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Amazon Robotics, formerly Kiva Systems, is a Massachusetts-based company that manufactures mobile robotic fulfilment systems.[1][2] It is a subsidiary company of and its automated storage and retrieval systems were previously used by companies including: The Gap, Walgreens, Staples, Gilt Groupe, Office Depot, Crate & Barrel, and Saks 5th Avenue.[3] After those contracts ran out, Amazon did not renew them and Kiva's assets now work only for Amazon's warehouses.



After working on the business process team at Webvan, a failed online grocery delivery business, Mick Mountz concluded that the company’s downfall was due to the inflexibility of existing material handling systems and the high cost of order fulfillment.[4] These challenges inspired Mountz to create a better way to pick, pack, and ship orders through a system that could deliver any item to any operator at any time. To accomplish his vision, Mountz sought help from Peter Wurman and Raffaello D'Andrea, who were experts in the area of engineering and robotics. In 2003, Mountz became the founder and CEO of Kiva Systems, through his partnership with co-founders Wurman and D'Andrea.[5]


Traditionally, goods are moved around a distribution center using a conveyor system or by human operated machines (such as forklifts). In Kiva’s approach, items are stored on portable storage units. When an order is entered into the Kiva database system, the software locates the closest automated guided vehicle (bot) to the item and directs it to retrieve it. The mobile robots navigate around the warehouse by following a series of computerized barcode stickers on the floor. Each drive unit has a sensor that prevents it from colliding with others. When the drive unit reaches the target location, it slides underneath the pod and lifts it off the ground through a corkscrew action. The robot then carries the pod to the specified human operator to pick the items.[6]

Kiva has two models of robots. The smaller model is approximately 2 feet by 2.5 feet, and one foot high and capable of lifting 1,000 pounds. The larger model can carry pallets and loads as heavy as 3,000 pounds.[7] Both are a distinctive orange color. The maximum velocity of a robot is 1.3 meters per second.[8] The mobile bots are battery-powered and need to be recharged every hour for five minutes.[6]

Kiva's relatively new approach to automated material handling systems for order fulfillment is gaining traction in eCommerce fulfillment, retail restocking, parts distribution and medical device distribution operations. The system is much more efficient and accurate than the traditional method of having human workers traveling around the warehouse locating and picking items.[9]

As of September 2017 Amazon had more than 100,000 of the robots working in their warehouses.[10]

Acquisition by AmazonEdit

In March 2012, acquired Kiva Systems for $775 million. At the time, this was Amazon's second-largest acquisition in its history.[11]

Since the acquisition by Amazon, Kiva has remained silent. The company has not announced any new Kiva customers and has stopped its marketing activities.[12] Most of Kiva’s sales staff have departed, though the company continues to hire in the engineering and manufacturing departments. Industry observers speculate that Amazon is focusing on internal operations and is not interested in sharing the technology with competitors.[11]

In August 2015, the company officially changed its name from Kiva Systems LLC to Amazon Robotics LLC.[13]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Amazon Robotics". Amazon Robotics.
  2. ^ "AmaSon buys warehouse robotics start-up Kiva Systems for $775 million".
  3. ^ "Amazon Robotics". Amazon Robotics.
  4. ^ "Amazon Robotics". Amazon Robotics.
  5. ^ Cite error: The named reference ReferenceS was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  6. ^ a b High-Speed Robots Part 1: Meet BettyBot in "Human Exclusion Zone" Warehouses-The Window-WIRED. 2 July 2013 – via YouTube.
  7. ^ Steiner, Christopher (16 March 2009). "Bot-In-Time Delivery —".
  8. ^ "Three Engineers, Hundreds of Robots, One Warehouse — IEEE Spectrum". Archived from the original on 2016-09-17. Retrieved 2009-09-04.
  9. ^ "Warehousing and Distribution Centers: goes Space Age". Archived from the original on 2009-02-19. Retrieved 2009-04-19.
  10. ^ Wingfield, Nick. "As Amazon Pushes Forward With Robots, Workers Find New Roles". New York Times. New York Times. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  11. ^ a b "Will Amazon-owned robot maker sell to e-tailer's rivals? - The Boston Globe".
  12. ^ SOLUTIONS, Syed M. Zubair Bokhari - XDIMENSION. "Supply Chain News: Amazon will not Make Kiva Systems Available to General Market for at Least Two Years".
  13. ^ "Amazon Robotics". Amazon Robotics.

External linksEdit