actors, to return to the farmhouse for three days, where all their actions will be captured by hidden cameras. Although the Millers are aware of the entities that reside in the house, all three agree to return, each with their own agenda. The production eventually descends into disaster, however, as cast and crew alike are quickly targeted when the violent entities begin to surface.
Set in the year 2017, the fictional town of Brookfield Heights, Michigan, is left divided upon the wake of Donald Trump's election as president. Local restaurant owner Ally Mayfair-Richards (Sarah Paulson) is left utterly distraught, along with her wife Ivy (Alison Pill). Despite the help of her psychiatrist, Dr. Rudy Vincent Anderson (Cheyenne Jackson), Ally becomes increasingly unstable in the following weeks, as her long repressed phobias begin to re-emerge, and they begin to affect her relationships with her wife as well as their son Oz (Cooper Dodson). Across town, misogynistic alt-righter Kai Anderson (Evan Peters) rejoices at the election results, enticing him to pursue political power by running for city council, led by radical feminist Bebe Babbitt (Frances Conroy) and with the help of his reluctant, liberal sister Winter (Billie Lourd), who the Mayfair-Richards household hire as their nanny. As Ally attempts to re-adjust to regular life despite her growing anxiety and paranoia, she becomes terrorized by a group of masked assailants, donned in clown attire who are only present when she is alone, leaving those around her to wonder if she was truly attacked, or if they were merely hallucinations. Kai's faithful followers include Ally's eccentric neighbors Harrison (Billy Eichner) and Meadow Wilton (Leslie Grossman), reporter Beverly Hope (Adina Porter), detective Jack Samuels (Colton Haynes), and supermarket owner Gary K. Longstreet (Chaz Bono). With Kai's rise to power revealing sinister motives, Ally starts to draw connections between her alleged clown attackers and the many strange incidents occurring in Brookfield Heights. She begins to fear that everyone in town is out to get her, amplifying her growing distrust of those around her, especially her neighbors.
In the near future, the Antichrist, Michael Langdon (Cody Fern) brings about the apocalypse by instigating nuclear warfare. The chosen survivors of the aftermath, heiress Coco St. Pierre Vanderbilt (Leslie Grossman), her personal assistant Mallory (Billie Lourd), hairstylist Mr. Gallant (Evan Peters), Gallant's grandmother Evie (Joan Collins), talk-show host Dinah Stevens (Adina Porter), young adults Timothy Campbell (Kyle Allen) and Emily (Ash Santos), among others, take refuge in a fallout shelter named "Outpost 3", run with an iron fist by Wilhemina Venable (Sarah Paulson) and Miriam Mead (Kathy Bates). Flashbacks to three years before the apocalypse reveal that "Outpost 3" was an all-boys warlock school led by John Henry Moore (Cheyenne Jackson) that unknowingly harbored the Antichrist, in hopes that he would rise as the first ever male Supreme. The witches' council of Cordelia Goode (Paulson), Zoe Benson (Taissa Farmiga) and resurrected Myrtle Snow (Frances Conroy) are summoned and quickly discover how dangerous Michael is to their coven when faced with his evident powers, as he resurrects deceased witches Queenie (Gabourey Sidibe) and Madison Montgomery (Emma Roberts). The coven, with the aid of the warlocks, attempt to save humanity by discovering new witch Mallory's intense powers, learning more about Michael's mysterious origins and how to defeat him to prevent the apocalypse.
On January 12, 2017, the series was renewed for a ninth season, with a two-season renewal alongside Apocalypse, and is set to air in 2019. On February 6, 2019, Emma Roberts and Gus Kenworthy were announced to appear in the season.
Subsequently, on August 3, 2018, the series was renewed for a tenth season, set to air in 2020.
– Murphy on the series' anthology format
Creators Murphy and Falchuk began working on American Horror Story before their Fox series Glee began production. Murphy wanted to do the opposite of what he had done previously and thus began his work on the series. He stated: "I went from Nip/Tuck to Glee, so it made sense that I wanted to do something challenging and dark. And I always had loved, as Brad had, the horror genre. So it just was a natural for me." Falchuk was intrigued by the idea of putting a different angle on the horror genre, stating that their main goal in creating the series was to scare viewers. "You want people to be a little bit off balance afterwards," he said.
In February 2011, FX officially announced that it had ordered a pilot for a possible series from Ryan Murphy and Brad Falchuk, with both Murphy and Falchuk writing and Murphy directing. Dante Di Loreto was announced as executive producer. Production on the series began in April 2011. In July 2011, FX officially announced the project had been picked up to series.
From the beginning, Murphy and Falchuk planned that each season of the series would tell a different story. After the first-season finale aired, Murphy spoke of his plans to change the cast and location for the second season. He did say, however, that some actors who starred in the first season would be returning. "The people that are coming back will be playing completely different characters, creatures, monsters, etc. [The Harmons'] stories are done. People who are coming back will be playing entirely new characters," he announced. In November 2012, FX chief executive, John Landgraf, described the unique format of the series stating: "[T]he notion of doing an anthological series of miniseries with a repertory cast – has proven groundbreaking, wildly successful and will prove to be trendsetting."
At the 2013 PaleyFest, Falchuk compared the series to horror films: "It does demand a little bit of compassion at the end because you fall in love with these characters in a different way than you would in a movie," he said. "If you want to kill everybody in a movie except one person, you can kind of get away with that, but if you're looking to do a horror TV show, you have a different responsibility to the characters because the audience has a different affection for them."
Murphy then explained the process of planning a series' season takes about a year. "We come up with story first and then we come up with the characters," he said. "It is a repertory company, so we'll move people around and sometimes there won't yet be a role for somebody. Like when we started [the second season], I really had no idea that Dylan [McDermott] would be the person to play Sarah's son, but the deeper we got, I thought, that would work great."
In an August 2015 article for Entertainment Weekly, Murphy revealed that the show is mulling producing two seasons a year, the first being broadcast in the spring and the second in the fall. He explained, "We're doing something that we've never done before on the show where we're doing two different groups of writers rooms. Some of our writers will be bouncing around but a whole different group coming in late August. The next thing we're crafting up is very, very different than [Hotel]. Not smaller. But just not opulent. More rogue and more dark."
Connie Britton was first to be cast in the series, portraying female lead Vivien Harmon on Murder House. Denis O'Hare joined second as Larry Harvey. Jessica Lange soon followed as Constance, her first regular role on television. Dylan McDermott joined the cast soon after Lange as the male lead Ben Harmon. Taissa Farmiga and Evan Peters were the last actors to be added to the main cast, portraying Violet Harmon and Tate Langdon, respectively.
In March 2012, Murphy revealed that the second season had been planned around Jessica Lange, who portrays Sister Jude, a sadistic nun who runs the asylum. Evan Peters, Sarah Paulson, Lily Rabe and Zachary Quinto also return to join the main cast. Peters portrays Kit Walker, an inmate accused of murdering his wife. Paulson portrays Lana, a lesbian reporter who gets committed to the asylum because of her sexuality and intent to snoop around the sanitarium. Rabe's character is Sister Mary Eunice, clumsy second-in-charge to Sister Jude. Quinto portrays Dr. Thredson, a psychiatrist at the asylum. Lizzie Brocheré stars as Grace Bertrand, a character described originally as "a fierce, ferocious, extremely sexual, and dangerous wild-child sexpot", but the role was later heavily revamped. James Cromwell co-stars as Dr. Arthur Arden, who proclaims to be in charge of the asylum and performs dark experiments on its patients. Joseph Fiennes starred as Monsignor Timothy Howard, a possible love interest for Sister Jude.
For the third season, series executive producers and co-creators Ryan Murphy and Brad Falchuk stated that, as with the second season, "many actors" would return in different roles, beginning with Jessica Lange. Evan Peters and Sarah Paulson were confirmed to return, portraying Kyle Spencer and Cordelia Foxx, respectively. Murphy added that Lange would portray a "real glamour-cat lady", later revealed to be named Fiona Goode. Taissa Farmiga, Violet in the first season, starred as Zoe Benson, a character that is involved in a prominent romance during the season. Lily Rabe co-starred as Misty Day. Recurring cast member Frances Conroy joined as a main cast member, playing the character of Myrtle Snow. Oscar-winning actress Kathy Bates was confirmed to co-star. It was first reported that she would portray "a woman who, at the start, is Lange's character's best friend, but will become her worst enemy", but this was altered. Murphy stated that Bates' character will be "five times worse than [her] Misery character" and is also inspired by a "true event". She portrayed Madame Delphine LaLaurie, an immortal racist. It was announced in May 2013 that Emma Roberts had been added to the cast. Roberts played Madison Montgomery, a "self-involved party girl". In July 2013, season one alum Denis O'Hare also joined the cast in an unknown role, later revealed as Spalding.
In November 2013, Ryan Murphy confirmed that Jessica Lange would be returning for a fourth season, although in a reduced capacity. It was later revealed she would be playing Freak Show owner Elsa Mars. Kathy Bates returned in a main role, portraying bearded lady Ethel Darling. On March 29, 2014, Murphy announced that Sarah Paulson, Evan Peters, Frances Conroy, Emma Roberts, Denis O'Hare, and Angela Bassett would all return for the fourth season. Paulson portrayed conjoined sisters Bette and Dot Tattler; Peters portrayed "Lobster Boy" Jimmy Darling; Conroy played the well-off Gloria Mott; Bassett portrayed three-breasted hermaphrodite Desiree Dupree; and O'Hare played Stanley, a conman working with Roberts' Maggie Esmerelda. At PaleyFest 2014, it was revealed that Michael Chiklis would be joining the cast as Dell Toledo, the father of Jimmy, ex-husband of Ethel, and current husband of Desiree. Finn Wittrock later joined the main cast as Gloria's spoiled son, Dandy Mott.
For the series' fifth cycle, singer-songwriter Lady Gaga was announced as the first and newest main cast member on February 25, 2015. After a special guest appearance on the previous season, Matt Bomer joined the fifth season's cast along with series newcomer Cheyenne Jackson during PaleyFest 2015. Chloë Sevigny and Wes Bentley were promoted as main cast members, after they appear as recurring special guests in Asylum and Freak Show respectively. Murphy later announced the returns of Kathy Bates, Sarah Paulson, Evan Peters and Angela Bassett. In June 2015, it was announced Denis O'Hare would also return for the fifth season. In August 2015, Murphy announced the character roles for the cast: Gaga's Elizabeth Johnson also known as "The Countess", a fashionista vampire who owns the Hotel Cortez; Jackson's Will Drake, a desperate fashion designer; O'Hare's Liz Taylor, a transgender bartender who works at the hotel's Blue Parrot Lounge bar; Sevigny's Alex Lowe, a pediatrician who was the wife of Bentley's John Lowe, a detective who investigates the murders inside the hotel; Bomer's Donovan, the lover to the Countess whom often had conflict with his mother and hotel manager, Bates' Iris; Bassett's Ramona Royale, a former actress who was the former lover of Elizabeth; Paulson's Sally, a drug addict who had a rivalry with Iris and forms a bond with John since his visit in the hotel. Peters co-starred as serial killer James Patrick March and the original hotelier of the Hotel Cortez.
In February 2016, Angela Bassett confirmed she would return to join the main cast of the sixth season during an interview with Larry King. Denis O'Hare announced that he will also appear in the season in a May 2016 interview. In June 2016, Cheyenne Jackson, Evan Peters, Wes Bentley, and Kathy Bates announced their returns for the sixth season. In August 2016, Sarah Paulson announced that she would return to the series in the sixth season and Ryan Murphy announced that Oscar winner Cuba Gooding Jr. had joined the main cast. In September 2016, the full main cast was announced after the first episode with the inclusion of André Holland and returning series veteran Lily Rabe. On Halloween 2016, Murphy announced that Paulson's Asylum character, Lana Winters would also appear in the series after the recent appearance of the actress' first role Billie Dean Howard from Murder House in the final episode of the fifth season.
For the seventh season, Paulson and Peters were set to return to the series, as announced during the Winter 2017 TCA Press Tour. Billie Lourd, who made her breakout appearance with Murphy in 2015, was confirmed to join the main cast in April, while Jackson was the next series regular to return in the next month. In June, Alison Pill was announced to co-star in the season, portraying the partner of Paulson's character.
On October 2017, Paulson announced that she'll return for the series' eighth cycle. The next year, Peters was announced to appear in the main cast while Bates returned to the series after Roanoke, leading the season with Paulson. Jackson confirmed he will return while Adina Porter was promoted to the series' main cast after her first appearance in Murder House as well as Leslie Grossman since Cult. Lourd later returned to the main cast the next month. On June, Roberts announced that she'll reprise her Coven character Madison Montgomery in the eighth season. The next month, Australian actor Cody Fern was cast as the adult Michael Langdon who was last seen at the first series' final episode.
The pilot episode was shot on location in a house in Country Club Park, Los Angeles, California, which serves as the haunted house and crime scene in the series. Designed and built in 1908 by Alfred Rosenheim, the president of the American Institute of Architects' Los Angeles chapter, the Tudor or Collegiate Gothic-style single family home was previously used as a convent. The first season was filmed on sets which are an exact replica of the house. Details such as Louis Comfort Tiffany stained glass windows and hammered bronze light fixtures were recreated to preserve the look of the house.
Production and shooting for the second season began in late July 2012 for a scheduled premiere in mid October. The exteriors for the second season were filmed in Hidden Valley, Ventura County, California, a rural area outside Los Angeles, although the season took place in Massachusetts.
Principal photography for the third season began on July 23, 2013, in New Orleans, Louisiana. It was first reported that the season would film in multiple locations, but filming primarily took place in New Orleans.
Principal photography for the fifth season began on July 14, 2015, in Los Angeles, California, where the story also takes place. Murphy revealed a six-story hotel set was being built on the Fox lot. A dummy set of the hotel was built at the 2015 San Diego Comic-Con, showing an Art Deco style building from the 1920s, inspired by the old Hollywood era.
Filming for the eighth season began on June 16, 2018. It was filmed in multiple locations.
American Horror Story's title screens offer vague hints to important plot elements and events that compose each season. For Murder House, Murphy described the sequence as a mini-mystery and stated that: "By the time you see the ninth episode of this season, every image in that title sequence will be explained," establishing the purpose of the title sequence for future seasons.
The opening title sequence was created by Kyle Cooper and his company Prologue. He also created the title sequence for the AMC series The Walking Dead and the 1995 film Seven. The theme music was composed by sound designer Cesar Davila-Irizarry and musician Charlie Clouser. The cinematography was done by Juan Ruiz Anchía and the editing by Gabriel J. Diaz.
For Murder House, the sequence is set in the Harmons' basement and includes images of postmortem young children, fetuses in jars, skulls, a christening dress, a nurse's uniform, and a figure holding a pair of bloody hedge clippers. A photo of alleged axe murderer Lizzie Borden is also shown.
Asylum's opening sequence is done by the same creative team. "We are shooting a new title sequence with the same team that did last year's," series creator Ryan Murphy said. "The song may stay... not sure." The music was kept, and the new title sequence was set around the Asylum, using shots of inmates raving and surgeons operating on patients with bandages obscuring their faces. Elements include a young girl walking backwards on her hands and feet up a staircase and a shot of the Virgin Mary's smile changing from one of benevolence to one of spite.
Coven's opening sequence keeps the same music, and this sequence is the first one to be filmed primarily outside and not in an enclosed location. Shots include figures wearing black robes and capirotes, a bony-skeleton creature with wings and shots of dead goats, the Minotaur from the season also appears. For the first time, there are actual backgrounds that appear with the actor names instead of an all-black background, some of these images include witches hanging and Santa Muerte. Other elements include a black man with piercing eyes and a disturbing smile as well as voodoo dolls burning. The final shot continues after the figures in black capirotes seize one of their own who is later seen burning at a stake where young, dress-clad witches dance around.
Freak Show's opening sequence changed things up, the series theme music remains intact albeit with an added carnival-like soundscape. The sequence is composed of both CGI and stop-motion animation and features strange characters such as a skeleton chimera of a human being and an elephant riding a bicycle, a skeleton of what appears to be a single head but two bodies, a devil-like man, a boy in a wheel chair with deformed legs, a character with severe syndactyly of the hands and feet, a clown who can twist his head around, a woman with a third leg where her genitalia should be, and a demonic cymbal-banging monkey toy. There are also shots of side show attractions like the Human Blockhead, knife throwing and sword swallowing. The main recurring element features a balloon twister popping balloons with a knife.
Hotel's opening sequence also was very different from previous seasons, taking more of a biblical approach. The font, while remaining the same as the first four seasons, glows in red against a hotel wallpaper. The Ten Commandments are also shown throughout the sequence. The intro returns to live-action like the first three seasons. Visuals include many people scrubbing blood all over the walls and the floor, strange things shown through peepholes, people being victims to the hotel, little kids running around the hotel, a woman screaming as she smears lipstick all over her face, as well as many different creatures.
Roanoke featured no title sequence or opening credits, instead opting for a simple title card from the first season, Murder House, while the series theme music plays over the end credits. At the end of the finale's credits, the title of the season "American Horror Story: Roanoke" was revealed.
In the development of Cult, Murphy confirmed that the opening sequence will return. Cult's opening sequence features the series theme music played by a marching band. The sequence is live-action. Visuals include: a gang of clowns rising from a casket, Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton masks, a George Washington statue, a dead dog killed by toxic gas, a Merry Go Round, bloody hands that cannot be washed, a beehive, toxic smoke released from a grenade, holes in several forms, a bloody US flag with the sound of a xylophone playing The Star-Spangled Banner, a blood covered couple having sex, a magician pulling guts out of a hat and a handcuffed pinky promise.
Apocalypse's opening sequence features the original theme music from the first three seasons. The sequence includes images of nuclear disaster and sketches of demons fusing together. Other visuals include burning candles, snakes, both human and goat skulls, a scorpion, a blooming flower, and photos of nuclear-testing documents. Visuals from the title sequences of both season one and season three are also included with slight alterations, including the skeletal winged creature in the forest (Coven), the nurse's blouse (Murder House), a picture of a baby that has been set on fire (Murder House), and the goat skulls (Coven).
As part of the promotion for the series, FX launched a "House Call" campaign, in which viewers at home could sign up and come face-to-face with a character from the series. Prior to the series premiere, FX released several clues to shine light on the series. They were offered on the show's official YouTube channel. Ten clues were released. In September 2011, FX launched a website which allows visitors to tour the Murder House throughout the decades and look for clues.
In August 2012, the first promo for the second season was released on the American Horror Story Facebook page entitled "Special Delivery", in which a nun carries a couple of buckets filled with body parts through a field. As a church bell rings, the nun empties one bucket's bloody contents, leaving the empty bucket behind, and resumes her trek. Over 20 subsequent teasers were released. Four photos were also released on EW.com. Two televised teasers, titled "Meet the Residents", were released on August 31, 2012. They feature the patients and some staff (such as Dr. Thredson, played by Zachary Quinto, and Sister Mary Eunice, played by Lily Rabe) lying in twin beds and dealing with their individual issues as the heads of the asylum (Jessica Lange, Joseph Fiennes and James Cromwell) look on. The song "Que Sera, Sera", mixed with the show's theme music, plays. To promote Cult, a competition was set up where fans who donated to the Children's Hospital Los Angeles could get a chance to get a walk-on role in an episode, and lunch with Evan Peters.
Overall, themes for each season are typically kept under wraps until soon before premiers and are alluded to with brief and vague teaser trailers.
Universal's Halloween Horror NightsEdit
On August 16, 2016, FX announced a deal had been struck to feature an American Horror Story exhibit at Universal Studios Hollywood and Universal Orlando for their Halloween Horror Nights. The maze will feature sets and themes from Murder House, Freak Show, and Hotel. Universal said of the experience, "Twisted scenes from Murder House will unleash the evil spirits that possess the Harmon estate, spiraling guests through decades of the tortured dead who previously resided there. In Freak Show, guests will join a troupe of biological misfits in a sinister sideshow where they'll be stalked by the murderous and deformed Twisty the Clown. Finally, guests will succumb to the warped desires of The Countess after checking into the haunted Hotel Cortez, conceived from the beginning as a torture chamber for its customers."
In 2017, the show returned as haunted attractions to both parks, with Universal Orlando having an attraction based on Asylum, Coven, and Roanoke, and Universal Studios Hollywood basing their attraction solely on Roanoke.
The series premiered on October 5, 2011, and is broadcast on the cable television channel FX in the United States. In November 2011, it premiered internationally on the respective countries' Fox Networks Group. The first season premiered on October 5, 2011, and concluded on December 21, 2011. The second season premiered on October 17, 2012, and concluded on January 23, 2013. The third season premiered on October 9, 2013, and concluded on January 29, 2014. The fourth season premiered on October 8, 2014, and concluded on January 21, 2015. The fifth season premiered on October 7, 2015, and concluded on January 13, 2016. The sixth season premiered on September 14, 2016, and concluded on November 16, 2016. The seventh season premiered on September 5, 2017, and concluded on November 14, 2017. The eighth season premiered on September 12, 2018 and concluded on November 14, 2018. Seasons 5-7 premiered on the same day and same time with the American broadcasts on FX in Canada, though the first season followed a slightly different schedule as that network launched on October 31, 2011. The series is aired in India on STAR World Premiere HD shortly after its U.S. airing. Along with it, it airs on FX India on standard definition.
|Murder House||73% (39 reviews)||62 (30 reviews)|
|Asylum||84% (44 reviews)||65 (23 reviews)|
|Coven||83% (35 reviews)||71 (24 reviews)|
|Freak Show||79% (34 reviews)||69 (19 reviews)|
|Hotel||63% (48 reviews)||60 (24 reviews)|
|Roanoke||76% (14 reviews)||72 (9 reviews)|
|Cult||73% (46 reviews)||66 (24 reviews)|
|Apocalypse||71% (175 reviews)||63 (6 reviews)|
The first season, American Horror Story: Murder House, received generally positive reviews from critics. Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reported that 73% of 38 critics gave the first season a positive review. The site's consensus stated: "Convoluted yet effective, American Horror Story is strange, gory, and twisted enough to keep viewers hooked." The first season scored 62 out of 100 on Metacritic based on 30 reviews. Ken Tucker from Entertainment Weekly awarded the pilot episode a B+, stating: "AHS is pretty much all scare, all the time: a whole lotta screams, sex, jolts, mashed faces, psychotic behavior, and dead babies." Hank Stuever from The Washington Post said in his review that: "Overdoing things is one of Murphy's trademark flaws, but this show has a captivating style and giddy gross-outs." Not all reviews were favorable: Alan Sepinwall of HitFix gave the series a D−, saying: "It is so far over the top that the top is a microscopic speck in its rearview mirror, and so full of strange sounds, sights and characters that you likely won't forget it – even though many of you will wish you could." Sepinwall would later go on to call it one of the worst TV shows of 2011. The Los Angeles Times' Mary McNamara gave it a mixed review, stating that it "collapses into camp... upon more than one occasion" but also noting that it is "hard to look away."
The second season, American Horror Story: Asylum, received positive reviews from critics. Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reported that 84% of 43 critics gave the season a positive review. The site's consensus is: "American Horror Story: Asylum crosses boundaries to shock and scare with sexy subplots and some innovative takes on current social issues." It scored 65 out of 100 on Metacritic based on 23 reviews. James Poniewozik from Time stated: "AHS: Asylum feels like a more focused, if equally frenetic, screamfest. It's also gorgeously realized, with a vision of its '60s institution setting so detailed you can smell the stale air and incense." Maureen Ryan of The Huffington Post said: "It's to the credit of Asylum's writers, directors and cast that the emotional pain of the characters often feels as real as their uncertainty and terror." Verne Gay from Newsday gave the season a C grade, stating it "has some good special effects, just not much of a story to hang them on." Linda Stasi of the New York Post thought the season was "over the top," adding: "I need to enter [an asylum] myself after two hours of this craziness."
The third season, American Horror Story: Coven, received positive reviews from critics. Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reported that 83% of 35 critics gave the season a positive review. The site's consensus reads: "A noteworthy ensemble cast combined with creepy storytelling and campy, outrageous thrills make American Horror Story: Coven a potently structured fright-fest." It scored 71 out of 100 on Metacritic based on 24 reviews, the highest score for the show to that point. Not all reviews were positive, however, with criticism focused mainly in regards to the progression of both the story and certain character arcs in the second half of the season. The A.V. Club gave this season the low rating of a D+, with critic Todd Van DerWerff remarking: "It lurched drunkenly from idea to idea, never settling on one long enough to build anything of worth."
The fourth season, American Horror Story: Freak Show, received positive reviews. Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reports that 79% of 32 critics gave the season a positive review. The site's consensus is: "Though it may turn off new viewers unaccustomed to its unabashed weirdness, Freak Show still brings the thrills, thanks to its reliably stylish presentation and game cast." It scored 69 out of 100 on Metacritic based on 19 "generally favorable" reviews.
The fifth season, American Horror Story: Hotel, received more mixed reviews from critics, in comparison to its predecessors. Rotten Tomatoes reports that 63% of 43 critics gave the season a positive review. The site's consensus is: "Favoring garish style over effective storytelling, the fifth American Horror Story strands a talented cast at Ryan Murphy's Hotel." Hotel scored a 60 out of 100 on Metacritic based on 24 "mixed or average" reviews.
The sixth season, American Horror Story: Roanoke, received positive reviews from critics. Rotten Tomatoes reports that 76% of 13 critics gave the season a positive review. The site's consensus is: "American Horror Story: My Roanoke Nightmare takes a surprising turn away from prior AHS formats, revisiting the deliberate pace of earlier seasons on a spookier, smaller scale, even if the true-crime format feels overdone." It scored a 72 on Metacritic based on six reviews.
The seventh season, American Horror Story: Cult, received mostly positive reviews from critics. Rotten Tomatoes reports that 73% of 47 critics gave the season a positive review. The site's consensus is: "American Horror Story: Cult intrigues with timely, over-the-top creepiness – and lots of clowns – despite being hampered by broad political generalizations and occasional holes in the narrative's logic." It scored a 66 on Metacritic based on 24 "generally favorable" reviews.
The eighth season, American Horror Story: Apocalypse, received mostly positive reviews from critics. Rotten Tomatoes reports that 71% of 175 critics gave the season a positive review. The site's consensus is: "Ryan Murphy and his murderers' row of witchy performers literally save the world - and franchise - in Apocalypse, the series most ambitious crossover swing yet." It scored a 63 on Metacritic based on 6 "generally favorable" reviews.
Ryan Murphy and Brad Falchuk have been credited with creating a series that increases both the LGBT creators and storylines in the industry. Theresa L. Geller and Anna Marie Banker have stated that Murphy and Falchuk utilize "the formal structure of the serialized anthology...to present serial narratives made by and about 'queers,' openly subverting gender and sexual norms that define the majority of television".
The pilot episode of American Horror Story was watched by 3.2 million viewers and averaged a 1.6 rating in the 18–49 years adult demographic, the most sought after by advertisers. These were the best numbers FX had ever received for a series premiere. The episode was seen by 3.2 million total viewers in 59 countries. Ratings increased as the season progressed, with the season finale being watched by 3.22 million viewers and receiving a 1.7 ratings share in the 18–49 years adult demographic. The series premiere aired in November 2011 across Europe and Latin America on Fox International Channels, and ranked as first or second most watched telecast in its timeslot among all paid television in most metered markets. "Numbers so strong, it's scary. American Horror Story has brought droves of new viewers to a killer global lineup", said Hernan Lopez, the president of Fox International Channels.
The second season's premiere gained a 2.2 18–49 ratings share and gathered 3.85 million viewers, marking the highest numbers for the series. By the season's sixth episode, the numbers dropped to a series-low 0.9 18–49 ratings share and 1.89 million viewers; however, they rebounded to above two million viewers for the subsequent episodes, and reached 2.29 million viewers for the season's finale. The premiere of the fifth season of the series became the second most-watched telecast in the network's history, only behind the premiere episode of the previous season, which was watched by 6.13 million viewers. The show was subsequently renewed for another season; John Landgraf, the CEO of the network, commented on the show's success by saying that American Horror Story, the network's highest rated series, "has unquestionably joined the ranks of television's landmark series." In 2016, a New York Times study of the 50 TV shows with the most Facebook Likes found that "unlike a lot of shows about the supernatural", American Horror Story was "more popular in cities, but also throughout parts of the Southwest".
|Season||Timeslot (ET)||Episodes||First aired||Last aired||TV season||Avg. viewers|
|1||Wednesday 10:00 p.m.||12||October 5, 2011||3.18||December 21, 2011||3.22||2011–12||2.82|
|2||13||October 17, 2012||3.85||January 23, 2013||2.29||2012–13||2.53|
|3||13||October 9, 2013||5.54||January 29, 2014||4.24||2013–14||4.00|
|4||13||October 8, 2014||6.13||January 21, 2015||3.27||2014–15||3.85|
|5||12||October 7, 2015||5.81||January 13, 2016||2.24||2015–16||2.89|
|6||10||September 14, 2016||5.14||November 16, 2016||2.45||2016–17||2.93|
|7||Tuesday 10:00 p.m.||11||September 5, 2017||3.93||November 14, 2017||1.97||2017–18||2.22|
|8||Wednesday 10:00 p.m.||10||September 12, 2018||3.08||November 14, 2018||1.83||2018–19||2.04|
American Horror Story has won 73 of its 315 award nominations. The franchise has garnered 28 Primetime Emmy Award nominations, with Jessica Lange winning for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Miniseries or a Movie and for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Miniseries or a Movie, James Cromwell winning for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie, and Kathy Bates winning for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Miniseries or a Movie. It received an additional 50 Creative Arts Emmy Award nominations, winning eleven times, including Outstanding Hairstyling for a Miniseries or a Movie, Outstanding Costumes for a Miniseries, Movie, or Special, Outstanding Sound Editing for a Miniseries, Movie, or Special, and Outstanding Prosthetic Makeup for a Series, Limited Series, Movie or a Special. It has received nine Golden Globe Award nominations, with Lange winning for Best Supporting Actress in a Series, Miniseries or Television Film, and Lady Gaga winning for Best Actress in a Miniseries or Television Film. The series has also received three Screen Actors Guild Award nominations, with Lange winning for Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Drama Series. Additional accolades include eighteen Critics' Choice Television Awards nominations, with four wins, the GLAAD Media Award for Outstanding TV Miniseries, four Costume Designers Guild Awards nominations, winning three times, eight wins out of ten nominations at the Make-Up Artists and Hair Stylists Guild, five People's Choice Awards nominations, winning once, and eleven Satellite Awards nomination, with three wins.
On October 7, 2014, it was announced that FX had ordered a 10-episode spin-off titled American Crime Story, developed by Scott Alexander and Larry Karaszewski. While each season of American Horror Story focuses on a new horror theme, each season of American Crime Story focuses on a new true crime story. The series features American Horror Story cast members Sarah Paulson, Connie Britton, Cuba Gooding Jr., Darren Criss, Finn Wittrock, Max Greenfield and Cody Fern. The first season premiered in February 2016, with the second season premiering in January 2018. A third season is in development, but the production is scrapped.
- Droesch, Paul. "American Horror Story TV Series (2011)". AllMovie. Retrieved December 13, 2015.
- "American Horror Story 6 Seasons 2011". Amazon.com. Retrieved July 24, 2016.
- Pehanick, Maggie (April 24, 2016). "The True Stories Behind 18 American Horror Story Characters". Popsugar.com. Retrieved May 8, 2016.
- Wood, Lucy (October 18, 2015). "DID YOU KNOW THESE AMERICAN HORROR STORY PLOTLINES ARE BASED ON TRUE EVENTS?". Sugarscape.com. Retrieved May 8, 2016.
- Gennis, Sadie (October 20, 2015). "The Real-Life Inspirations Behind American Horror Story: Hotel". TV Guide. Retrieved May 8, 2016.
- Andreeva, Nellie (August 3, 2018). "'American Horror Story' Renewed For Season 10 by FX". Deadline. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
- Andreeva, Nellie (January 12, 2017). "'American Horror Story' Renewed For Seasons 8 & 9 By FX -TCA". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
- Harnick, Chris (February 6, 2019). "Gus Kenworthy Joining American Horror Story Season 9 With Emma Roberts". E News. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- Otterson, Joe (August 3, 2018). "'American Horror Story' Renewed for Season 10 at FX". Variety. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
- "'Coven' witches will return to 'American Horror Story' after 'Apocalypse,' says Ryan Murphy". EW.com. Retrieved 2018-12-05.
- Bradley, Laura. "Get Ready for More of the Coven Witches on American Horror Story". HWD. Retrieved 2018-12-05.
- "'American Horror Story' Crossovers Continue? Ryan Murphy Says 'Witches Will Be Back'". www.thewrap.com. Retrieved 2018-12-05.
- Mullins, Jenna (December 22, 2011). "American Horror Story Season Two Scoop: New House and (Mostly) New Faces". E! Online. NBCUniversal. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- Stack, Tim (October 5, 2011). "'American Horror Story' co-creator Ryan Murphy talks premiere, his favorite scene, and identity of Rubber Man – EXCLUSIVE". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- Juergens, Brian (October 3, 2011). "Ryan Murphy and Brad Falchuk Talk "American Horror Story": Blood, Infidelity, and Zachary Quinto". NewNowNext. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- Fienberg, Daniel (February 17, 2011). "FX orders 'American Horror Story' from 'Glee' pair". HitFix. Retrieved February 17, 2011.
- "FX Orders "American Horror Story" to Series". The Futon Critic (Press release). Futon Media. July 18, 2011. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- Itzkoff, Dave (December 22, 2011). "'American Horror Story' Will Scare Up a New Cast and New Haunted Home for Season 2". The New York Times. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- de Moraes, Lisa (November 15, 2012). "FX picks up third season of 'American Horror Story'". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 15, 2012.
- Luna, Keri (March 19, 2013). "American Horror Story Creators, Cast Tease Season 3". Spinoff.ComicBookResources.com. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- Stack, Tim (August 27, 2015). "There could be TWO seasons of American Horror Story in 2016". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Stransky, Tanner (March 18, 2011). "'Friday Night Lights' star Connie Britton cast in Ryan Murphy's 'American Horror Story' pilot". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved March 18, 2011.
- Andreeva, Nellie (March 30, 2011). "Denis O'Hare Joins Ryan Murphy's FX Pilot 'American Horror Story'". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved March 30, 2011.
- Andreeva (April 13, 2011). "Jessica Lange To Star in Ryan Murphy/Brad Falchuk's FX Pilot 'American Horror Story'". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on May 11, 2011. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
- Andreeva (April 29, 2011). "Dylan McDermott To Star in Ryan Murphy's FX Pilot 'American Horror Story'". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on May 8, 2011. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
- Andreeva (May 5, 2011). "'American Horror Story' Casts Young Leads". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
- Fowler, Tara (September 4, 2012). "Sister Jude (Jessica Lange)". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
- Bricker, Tierney (March 2, 2012). "American Horror Story Season Two Scoop: Three More Castmembers Confirmed to Return!". E! Online. NBCUniversal. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- Fowler, Tara (September 4, 2012). "Kit (Evan Peters)". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
- Fowler, Tara (September 4, 2012). "Lana (Sarah Paulson)". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
- Fowler, Tara (September 4, 2012). "Sister Eunice (Lily Rabe)". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
- Fowler, Tara (September 4, 2012). "Dr. Thredson (Zachary Quinto)". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
- Goldberg, Lesley (March 2, 2012). "Zachary Quinto Returning to FX's 'American Horror Story'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- Ausiello, Michael (April 11, 2012). "Exclusive: American Horror Story Casts French Actress in Major (and Mysterious) Season 2 Role". TV Line. Retrieved April 11, 2012.
- Harnick, Chris (September 5, 2012). "American Horror Story: Asylum Photos". The Huffington Post. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
- Fowler, Tara (September 4, 2012). "Dr. Arden (James Cromwell)". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
- Stack, Tim (May 7, 2012). "'American Horror Story' scoop: James Cromwell in talks for season 2". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved May 20, 2012.
- Kondolojy, Amanda (August 1, 2012). "Ryan Murphy Reveals Title of New Chapter of 'American Horror Story'". TV by the Numbers (Press release). Tribune Digital Ventures. Retrieved August 28, 2012.
- Fowler, Tara (September 4, 2012). "Monsignor Timothy Howard (Joseph Fiennes)". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
- Stack, Tim (June 11, 2012). "'American Horror Story' scoop: Joseph Fiennes in talks for season 2 – EXCLUSIVE". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
- Harnick, Chris (November 15, 2012). "'American Horror Story' Renewed: FX Orders Season 3 With Jessica Lange". The Huffington Post. Retrieved November 15, 2012.
- "American Horror Story Season 3 to Take Place in Multiple Cities; First Plot Details Revealed!". TV Web. January 18, 2013. Retrieved January 18, 2013.
- Goldberg, Lesley (February 7, 2013). "'American Horror Story' Adds Frances Conroy, Taissa Farmiga for Season 3". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved February 7, 2013.
- Goldberg, Lesley (January 31, 2013). "'American Horror Story': Lily Rabe Returning for Season 3". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved February 1, 2013.
- Ausiello, Michael (February 26, 2013). "Exclusive: American Horror Story Season 3 Pits Jessica Lange Against... Kathy Bates!". TVLine. Retrieved February 26, 2013.
- Masters, Megan (February 27, 2013). "American Horror Story Scoop: Ryan Murphy Teases Kathy Bates' Turn as a 'Bad, Bad Woman!'". TVLine. Retrieved March 1, 2013.
- Masters, Megan (May 22, 2013). "American Horror Story Exclusive: Emma Roberts Joins the FX Spookfest's Coven". TVLine. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
- Mitovich, Matt Webb (July 27, 2013). "Horror Story Vet Denis O'Hare Joins Coven". TV Line. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
- "'American Horror Story' Season 4: Jessica Lange's Final Year". ScreenCrush.com. November 22, 2013. Retrieved December 2, 2013.
- "'American Horror Story': Kathy Bates, Angela Bassett season 4 return". Hypable.com. November 8, 2013. Retrieved December 2, 2013.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (March 29, 2014). "Michael Chiklis Joins FX's 'American Horror Story: Freak Show'". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved March 29, 2014.
- Perlman, Jake (March 29, 2014). "Michael Chiklis joins the cast of 'American Horror Story: Freak Show'". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved March 29, 2014.
- Hibberd, James (February 25, 2015). "Lady Gaga to star in American Horror Story next season". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved February 25, 2015.
- Oldenburg, Ann (March 16, 2015). "'American Horror Story: Hotel' adds to cast". USA Today. Retrieved March 18, 2015.
- Petski, Denise (March 24, 2015). "Chloe Sevigny cast in 'American Horror Story: Hotel'". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on April 30, 2015. Retrieved May 2, 2015.
- Stack, Tim (June 17, 2015). "Finn Wittrock joins American Horror Story: Hotel... and a Lady Gaga love triangle". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved June 17, 2015.
- Andreeva, Nellie (June 18, 2015). "Ryan Murphy On Jessica Lange's 'AHS' Exit & Possible Return, Building His 'Hotel' & Next 'American Crime Story' – Emmys". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
- Woerner, Meredith (August 7, 2015). "Lily Rabe confirmed to play serial killer, Aileen Wuornos". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on August 9, 2015. Retrieved August 7, 2015.
- "Angela Bassett Confirms She'll Be In 'American Horror Story' Season 6". Ora TV. Retrieved February 20, 2016.
- "Here Is Your Confirmed Cast For Season 6 Of 'AHS'". MoviePilot.com. Archived from the original on 2017-08-30. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- Dixon, Marcus James (June 29, 2016). "'American Horror Story' Season 6: Evan Peters to return, but what about Finn Wittrock, Denis O'Hare?". Gold Derby. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
- Pedersen, Erik (June 27, 2016). "'American Horror Story': Cheyenne Jackson Confirms Season 6 Return". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
- Gajewski, Ryan (July 23, 2016). "Emma Roberts Teases 'American Horror Story' Return: See Her Mysterious Comments!". Us Weekly. Retrieved July 24, 2016.
- "'American Horror Story' Brand New Haunted House Unveiled". TMZ. August 4, 2016. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- Branch, Kate (August 5, 2016). "Sarah Paulson on Playing American Horror Story and American Crime Story Characters at the Same Time". Glamour. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
- Bricker, Tierney (September 15, 2016). "American Horror Story's Season 6 Cast Is Finally Revealed". E!#E! Online. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- Murphy, Ryan [@MrRPMurphy] (October 31, 2016). "Sarah Paulson's ASYLUM ultimate survivor LANA WINTERS returns this season on "AHS: ROANOKE." Happy Halloween!" (Tweet). Retrieved October 31, 2016 – via Twitter.
- Stack, Tim (December 9, 2015). "American Horror Story exclusive: Sarah Paulson to reprise season one's Billie Dean Howard in Hotel finale". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on December 12, 2015. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
- Wagmeister, Elizabeth (January 12, 2017). "Sarah Paulson, Evan Peters to Return for 'American Horror Story' Season 7". Variety. Retrieved January 12, 2017.
- Andreeva, Nellie (April 6, 2017). "Billie Lourd To Star In 'American Horror Story' Season 7 On FX". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved April 6, 2017.
- Nilles, Billie (April 7, 2017). "American Horror Story Season 7 Adds Scream Queens Vet Billie Lourd". E!. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
- AHStoryNet [@AHStoryNet] (May 27, 2017). "Cheyenne Jackson @cheyennejackson - On Set of "American Horror Story" - May 26 #AHS #AHS7" (Tweet). Retrieved May 27, 2017 – via Twitter.
- AHStoryNet [@AHStoryNet] (June 28, 2017). "Alison Pill is officially joining the cast of #AHS7 !" (Tweet). Retrieved June 28, 2017 – via Twitter.
- Lynch, Jason (October 1, 2017). "Sarah Paulson Has Taken FX, the Emmys and Movie Studios by Storm. Next up: Netflix". Adweek. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
- Stack, Tim (March 20, 2018). "American Horror Story: Kathy Bates to return for season 8". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
- Bentley, Jean (April 7, 2018). "'American Horror Story' Season 8: Evan Peters, Billy Eichner, Cheyenne Jackson, More Returning". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
- Bentley, Jean (May 18, 2018). "Billie Lourd To Return To 'American Horror Story' For Season 8, Joins 'Booksmart' Movie". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved May 18, 2018.
- Ramos, Dino-Ray (June 17, 2018). "Emma Roberts Teases Return of 'American Horror Story's Madison Montgomery". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved June 17, 2018.
- Otterson, Joe (July 26, 2018). "'American Horror Story' Season 8 Casts Cody Fern as Michael Langdon". Variety.
- Keeps, David A. (October 31, 2011). "Set Pieces: The haunted house of 'American Horror Story'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 5, 2011.
- Kudler, Adrian Glick (October 4, 2011). "American Horror Story Gave Alfred Rosenheim House in Country Club Park an Early Halloween Costume". Curbed.com. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
- Chaney, Jen (October 5, 2011). "Connie Britton on 'American Horror Story,' 'Friday Night Lights' and what she learned from Rob Zombie". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
- Rice, Lynette (March 1, 2012). "Jessica Lange will return to 'American Horror Story' – EXCLUSIVE". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- Dos Santos, Kristin (July 26, 2012). "American Horror Story Casting Scoop: Jenna Dewan to Be Lovers With Adam Levine". E! Online. NBCUniversal. Archived from the original on July 28, 2012. Retrieved July 27, 2012.
- "American Horror Story Season 3 Supports New Orleans Film Industry With Crew, Casting Call: Coven Cast Travel To Louisiana To Begin Shooting". KPopStarz.com. July 16, 2013. Retrieved July 17, 2013.
- Prudom, Laura (March 15, 2013). "'American Horror Story: Coven': Kathy Bates To Star In Season 3, Featuring Witches And Filming In New Orleans". The Huffington Post. Retrieved March 16, 2013.
- Goldberg, Lesley (March 15, 2013). "'American Horror Story' at PaleyFest: Season 3 Title Revealed". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 16, 2013.
- "'American Horror Story' At PaleyFest: Season 3 Has Witches, Kathy Bates Comes Onstage; Vampire Series Teased". Deadline Hollywood. March 15, 2013. Retrieved March 17, 2013.
- "Michael Goi on Twitter: "To the fans of American Horror Story, who made us the #1 show in FX's history, we dedicate this season to you". Twitter. July 14, 2015. Retrieved August 10, 2015.
- Woerner, Meredith (July 11, 2015). "Go inside the American Horror Story: Hotel, built just for San Diego Comic-Con". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 13, 2015.
- Nilles, Billy (June 27, 2016). "Finally, An American Horror Story Season 6 Update". E!. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
- "'American Horror Story' New Set Photos Hint At Lost Colony". TMZ. August 1, 2016. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
- Stanhope, Kate (February 15, 2017). "Ryan Murphy Reveals 'American Horror Story' Will Tackle 2016 Presidential Election". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved February 15, 2017.
- Andreeva, Nellie (March 28, 2017). "'American Horror Story': Billy Eichner Cast In Season 7 Of FX Anthology Series". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved March 28, 2017.
- Blyth, Antonia (April 6, 2018). "Ryan Murphy Confirms 'American Horror Story' Season 8 Is Set "18 Months From Today"; Joan Collins To Play Evan Peters' Grandmother". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
- Jirak, Jamie (February 15, 2019). "'American Horror Story' Season 9 Reportedly Begins Filming in June". Comic Book. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
- Crider, Michael (August 3, 2011). "'American Horror Story' Opening Credits Are Totally Creepy [Updated]". Screen Rant. Retrieved September 29, 2011.
- Stack, Tim (September 28, 2011). "'American Horror Story': Watch the terrifying opening credits sequence – EXCLUSIVE VIDEO". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- Abrams, Natalie (August 7, 2012). "The New Rubber Man, Lange's Character and More American Horror Story: Asylum Spoilers". TV Guide. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- Bryant, Jacob (October 1, 2015). "Watch: 'American Horror Story: Hotel' Opening Sequence Gets Biblical". Variety. Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- Bailey, Shawn (May 10, 2014). "Why Is The 'American Horror Story' Font So Creepy?". The Inquisitr News. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
- Carp, Jesse (August 10, 2011). "American Horror Story Continues Creepy Promos Plus A Horror House Call Campaign". Cinema Blend. Retrieved August 10, 2011.
- Carp, Jesse (August 5, 2011). "American Horror Story Promos Are Creepy Clues". Cinema Blend. Retrieved August 5, 2011.
- Stanley, T.L. (September 15, 2011). "FX's 'American Horror Story' Just as Upsetting Online". Adweek. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- Richenthal, Matt (August 17, 2012). "American Horror Story Season 2 Promo: Buckets of Body Parts". TV Fanatic. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- "'American Horror Story' Season 2 Spoilers: 'Asylum's' Premiere Date, New Photos And Haunting 8th Teaser, 'White Rave', Released [VIDEO]". International Business Times. August 28, 2012. Retrieved February 3, 2014.
- Stack, Tim (August 28, 2012). "'American Horror Story': See 4 terrifying images from season 2 'Asylum' – EXCLUSIVE PHOTOS". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 28, 2012.
- "Meet the Residents". YouTube. August 31, 2012. Retrieved August 31, 2012.
- "Be in American Horror Story* & Get Lunch with Evan Peters". Omaze.
- Woerner, Meredith (August 16, 2016). "'American Horror Story' will come alive at Universal Studios' Halloween Horror Nights". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- "American Horror Story: AHS (2011)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved October 3, 2013.
- "American Horror Story – Season 1 Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved October 2, 2011.
- Tucker, Ken (September 28, 2011). "American Horror Story". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved September 28, 2011.
- Stuever, Hank (September 21, 2011). "2011 TV season: Few smooth takeoffs, many bumpy arrivals". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- Sepinwall, Alan (October 4, 2011). "Review: FX's 'American Horror Story' an overwrought mess". HitFix. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- Sepinwall, Alan. "Lumps of coal: The worst TV I watched in 2011". Retrieved April 9, 2016.
- McNamara, Mary (October 5, 2011). "TV review: 'American Horror Story' on FX". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
- "American Horror Story: Asylum (2012–2013)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved October 3, 2013.
- "American Horror Story: Season 2". Metacritic. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- Poniewozik, James (October 17, 2012). "TV Tonight: American Horror Story: Asylum". Time. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- Ryan, Maureen (October 16, 2012). "'American Horror Story: Asylum' Review: Scary, Freaky And Surprisingly Addictive". The Huffington Post. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- Gay, Verne (October 15, 2012). "'American Horror Story: Asylum' not much of a story". Newsday. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- Stasi, Linda (October 17, 2012). "'Asylum' is a 'Horror'". New York Post. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- "American Horror Story: Coven (0–0)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved October 10, 2013.
- VanDerWerff, Todd (January 29, 2014). "American Horror Story: "The Seven Wonders"". The A.V. Club. Retrieved February 8, 2014.
- "American Horror Story: Freak Show (2014)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved November 15, 2014.
- "American Horror Story: Season 4". Metacritic. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
- "American Horror Story: Hotel". Metacritic. Retrieved October 8, 2015.
- "American Horror Story: Roanoke (2016)". RottenTomatoes. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- "American Horror Story: Roanoke". Metacritic. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- "American Horror Story: Cult Reviews". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
- "American Horror Story: Season 7". Metacritic. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
- "American Horror Story: Apocalypse Reviews". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
- "American Horror Story: Season 8". Metacritic. Retrieved September 24, 2018.
- Geller, Theresa L.; Banker, Anna Marie (March 2017). ""That Magic Box Lies": Queer Theory, Seriality, and American Horror Story". The Velvet Light Trap. 79: 36–49. doi:10.7560/VLT7904.
- Seidman, Robert (October 6, 2011). "Wednesday Cable: 'American Horror Story' Premiere, 'South Park' Return Top MLB Playoffs + 'Ghost Hunters,' 'Nick Swardson' & More". TV by the Numbers. Tribune Digital Ventures. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- Gorman, Bill (October 25, 2011). "American Horror Story Is No. 1 Series Premiere in FX History". TV by the Numbers (Press release). Tribune Digital Ventures. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- Gorman, Bill (November 15, 2011). "International Premiere Of 'American Horror Story' Scares Up Big Numbers On Fox International Channels". TV by the Numbers (Press release). Tribune Digital Ventures. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- Gorman, Bill (December 22, 2011). "Wednesday Cable Ratings: 'American Horror Story' Finale Rises, Leads Night + 'Sons Of Guns,' 'Moonshiners,' 'Top Chef', 'Hot In Cleveland' & More". TV by the Numbers. Tribune Digital Ventures. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
- Bibel, Sara (October 18, 2012). "Wednesday Cable Ratings: 'American Horror Story' Wins Night, 'Duck Dynasty', 'South Park', 'The Daily Show', Baseball & More". TV by the Numbers. Tribune Digital Ventures. Archived from the original on September 8, 2015. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- Bibel, Sara (October 18, 2012). "'American Horror Story: Asylum' Premieres to Insane Ratings". TV by the Numbers (Press release). Tribune Digital Ventures. Archived from the original on June 29, 2015. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- Bibel, Sara (November 26, 2012). "Wednesday Cable Ratings: 'Moonshiners' & 'Duck Dynasty' Win Night, 'American Horror Story', 'Restaurant Impossible', 'South Beach Tow', 'Conan' & More". TV by the Numbers. Tribune Digital Ventures. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
- Bibel, Sara (November 29, 2012). "Wednesday Cable Ratings:'Duck Dynasty' Wins Night, 'American Horror Story', 'Moonshiners', 'The Challenge', 'Hot in Cleveland', 'South Beach Tow' & More". TV by the Numbers. Tribune Digital Ventures. Retrieved November 29, 2012.
- Kondolojy, Amanda (December 7, 2012). "Wednesday Cable Ratings: 'Duck Dynasty' Wins Night + 'American Horror Story: Asylum', 'Moonshiners', 'Smurfs Christmas Carol', 'Daily Show' & More". TV by the Numbers. Tribune Digital Ventures. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- Bibel, Sara (January 24, 2013). "Wednesday Cable Ratings: 'Moonshiners' Wins Night, 'American Horror Story', 'Necessary Roughness', 'Workaholics', 'Top Chef' & More". TV by the Numbers. Tribune Digital Ventures. Retrieved January 25, 2013.
- Kissell, Rick (October 8, 2015). "Ratings: Viewers Go Gaga for FX's 'American Horror Story: Hotel' Premiere". Variety. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
- Rose, Lacey (November 10, 2015). "FX Renews 'American Horror Story' for Season 6". The Hollywood Reporter. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- Katz, Josh (December 27, 2016). "'Duck Dynasty' vs. 'Modern Family': 50 Maps of the U.S. Cultural Divide". The New York Times.
- American Horror Story's Emmy Awards nominations and wins:
- "64th Emmy Awards Nominees and Winners". Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- "65th Emmy Awards Nominees and Winners". Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- "66th Emmy Awards Nominees and Winners". Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- "67th Emmy Awards Nominees and Winners". Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- "68th Emmy Awards Nominees and Winners". Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- "Golden Globes 2012: The Winners List". The Hollywood Reporter. January 15, 2012. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- "'Carol,' Netflix Lead Golden Globes Nominations". Variety. December 10, 2015. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- "The 18th Annual Screen Actors Guild Awards". Screen Actors Guild. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- American Horror Story's Critics' Choice Awards nominations and wins:
- "2012 // Winners of the 2nd Annual Critics' Choice Television Awards". Broadcast Film Critics Association. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- "2013 // Winners for the 3rd Annual Critics' Choice Television Awards". Broadcast Film Critics Association. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- "2014 // Winners and Nominees from the 4th Annual Critics' Choice Television Awards". Broadcast Film Critics Association. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- "The Critics' Choice Television Awards Winners". Broadcast Film Critics Association. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- Hipes, Patrick (December 14, 2015). "Critics' Choice Awards Nominations: 'Mad Max' Leads Film; ABC, HBO, FX Networks & 'Fargo' Top TV". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved December 14, 2015.
- "24th Nominees". GLAAD. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- American Horror Story's Costume Designers Guild Awards nominations and wins:
- "Winners of the 15th Annual Costume Designers Guild Awards". Costume Designers Guild. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- Barnes, Bronwyn (January 8, 2014). "'Catching Fire,' 'Breaking Bad' among nominees for 16th Costume Designers Guild Awards". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- McNary, Dave (February 17, 2015). "'Birdman', 'Grand Budapest Hotel' Top Costume Designer Guild Awards: Winners List". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- McNary, Dave (January 5, 2016). "'Star Wars,' 'Mad Max,' 'Empire' Land Costume Designers Guild Awards Nominations". Variety. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- American Horror Story's Make-Up Artists and Hair Stylists Guild Awards nominations and wins:
- Giardina, Carolyn (July 16, 2016). "Makeup Artists and Hair Stylists Guild Awards: The Winners List". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
- "'Grand Budapest', 'Guardians', 'AHS: Freak Show' Top Make-Up & Hair Stylists Awards". Deadline Hollywood. July 16, 2016. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
- "'Mad Max,' 'American Horror Story' Lead Makeup and Hair Stylists Guild Nominations". Variety. January 13, 2016. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- American Horror Story's People's Choice Awards nominations and wins:
- American Horror Story's Satellite Awards nominations and wins:
- "View Awards by Year: 2011". International Press Academy. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- "View Awards by Year: 2012". International Press Academy. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- "View Awards by Year: 2013". International Press Academy. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- "View Awards by Year: 2014". International Press Academy. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- "View Awards by Year: 2015". International Press Academy. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- Rose, Lacey. "Ryan Murphy Teases 'American Crime Story' Season 2, More 'American Horror Story' and Retooled 'Scream Queens'". Retrieved August 17, 2018.
- "FX Gives Series Order to AMERICAN HORROR STORY Companion Series AMERICAN CRIME STORY; First Season Will Focus on O.J. Simpson Trial". Collider. Retrieved August 17, 2018.