Algherese (Standard Catalan: Alguerès, pronounced [əlɣəˈɾɛs]; Algherese: Alguerés [alɣaˈɾes]) is the variant of the Catalan language spoken in the city of Alghero (L'Alguer in Catalan), in the northwest of Sardinia, Italy. Catalan-speaking colonists repopulated the town and expelled the native population in 1372, after several revolts.
|7,480 (2008)|
A satellite photo of the island of Sardinia with the location of the Algherese-speaking area being marked in yellow.
Catalan was replaced as the official language by Spanish, then by Italian in the mid-18th century, but its use remained widespread until at least the 1970s. Today it has semi-official status alongside Italian.
Based on additional linguistic studies, there are approximately 20,000 to 30,000 native speakers of the language worldwide. In communities where Algherese is spoken, Italian and Logudorese Sardinian are often used as well.
Algherese is a regional dialect spoken by anywhere from 20,000 to 30,000 individuals, most of which reside in the town of Alghero, located in the northwest of Sardinia. The language, though [clarification needed], is initially derived from, and thus considered a variant of, the Catalan language. The origins of the language can be traced back to 1372, when Catalan invaders repopulated the city of Alghero after exiling the indigenous populations in Sardinia. The language has roots in several Romance languages, including Eastern Romance, Italo-Western Romance, and Italo Western.
In the northwest region of Sardinia, it is estimated that Italian is now the first language of close to 60% of individuals, Algherese approximately 22%. The use of the dialect in schools and media, to name a few, is sparse. Prior to 1997, teaching of the dialect in school was rare. However, in an attempt to reverse the trend, the Regional Council of Sardinia has officially recognized "Algherese Catalan" as a separate language in order to promote its use and circulation. As of a 2008 study, Algherese is used by approximately 14% of the population for daily interactions. The dialect is mostly a local language, often used to supplement Italian and/or Sardinian in small circles.
In 1999, Catalan was among several minority languages officially recognized as "historical language minorities" by the Italian State under law no. 482/1999. Prior to this, the Regional Council of Sardinia had passed the regional law n. 26 of 15 October 1997 which, aside from promoting the equality in dignity of the Sardinian language with the Italian language throughout the island, provides that the other languages of smaller scope be afforded the same treatment as the aforementioned languages, among which Catalan is cited, in the city of Alghero. The city council, for its part, promulgated its protection and standardization in its city statute.
The following figures were obtained from the "Enquesta d’usos lingüístics a l’Alguer (Survey of linguistic usage in Alghero, EULAL)" of 2004, a study conducted in the town of Alghero that showed the general use of Algherese in several media, and the "Els usos lingüístics a l’Alguer" of 2015 (EULA 2015).
|Oral Comprehension||90.1% (Sardinian oral comprehension: 69.7%)||88.2%|
|Oral Expression||61.3% (Sardinian oral expression: 33.9%)||50.5%|
|Written Comprehension||46.6% (Sardinian written comprehension: 35.4%)||35.6%|
|Written Expression||13.6% (Sardinian written expression: 15.4%)||8.1%|
|First Language||22.4% (59.2% Italian)|
- Like in other languages of Sardinia /ɛ/ and /e/ as well as /ɔ/ and /o/ may merge into mid vowels [e̞] and [o̞], respectively.
- Coalescing of unstressed vowels /a/, /ɛ/ and /e/ to [a] (unlike the rest of Eastern Catalan, which uses [ə]).
- Algherese preserves /v/ as a distinct phoneme from /b/, like Balearic and most of Valencian.
- Mutation of intervocalic /d/ or /l/ to [r]: 'Barceloneta' (little Barcelona): Eastern Standard [bərsəɫuˈnɛtə], Algherese [balsaruˈne̞ta]; and vila ('town') and vida ('life') are homophones in Algherese [ˈvira].
- Mutation of syllable final /r/ to lateral [l], and the possible resulting group /r/ + consonant is further simplified to [l]: forn ('furnace, oven'): Standard [ˈfo̞rn], Algherese [ˈfo̞l].
- Depalatalization of syllable final sonorants: lateral /ʎ/ to [l], nasal /ɲ/ to [n]; e.g. any ('year'): Standard [ˈaɲ], Algherese [ˈan].
- Unlike most Catalan dialects, /l/ is never velarized in Algherese: sol ('sun'): Standard [ˈsɔɫ], Algherese [ˈso̞l].
- The simple past is replaced by the present perfect (present of haver "to have" + past participle), possibly by Italian influence.
- The imperfect past preserves etymological -v- in all conjugations: 1st -ava, 2nd -iva, 3rd -iva (unlike modern Eastern and Western Standard Catalan, which use 1st -ava, 2nd -ia, 3rd -ia, a feature shared with the Ribagorçan dialect.
- Large-scale lexical borrowing and calques from Sardinian, Spanish and Italian: nearly half of the vocabulary is not from Catalan.
Differences from Standard CatalanEdit
The following abbreviations are used: m (masculine), f (feminine), pl (plural), fpl (feminine plural), inf (informal), f (formal).
The following phrases were gathered from a Catalan translation set, but the common phrases in Algherese are similar:
Benvinguts (pl) Benvingudes (fpl)
Benvinguts (pl) Benvingudes (fpl)
|My name is ...||Em dic ...||Me aquirr ...
Me dic ...
|Where are you from?||D'on ets? (inf)
D'on és vostè? (f)
|De ont ses? (inf)
De ont és vostè? (f)
|Good morning||Bon dia||Bon dia|
The Premi Rafael Sari, organised by the Obra Cultural de l'Alguer, is a series of prizes awarded in September each year to the best literary works of poetry and prose written in Alguerese Catalan.
Notable poets include Rafael Sari, Pasquale Scanu and Maria Chessa Lai. There is also a long tradition of writing and performing songs in Alguerese Catalan and the Premio Pino Piras is awarded for new songs written in the language. Notable singer-songwriters include Pino Piras and Franca Masu.
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- Minder, Raphael (21 November 2016). "Italy's Last Bastion of Catalan Language Struggles to Keep It Alive". nytimes.com.
- Alghero official website
- "Did you know Algherese Catalan is vulnerable?". Endangered Languages. Retrieved 2017-03-09.
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- Law no. 482 of 15 December 1999. "Rules on the protection of historical linguistic minorities". Article 2. Gazzetta Ufficiale n. 297. 20 December 1999
- Regional Law no. 26 of 15 October 1997. "Promozione e valorizzazione della culture e della lingua della Sardegna". Articles 2.1 and 2.4 . Consiglio Regionale della Sardegna
- Communal Statute. Article 9. City of Alghero.
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- Scala, Luca (2003). Català de l'Alguer. Criteris de llengua escrita (1st ed.). Barcelona: Publicacions de l'Abadia de Montserrat. ISBN 978-84-8415-463-1.
- Ballone, Francesc (2008). L'Alguer and Alguerese Catalan. Corpus Oral de l'Algueres
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- Perea, Maria-Pilar (2008). The Dialect of Alghero: continuity and change. The University of Aberdeen
- Perea, Maria-Pilar; Sifre, Manel (2013). "Dialectal Variation in a Nineteenth-Century Catalan Grammar Corpus". Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 95: 409–417. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.10.663.
- Tufi, Stefania (2013). "Language Ideology and Language Maintenance: The case of Sardinia". International Journal of the Sociology of Language. 2013 (219): 145–160. doi:10.1515/ijsl-2013-0009.
- Cabrera-Callis, Maria (2015). Morphologically Conditioned Intervocalic Rhotacism in Algherese Catalan. Variations within and Across Romance Languages
- Moseley, Christopher (2016). Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
- Hammarstrom, Harald & Forkel, Robert & Haspelmath, Martin & Bank, Sebastian(2017). Dialect: Algherese. Glottolog
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- Various Sources (2017). Algherese Catalan. The Endangered Languages Project
- Diccionari de Alguerés
- Another case of language death? The intergenerational transmission of Catalan in Alghero - Enrico Chessa
- Associació per a la Salvaguarda del Patrimoni Historicocultural de l'Alguer
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- Italy's Last Bastion of Catalan Languages Struggles to Keep It Alive, New York Times, 21 November 2016.