The Allison Model 250, now known as the Rolls-Royce M250, (US military designations T63 and T703) is a highly successful turboshaft engine family, originally developed by the Allison Engine Company in the early 1960s. The Model 250 has been produced by Rolls-Royce since it acquired Allison in 1995.

Model 250 / T63
MTU-built Allison 250-C20B
Type Turboshaft/Turboprop
National origin United States
Manufacturer Allison Engine Company
Rolls-Royce plc
Major applications Bell 206
MD Helicopters MD 500
MBB Bo 105
Sikorsky S-76
Number built >30,000
Variants Rolls-Royce RR300
Developed into Rolls-Royce RR500

Development

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In 1958, the Detroit Diesel Allison division of General Motors was chosen by the US Army to develop a new light turbine engine to power a "Light Observation Aircraft" (LOA), to replace the Cessna O-1A Bird Dog. At this stage the US Army was unsure whether to have a fixed- or rotary-wing aircraft, so Allison was instructed to consider both applications. Design studies undertaken considered a wide range of possible mechanical configurations for the turboprop/turboshaft. These studies culminated in the testing of the first prototype engine, designated YT63-A-3, in April 1959.[1] In 1960, the US Army settled for a rotary wing platform. The YT63-A-3 first flew in a variant of the Bell 47 helicopter in 1961. A modified version of the engine (YT63-A-5) with the exhaust pointing upwards (to avoid grass fires) soon followed. This version, rated at 250 hp, passed the Model Qualification Test in September 1962. The Hughes OH-6 design, powered by the T63, was selected for the US Army LOH in May 1965.

The Model 250 powers a large number of helicopters, small aircraft and even a motorcycle (MTT Turbine Superbike).[2] As a result, nearly 30,000 Model 250 engines have been produced, of which approximately 16,000 remain in service, making the Model 250 one of the highest-selling engines made by Rolls-Royce.

Design

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Allison adopted a reverse-airflow engine configuration for the Model 250: although air enters the intake/compression system in the conventional fashion, the compressed air leaving the centrifugal compressor diffuser is ported rearwards via two transfer pipes, which go around the outside of the turbine system, before the air is turned through 180 degrees at entry to the combustor. The combustion products expand axially forward through the two-stage (single-stage on early engines) high-pressure turbine section, which is connected to the compressor via the HP shaft. The combustion products continue to expand through the two-stage power turbine which generates shaft horsepower for the aircraft. A coaxial stub shaft connects the power turbine to a compact reduction gearbox, located inboard, between the centrifugal compressor and the exhaust/power turbine system. The exhaust stream then turns through 90 degrees to exit the engine in a radial direction through twin exhaust ducts, which form a V-shape seen in the front elevation.

An important design feature of the Model 250 engine is its modular construction which greatly simplifies maintenance and repair activity. Also the unique reverse-flow design provides for ease of hot section maintenance. There are four modules:

  • compressor module, at the front of the engine
  • gearbox module (including accessory drives)
  • turbine module (including V-shaped exhaust ports)
  • combustion module (including twin compressed air transfer ducts) at the rear

Earlier versions have seven axial compressor stages mounted on the HP shaft to supercharge a relatively low-pressure-ratio centrifugal compressor. The -C20B is typical, with an overall pressure ratio of 7.2:1, at an airflow of 3.45 lb/s (1.8 kg/s), with a power output, at the shaft, of 420 hp (310 kW).

One of the latest versions of the Model 250 is the -C40, which has only a centrifugal compressor producing a pressure ratio of 9.2:1, at an airflow of 6.1 lb/s (2.8 kg/s), and develops, at the shaft, 715 hp (533 kW).

Variants

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250-B15
250-B15A
250-B15C
250-B15G
250-B17
250-B17B
250-B17C
250-B17D
250-B17Fg
250-B17F/1
250-B17F/2
250-C10D
250-C18
317 hp (236 kW)
250-C18A
317 hp (236 kW)
250-C20
250-C20B
250-C20F
250-C20J
420 hp (310 kW)
250-C20R
250-C20R/1
250-C20R/2
250-C20R/4
250-C20S
250-C20W
250-C22B
250-C28
250-C28B
250-C28C
250-C30
250-C30G
250-C30G/2
250-C30M
250-C30P
250-C30R
250-C30R/3
250-C30R/3M
250-C30S
250-C30U
250-C34
250-C40B
250-C47B
250-C47E[3]
250-C47M
250-E3
Experimental engine containing a regenerative heat exchanger. First regenerative engine to fully power a VTOL aircraft in flight. Ran on a Hughes YOH-6A Light Observation Helicopter in 1967. 185 lb (84 kg) engine delivering 280 hp (210 kW).[4]
T63-A-5
T63-A-5A
T63-A-700
317 hp (236 kW)
T63-A-720
420 hp (310 kW)
T703-AD-700
Soloy Turbine-Pac
Typically 2x 250-C20S driving a single propeller via a combining gearbox, able to operate individually.
Mitsubishi CT63
Licence production for Kawasaki-Hughes 500 / OH-6A helicopters.

Applications

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Fixed-wing

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Rotary-wing

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Other applications

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Engines on display

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Specifications Model 250-C18 (T63-A-700)

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Data from The Instrumentation Design And Control of a T63-A-700 Gas Turbine Engine [6]

General characteristics

  • Type: Turboshaft
  • Length: 40.5 in (1,029 mm)
  • Diameter: 22.5 in (572 mm)
  • Dry weight: 138.5 lb (63 kg) dry

Components

  • Compressor: 6-stage axial + 1-stage centrifugal compressors
  • Combustors: Single can combustion chamber
  • Turbine: 2-stage axial gas generator power turbine + 2-stage axial free-power output turbine
  • Fuel type: JP-4 aviation kerosene (alternatively JP-1 or JP-5)
  • Oil system: pressure spray/splash, dry sump

Performance

  • Maximum power output: 317 hp (236 kW) for take-off, Sea Level 59 °F (15 °C) NH 51,600rpm NL 35,000rpm Nout 6,000rpm
  • Overall pressure ratio: 6.2:1
  • Air mass flow: 3.3 lb/s (1.5 kg/s)
  • Turbine inlet temperature: 1,380 °F (750 °C)@Power Turbine Inlet
  • Specific fuel consumption: 0.697 lb/hp·h (0.424 kg/kW·h)
  • Power-to-weight ratio: 2.289 hp/lb (3.765 kW/kg)

See also

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Related development

References

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  1. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 October 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ "Atlas Aviation - rolls royce allison model 250 application". Archived from the original on 24 August 2006. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
  3. ^ "Press releases". www.rolls-royce.com. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
  4. ^ McCardle, John J., ed. (20 October 1967). "Allison regenerative engine first to 'go it alone' in flight". AllisoNews. Vol. 27, no. 8. p. 1. OCLC 42343144.
  5. ^ "Engines List". City of Norwich Aviation Museum. Retrieved 27 August 2023.
  6. ^ Haas, David William (1996). The Instrumentation Design And Control of a T63-A-700 Gas Turbine Engine. Monterey California: Naval Postgraduate School.
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