Alpha Aquarii (α Aquarii, abbreviated Alpha Aqr, α Aqr), officially named Sadalmelik //, is a single star in the constellation of Aquarius. The apparent visual magnitude of 2.94 makes this the second-brightest star in Aquarius. Based upon parallax measurements made during the Hipparcos mission, it is located at a distance of roughly 520 light-years (160 parsecs) from the Sun.
Epoch J2000.0 Equinox J2000.0 (ICRS)
|Right ascension||22h 05m 47.03593s|
|Declination||−00° 19′ 11.4568″|
|Apparent magnitude (V)||2.942|
|Spectral type||G2 Ib|
|U−B color index||+0.699|
|B−V color index||+0.971|
|R−I color index||+0.49|
|Radial velocity (Rv)||7.5 km/s|
|Proper motion (μ)|| RA: +18.25 mas/yr |
Dec.: −9.39 mas/yr
|Parallax (π)||6.23 ± 0.19 mas|
|Distance||520 ± 20 ly |
(161 ± 5 pc)
|Absolute magnitude (MV)||–3.882|
|Mass||6.5 ± 0.3 M☉|
|Radius||77 ± 15 R☉|
|Surface gravity (log g)||1.76 ± 0.04 cgs|
|Temperature||5,210 ± 100 K|
|Metallicity [Fe/H]||+0.17 dex|
|Rotational velocity (v sin i)||6.7 ± 1.5 km/s|
It bore the traditional name Sadalmelik, which derived from an Arabic expression سعد الملك (sa‘d al-malik), meaning "Luck of the king". The name Rucbah had also been applied to this star; though it shared that name with Delta Cassiopeiae. It is only one of two stars with ancient proper names to lie within a degree of the celestial equator. The origin of the Arabic name is lost to history. In 2016, the International Astronomical Union organized a Working Group on Star Names (WGSN) to catalogue and standardize proper names for stars. The WGSN approved the name Sadalmelik for Alpha Aquarii (WDS J22058-0019 A) on 21 August 2016, and it is now so included in the List of IAU-approved Star Names (Delta Cassiopeiae was given the name Ruchbah).
In Chinese, 危宿 (Wēi Xiù), meaning Rooftop (asterism), refers to an asterism consisting of Alpha Aquarii, Theta Pegasi and Epsilon Pegasi. Consequently, the Chinese name for Alpha Aquarii itself is 危宿一 (Wēi Xiù yī, English: the First Star of Rooftop).
With an age of 53 million years, Alpha Aquarii has evolved into a supergiant with a stellar classification of G2 Ib. It has 6.5 times as much mass as the Sun and has expanded to around 77 times the Sun's radius. It is radiating 3,000 times as much luminosity as the Sun from its outer atmosphere at an effective temperature of 5,210 K. At this heat, the star glows with the yellow hue of a G-type star. Examination of this star with the Chandra X-ray Observatory shows it to be significantly X-ray deficient compared to G-type main sequence stars. This deficit is a common feature of early G-type giant stars.
- van Leeuwen, F. (November 2007), "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 474 (2): 653–664, arXiv:0708.1752, Bibcode:2007A&A...474..653V, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078357
- Cousins, A. W. J. (1984), "Standardization of Broadband Photometry of Equatorial Standards", South African Astronomical Observatory Circulars, 8: 59, Bibcode:1984SAAOC...8...59C
- Lyubimkov, Leonid S.; et al. (February 2010), "Accurate fundamental parameters for A-, F- and G-type Supergiants in the solar neighbourhood", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 402 (2): 1369–1379, arXiv:0911.1335, Bibcode:2010MNRAS.402.1369L, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15979.x
- Wielen, R.; et al. (1999), "Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part I. Basic fundamental stars with direct solutions", Veröff. Astron. Rechen-Inst. Heidelb, Astronomisches Rechen-Institut Heidelberg, 35 (35): 1, Bibcode:1999VeARI..35....1W
- Soubiran, C.; et al. (2008). "Vertical distribution of Galactic disk stars. IV. AMR and AVR from clump giants". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 480 (1): 91–101. arXiv:0712.1370. Bibcode:2008A&A...480...91S. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078788.
- Nordgren, Tyler E.; et al. (December 1999), "Stellar Angular Diameters of Late-Type Giants and Supergiants Measured with the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer", The Astronomical Journal, 118 (6): 3032–3038, Bibcode:1999AJ....118.3032N, doi:10.1086/301114
- Ayres, Thomas R.; Brown, Alexander; Harper, Graham M. (July 2005), "Chandra Observations of Coronal Emission from the Early G Supergiants α and β Aquarii", The Astrophysical Journal, 627 (1): L53–L56, Bibcode:2005ApJ...627L..53A, doi:10.1086/431977
- HR 8414, database entry, The Bright Star Catalogue, 5th Revised Ed. (Preliminary Version), D. Hoffleit and W. H. Warren, Jr., CDS ID V/50. Accessed on line October 3, 2008.
- NAME SADALMELIK -- Star in double system, database entry, SIMBAD. Accessed on line October 3, 2008.
- Entry 22058-0019, The Washington Double Star Catalog, United States Naval Observatory. Accessed on line November 18, 2008.
- pp. 51, 148, Star-names and Their Meanings, Richard Hinckley Allen, New York: G. E. Stechert, 1899.
- "Naming Stars". IAU.org. Retrieved 25 February 2018.
- "UCAC2 31789179 -- Star", SIMBAD, Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg, retrieved 2018-02-25
- Sadalmelik, Stars, Jim Kaler. Accessed on line October 3, 2008.
- IAU Working Group on Star Names (WGSN), International Astronomical Union, retrieved 22 May 2016.
- ‹See Tfd›(in Chinese) 中國星座神話, written by 陳久金. Published by 台灣書房出版有限公司, 2005, ISBN 978-986-7332-25-7.
- ‹See Tfd›(in Chinese) 香港太空館 - 研究資源 - 亮星中英對照表 Archived 2010-08-18 at the Wayback Machine, Hong Kong Space Museum. Accessed on line November 23, 2010.
- "The Colour of Stars", Australia Telescope, Outreach and Education, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, December 21, 2004, archived from the original on March 10, 2012, retrieved 2012-01-16
- Alpha Aquarii Aladin image viewer