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Aluminium–lithium alloys (Al–Li) are a series of alloys of aluminium and lithium, often also including copper and zirconium. Since lithium is the least dense elemental metal, these alloys are significantly less dense than aluminium. Commercial Al–Li alloys contain up to 2.45% by mass of lithium.[1]

Contents

Crystal structureEdit

Alloying with lithium reduces structural mass by three effects:

Displacement 
A lithium atom is lighter than an aluminium atom; each lithium atom then displaces one aluminium atom from the crystal lattice while maintaining the lattice structure. Every 1% by mass of lithium added to aluminium reduces the density of the resulting alloy by 3% and increases the stiffness by 5%.[1] This effect works up to the solubility limit of lithium in aluminium, which is 4.2%.
Strain hardening
Introducing another type of atom into the crystal strains the lattice, which helps block dislocations. The resulting material is thus stronger, which allows less of it to be used.[citation needed]
Precipitation hardening
When properly aged, lithium forms a metastable Al3Li phase (δ') with a coherent crystal structure.[2] These precipitates strengthen the metal by impeding dislocation motion during deformation. The precipitates are not stable, however, and care must be taken to prevent overaging with the formation of the stable AlLi (β) phase.[3] This also produces precipitate free zones (PFZs) typically at grain boundaries and can reduce the corrosion resistance of the alloy.[4]

The crystal structure for Al3Li and Al–Li, while based on the FCC crystal system, are very different. Al3Li shows almost the same-size lattice structure as pure aluminium, except that lithium atoms are present in the corners of the unit cell. The Al3Li structure is known as the AuCu3, L12, or Pm3m[5] and has a lattice parameter of 4.01 Å.[3] The Al–Li structure is known as the NaTl, B32, or Fd3m[6] structure, which is made of both lithium and aluminium assuming diamond structures and has a lattice parameter of 6.37 Å. The interatomic spacing for Al–Li (3.19 Å) is smaller than either pure lithium or aluminium.[7]

UsageEdit

Al–Li alloys are primarily of interest to the aerospace industry due to the weight advantage they provide. On narrow-body airliners, Arconic (formerly Alcoa) claims up to 10% weight reduction compared to composites, leading to up to 20% better fuel efficiency, at a lower cost than titanium or composites.[8] Aluminum-lithium alloys were first used in the wings and horizontal stabilizer of the North American A-5 Vigilante military aircraft. Other Al–Li alloys have been employed in the lower wing skins of the Airbus A380, the inner wing structure of the Airbus A350, the fuselage of the Bombardier CSeries[9] (where the alloys make up 24 percent of the fuselage),[10] the cargo floor of the Boeing 777X,[11] and the fan blades of the Pratt & Whitney PurePower geared turbofan aircraft engine.[12] They are also used in the fuel and oxidizer tanks in the SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle, Formula One brake calipers, and the AgustaWestland EH101 helicopter.[13]

The third and final version of the US Space Shuttle's external tank was principally made of Al–Li 2195 alloy.[14] In addition, Al–Li alloys are also used in the Centaur Forward Adapter in the Atlas V rocket,[15] in the Orion Spacecraft, and were to be used in the planned Ares I and Ares V rockets (part of the cancelled Constellation program).

Al–Li alloys are generally joined by friction stir welding. Some Al–Li alloys, such as Weldalite 049, can be welded conventionally; however, this property comes at the price of density; Weldalite 049 has about the same density as 2024 aluminium and 5% higher elastic modulus.[citation needed] Al–Li is also produced in rolls as wide as 220 inches (18 feet; 5.6 metres), which can reduce the number of joins.[16]

Although aluminum–lithium alloys are generally superior to aluminum–copper or aluminum–zinc alloys in ultimate strength-to-weight ratio, their poor fatigue strength under compression remains a problem, which is only partially solved as of 2016.[17][13] Also, high costs (around 3 times or more conventional aluminum alloys), poor corrosion resistance, and strong anisotropy of mechanical properties of rolled aluminum–lithium products has resulted in the paucity of the applications.

List of aluminium-lithium alloysEdit

Aside from its formal four-digit designation derived from its element composition, an aluminium-lithium alloy is also associated with particular generations, based primarily on when it was first produced, but secondarily on its lithium content. The first generation lasted from the initial background research in the early 20th century to their first aircraft application in the middle 20th century. Consisting of alloys that were meant to replace the popular 2024 and 7075 alloys directly, the second generation of Al–Li had high lithium content of at least two percent; this characteristic produced a large reduction in density but resulted in some negative effects, particularly in fracture toughness. The third generation is the current generation of Al–Li product that is available, and it has gained wide acceptance by aircraft manufacturers, unlike the previous two generations. This generation has reduced lithium content to 0.75–1.8 percent to mitigate those negative characteristics while retaining some of the density reduction;[18] third-generation Al–Li densities range from 2.63 to 2.72 grams per cubic centimetre (0.095 to 0.098 pounds per cubic inch).[19]

First-generation alloys (1920s-1960s)Edit

First-generation Al–Li alloys[20][18]
Alloy name/number Applications
1230 (VAD23) Tu-144
1420 MiG-29 fuselages, fuel tanks, and cockpits; Su-27; Tu-156, Tu-204, and Tu-334; Yak-36, and Yak-38 fuselages
1421
2020 A-5 Vigilante wings and horizontal stabilizers

Second-generation alloys (1970s-1980s)Edit

Second-generation Al–Li alloys[20][18]
Alloy name/number Applications
1430
1440
1441 Be-103 and Be-200
1450 Ruslan (An-124) and Mria (An-225)
1460 McDonnell Douglas reusable launch vehicle (DC-X); Tu-156
2090 (intended to replace 7075) A330 and A340 leading edges; C-17 Globemaster; Atlas Centaur payload adapter[21]
2091 (CP 274)[22] (intended to replace 2024) Fokker 28 and Fokker 100 access doors in the fuselage lower fairing[23]
8090 (CP 271) (intended to replace 2024) EH-101 airframe;[9] A330 and A340 leading edges; Titan IV payload adapter

Third-generation alloys (1990s-2010s)[18]Edit

Third-generation Al–Li alloys
Alloy name/number Applications
2050 (AirWare I-Gauge)[9][24] Ares I crew launch vehicle - upper stage; A350 wing ribs;[24] A380 lower wing reinforcement[25]
2055[26]
2060 (C14U)
2065[9][19]
2076 [19]
2096
2098[27][19]
2099 (C460) A380 stringers, extruded crossbeams, longitudinal beams, and seat rails;[28] B787[9]
2195 Ares I crew launch vehicle - upper stage;[9] Last revision of the Space Shuttle Super Lightweight External Tank[29]
2196 A380 extruded crossbeams, longitudinal beams, and seat rails[28]
2198 (AirWare I-Form) Fuselage skin of the A350 and CSeries;[24] Falcon 9 second stage rocket[9]
2199 (C47A)
2296 [19]
2297 F-16 bulkheads[19]
2397 F-16 bulkheads; Space Shuttle Super Lightweight External Tank intertank thrust panels[19]
Al–Li TP–1
C99N

Other alloysEdit

Production sitesEdit

Key world producers of aluminium–lithium alloy products are Arconic, Constellium, and Kamensk-Uralsky Metallurgical Works.

  • Arconic Technical Center (Upper Burrell, Pennsylvania, USA)[9]
  • Arconic Lafayette (Indiana, USA); annual capacity of 20,000 metric tons (22,000 short tons; 20,000,000 kg; 44,000,000 lb) of aluminum–lithium[9] and capable of casting round and rectangular ingot for rolled, extruded and forged applications
  • Arconic Kitts Green (United Kingdom)
  • Rio Tinto Alcan Dubuc Plant (Canada); capacity 30,000 t (33,000 short tons; 30,000,000 kg; 66,000,000 lb)
  • Constellium Issoire (Puy-de-Dôme), France; annual capacity of 14,000 t (15,000 short tons; 14,000,000 kg; 31,000,000 lb)[9]
  • Kamensk-Uralsky Metallurgical Works (KUMZ)
  • Aleris (Koblenz, Germany)
  • FMC
  • Southwest Aluminium

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Joshi, Amit. "The new generation Aluminium Lithium Alloys" (PDF). Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Metal Web News. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 3 March 2008.
  2. ^ Starke, E. A.; Sanders, T. H.; Palmer, I. G. (20 December 2013). "New Approaches to Alloy Development in the Al–Li System". JOM: The Journal of the Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (published August 1981). 33 (8): 24–33. doi:10.1007/BF03339468. ISSN 1047-4838. OCLC 663900840.
  3. ^ a b Mahalingam, K.; Gu, B.P.; Liedl, G.L.; Sanders, T.H. (February 1987). "Coarsening of [delta]'(Al3Li) Precipitates in Binary Al–Li Alloys". Acta Metallurgica. 35 (2): 483–498. doi:10.1016/0001-6160(87)90254-9. ISSN 0001-6160. OCLC 1460926.
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  5. ^ "Crystal Lattice Structures: The Cu3Au (L12) Structure". Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Center for Computational Materials Science. 21 October 2004. Archived from the original on 6 April 2010.
  6. ^ "Crystal Lattice Structures: The NaTl (B32) Structure". Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Center for Computational Materials Science. 17 February 2007. Archived from the original on 12 June 2011.
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  11. ^ "Alcoa Wins Fourth Boeing Contract in String of Recent Deals" (Press release). 28 January 2016. Archived from the original on 7 March 2019. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  12. ^ "Alcoa Announces Jet Engine First in $1.1 Billion Supply Agreement with Pratt & Whitney: Unveils World's First Advanced Aluminum Alloy Fan Blade Forging for Pratt & Whitney's Hybrid-Metallic Fan Blade for the PurePower® Engines" (Press release). New York, NY, USA and Farnborough, England, UK. 14 July 2014. Archived from the original on 7 March 2019. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
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  15. ^ "Atlas V". Archived from the original on 30 October 2008. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
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  17. ^ Zhu, Xiao-hui; Zheng, Zi-qiao; Zhong, Shen; Li, Hong-ying (5–9 September 2010). "Effect of Mg and Zn Elements on the Mechanical Properties and Precipitates in 2099 Alloy" (PDF). In Kumai, Shinji (ed.). ICAA12 Yokohama: proceedings. Proceedings of the International Conference on Aluminium Alloys. 12. Yokohama, Japan: The Japan Institute of Light Metals. pp. 2375–2380. ISBN 978-4-905829-11-9. OCLC 780496456. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 April 2017.
  18. ^ a b c d Rioja, Roberto J.; Liu, John (September 2012). "The Evolution of Al-Li Base Products for Aerospace and Space Applications" (PDF). Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science. Springer US (published 31 March 2012). 43 (9): 3325–3337. Bibcode:2012MMTA...43.3325R. doi:10.1007/s11661-012-1155-z. ISSN 1073-5623. Archived from the original on 20 February 2019. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
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  22. ^ Eswara Prasad, N.; Gokhale, A. A.; Rama Rao, P. (February – April 2003). "Mechanical behaviour of aluminium-lithium alloys" (PDF). Sadhana: Academy Proceedings in Engineering Sciences. 28 (1–2): 209–246. ISSN 0256-2499. OCLC 5652684711. Archived from the original on 4 April 2017. Retrieved 18 March 2019. Lay summary.
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  30. ^ a b c d e f Grushko, Ovsyannikov & Ovchinnokov 2016, pp. 7–8 (Table 1.1: Russian Aluminum–Lithium Alloys)
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BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit