Alveolar stop

In phonetics and phonology, an alveolar stop is a type of consonantal[1] sound, made with the tongue in contact with the alveolar ridge located just behind the teeth (hence alveolar), held tightly enough to block the passage of air (hence a stop consonant).[2] The most common sounds are the stops [t][3] and [d], as in English toe and doe, and the voiced nasal [n]. The 2-D finite element mode of the front part of the midsagittal tongue can stimulate the air pressed release of an alveolar stop.[4] Alveolar consonants in children's productions have generally been demonstrated to undergo smaller vowel-related coarticulatory effects than labial and velar consonants, thus yielding consonant-specific patterns similar to those observed in adults.[5]

The upcoming vowel target is adjusted to demand force and effort during the coarticulating process.[6] More generally, several kinds are distinguished:

Note that alveolar and dental stops are not always carefully distinguished. Acoustically, the two types of sounds are similar, and it is rare for a language to have both types.

If necessary, an alveolar consonant can be transcribed with the combining equals sign below ⟨◌͇⟩, as with ⟨⟩ for the voiceless alveolar stop. A dental consonant can be transcribed with the combining bridge below⟩, and a postalveolar consonant with the retraction diacritic, the combining minus sign below⟩.


  1. ^ "List of Consonants". University of Washington. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  2. ^ International Phonetic Association (2014). Handbook of the International Phonetic Association a guide to the use of the international phonetic alphabet. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521652360. OCLC 931695762.
  3. ^ Liberman, A. M.; Cooper, F. S.; Shankweiler, D. P.; Studdert-Kennedy, M. (1967). "Perception of the speech code". Psychological Review. 74 (6): 431–461. doi:10.1037/h0020279. ISSN 1939-1471. PMID 4170865.
  4. ^ Chen, Lan (2005). "Effect of intraoral air pressure on the release of an alveolar stop closure". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 118 (3): 2026. Bibcode:2005ASAJ..118.2026C. doi:10.1121/1.4785776.
  5. ^ Zharkova, Natalia (2017-09-02). "Voiceless alveolar stop coarticulation in typically developing 5-year-olds and 13-year-olds". Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics. 31 (7–9): 503–513. doi:10.1080/02699206.2016.1268209. ISSN 0269-9206. PMID 28085509. S2CID 10243498.
  6. ^ Zharkova, Natalie (2017). "Voiceless alveolar stop coarticulation in typically developing 5-year-olds and 13-year-olds". Papers from the 16th ICPLA Conference, Halifax, Nova Scotia - 1. 31 (7–9): 503–513. doi:10.1080/02699206.2016.1268209. PMID 28085509. S2CID 10243498.