The Alutiiq language (also called Sugpiak, Sugpiaq, Sugcestun, Suk, Supik, Pacific Gulf Yupik, Gulf Yupik, Koniag-Chugach) is a close relative to the Central Alaskan Yup'ik language spoken in the western and southwestern Alaska, but is considered a distinct language. It has two major dialects:
- Koniag Alutiiq: spoken on the upper part of the Alaska Peninsula and on Kodiak Island; it was also spoken on Afognak Island before that was deserted by the people in the wake of the 1964 Good Friday earthquake.
- Chugach Alutiiq: spoken on the Kenai Peninsula and in Prince William Sound.
|Pacific Gulf Yupik|
|Native to||United States|
|Region||coastal Alaska (Alaska Peninsula to Prince William Sound)|
|Ethnicity||3,500 Alutiiq people (2010)|
Official language in
The ethnonyms of the Sugpiaq-Alutiiq are a predicament. "Aleut," "Alutiiq," "Sugpiaq," "Russian," "Pacific Eskimo," "Unegkuhmiut," and "Chugach Eskimo" are among the terms that have been used to identify this group of Native people living on the Lower Kenai Peninsula of Alaska.
About 400 of the Alutiiq population of 3,000 still speak the Alutiiq language. Alutiiq communities are currently in the process of revitalizing their language. In 2010 the high school in Kodiak responded to requests from students and agreed to teach the Alutiiq language. The Kodiak dialect of the language was spoken by only about 50 persons, all of them elderly, and the dialect was in danger of being lost entirely. As of 2014, Alaska Pacific University in Anchorage is offering classes using the "Where Are Your Keys?" technique.
Consonants may be double and have geminated sounds (e.g. kk; [kː]). A /χʷ/ sound sometimes occurs, and is either written as ur, or occurs as a sound of a syllable-final rw; /ʁʷ/, and occurs as an allophone of /ʁʷ/ after consonants like /q/. [w] is an allophone of /ɣʷ/, when at syllable-final and elsewhere. More consonants /ɾ~r, lʲ, rʲ/ can only be found in loanwords.
All vowels except for /ə/, are considered as full vowels, distinguished with vowel length. /ə/ does not lengthen, nor occurs into vowel clusters, but may tend to be devoiced as /ə̥/ next to other consonants.
The comparison of number terms in the two dialects:
|Koniag Alutiiq||Chugach Alutiiq||meaning|
|allringuq / allriluq||all'inguq (Chenega)
allringuq (Nanwalek, Port Graham)
malruk / mall'uk (Nanwalek, Port Graham)
pingayun (Nanwalek, Port Graham)
|staaman||staaman (Chenega, Nanwalek, Port Graham)||4|
|talliman||talliman (Chenega, Nanwalek, Port Graham)||5|
arwilgen (Nanwalek, Port Graham)
mallruungin (Nanwalek, Port Graham)
|inglulgen||inglulen (Chenega, Nanwalek, Port Graham)||8|
|qulnguyan||qulnguan (Chenega, Nanwalek, Port Graham)||9|
|qulen||qulen (Chenega, Nanwalek, Port Graham)||10|
The comparison of month names in the two dialects:
|Koniag Alutiiq||Chugach Alutiiq||meaning|
|Nikllit Iraluat||Maniit Ya'allua||May|
|Alaganat Iraluat||Uksuam Ya'allua||August|
|Qakiiyat Iraluat||Alusastuam Ya'allua||September|
|Quyawim Iralua||Kapkaanam Ya'allua||November|
- Alutiiq at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Pacific Gulf Yupik". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- List of Alutiiq (Sugpiaq) language resources
- Language in the USA, Cambridge University Press, 1981
- Medeia Csoba DeHass, What is in a Name?: The Predicament of Ethnonyms in the Sugpiaq-Alutiiq Region of Alaska. Arctic Anthropology. January 2012 49:3-17 (= "Aleut," "Alutiiq," "Sugpiaq," "Russian," "Pacific Eskimo," "Unegkuhmiut," and "Chugach Eskimo" are all different names that have been used to identify the group of Native people living on the Lower Kenai Peninsula of Alaska.)
- Kodiak High School Adding Alutiiq Language Class Jacob Resnick KMXT/Alaska Public Radio Network 12-17-2010
- Friedman, Sam (2014-02-23). "They're speaking Alutiiq in Anchorage". Washington Times / AP. Retrieved 2014-05-03.
- Leer, Jeff (1985). Prosody in Alutiiq. Yupik Eskimo Prosodic Systems: Descriptive and Comparative Studies: Alaska Native Language Center.
- "Alutiiq Museum: Alutiiq Word of the Week Archives". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-07-10.
- John E. Smelcer, Alutiiq Noun Dictionary and Pronunciation Guide , Common Nouns in Prince William Sound and Kenai Peninsula Region Alutiiq (Excluding Kodiak Island)[permanent dead link]
- Bass, Willard P., Edward A. Tennant, and Carl Anahonak. Test of Oral Language Dominance Sugpiaq Aleut-English. Albuquerque, N.M.: Southwest Research Association, 1973.
- Counceller, April Gale Laktonen, Jeff Leer, and Nick Alokli. Kodiak Alutiiq Conversational Phrasebook With Audio CD. Kodiak, Alaska: Alutiiq Museum & Archaeological Repository, 2006.ISBN 1-929650-02-7
- Leer, Jeff, Carl Anahonak, Arthur Moonin, and Derenty Tabios. Nanwalegmiut paluwigmiut-llu nupugnerit = Conversational Alutiiq dictionary : Kenai Peninsula Alutiiq. Fairbanks, AK: Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2003.
- Leer, Jeff, and Nina Zeedar. Classroom Grammar of Koniag Alutiiq, Kodiak Island Dialect. Fairbanks, AK: Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 1990.
- Leer, Jeff, Matrona Christiansen, Doris Lind, Thomas Phillips, Ralph Phillips (1996). A Short Dictionary of Alaska Peninsula Sugtestun & Alaska Peninsula Alutiiq Workbook. Fairbanks, AK: Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks. ISBN 1-55500-060-6
- Pratt Museum (Homer, Alaska). Qulianguat Kiputʹsluki = Bringing the Stories Back : Alutiiq Sugpiaq Remembrances of the Outer Coast of Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Homer, Alaska: Pratt Museum, 2003.
- Russell, Priscilla N. English Bay and Port Graham Alutiiq Plantlore. Homer, Alaska: Pratt Museum, Homer Society of Natural History, 1991.
- Steffian, Amy F., and Florence Pestrikof. Alutiiq Word of the Week. Kodiak, AK: Alutiiq Museum & Archaeological Repository, 1999. ISBN 1-929650-00-0
- John E. Smelcer, Alutiiq Noun Dictionary, 2010