2019 Algerian presidential election

The 2019 Algerian presidential election was held in Algeria on 12 December 2019.[1] The election had originally been scheduled for 18 April, but was postponed due to sustained weekly protests against plans by the incumbent president Abdelaziz Bouteflika to run for a fifth term.[2] Bouteflika resigned on 2 April and Abdelkader Bensalah was elected acting president by parliament a week later.[3] On 10 April the election was rescheduled for 4 July.[4] On 2 June the Constitutional Council postponed the elections again, citing a lack of candidates.[5] A new electoral authority, Autorité nationale indépendante des élections (ANIE), was created in mid-September as an alternative to the existing Haute instance indépendante de surveillance des élections [fr] (HIISE) defined by the 2016 constitution.[6] The election was rescheduled for 12 December 2019 and ANIE, of disputed constitutional validity,[7][6] announced five valid candidates on 2 November.[8] In their 200000 strong protest on 1 November,[9] Algerian protestors rejected the 12 December election and called for a radical change in the system to take place first.[10] The Forces of the Democratic Alternative (FDA) alliance and the Justice and Development Front also called for boycotting the 12 December election, and the FDA called for creating a constituent assembly.[11]

2019 Algerian presidential election

← 2014 12 December 2019 (2019-12-12) 2024 →
Registered24,474,161
Turnout39.88%
  Abdelmadjid Tebboune 20200119.jpg Missing photo.svg Ali Benflis 2014 (cropped).jpg
Nominee Abdelmadjid Tebboune Abdelkader Bengrina Ali Benflis
Party Independent El Binaa Talaie El Houriyate
Alliance National Liberation Front None None
Popular vote 4,947,523 1,477,836 897,831
Percentage 58.13% 17.37% 10.55%

  عز الدين ميهوبي.jpg Bulletin de vote de Abdelaziz Belaïd 2014 (cropped).jpg
Nominee Azzedine Mihoubi Abdelaziz Belaïd
Party National Rally for Democracy Future Front
Alliance None None
Popular vote 619,225 568,000
Percentage 7.28% 6.67%

President before election

Abdelkader Bensalah (acting)
Independent

Elected President

Abdelmadjid Tebboune
Independent

Poster announcing the presidential election before it was postponed

Electoral systemEdit

The President of Algeria is elected using the two-round system; if no candidate receives a majority of the vote in the first round, a second round will be held.[12]

Electoral bodiesEdit

The Algerian Constitution of 2016 created the Haute instance indépendante de surveillance des élections [fr] (HIISE) to have overall responsibility for organising elections. For the third attempt to organise the 2019 presidential election, the Algerian lower and upper houses of parliament created the Independent National Elections Authority (ANIE). Lawyer Faïz Moussi and constitutional expert Ahmed Betatache described the procedures for creating ANIE as rushed and unconstitutional.[6] Fouad Makhlouf, secretary-general of HIISE, had stated earlier, in April 2019, that the replacement of HIISE's role by an alternative electoral body would be unconstitutional.[7]

BackgroundEdit

Early 2019 protests and internet censorshipEdit

Plans for a presidential election in Algeria in 2019 were a major factor motivating the start of the 2019 Algerian protests, with protestors objecting to the reelection of Abdelaziz Bouteflika.[13]

On 22 February 2019, protests took place in Algiers, Oran, Sétif, Annaba and other Algerian cities over Bouteflika's bid to continue for a fifth term.[14][15] Algerians reported difficulty accessing online services and the NetBlocks internet observatory published technical evidence of multiple targeted internet disruptions at demonstration flashpoints in Tizi Ouzou and around Algiers.[16][13]

CandidatesEdit

Bensalah is not eligible to participate in the presidential election.[17][18]

18 April 2019 cancelled electionEdit

On 3 March 2019, a day after his 82nd birthday and while undergoing medical tests in Switzerland, President Abdelaziz Bouteflika formally submitted his candidacy, but said in a statement read on state TV that he would not serve a full term if re-elected. Instead, he promised to organise a national conference and set a date for an early election which he would not participate in. The announcement followed weeks of protests against his plan to seek a fifth term in office.[19] A week later, on 11 March 2019, Bouteflika withdrew from the race and postponed the election.[20]

On 1 November 2018, journalist Ghani Mahdi [ar] announced that he would be a candidate in the election.[21]

On 4 April 2019, Ali Ghediri, a former Director of Human Resources at the Ministry of Defense, announced his candidacy.[22]

4 July 2019 cancelled electionEdit

The 4 July 2019 election had two candidates who applied: Abdelhakim Hamadi from Jijel, born 23 August 1965, who trained as a vet, worked in the state sector and became a businessman; and Hamid Touahri, an aeronautical mechanical engineer who worked in medical sales and construction and managed an audiovisual production firm.[23] Both candidates' applications were lodged on 25 May, and later rejected by the Constitutional Council, which cancelled the election due to what it called the "impossibility" of organising the election.[24]

12 December 2019 electionEdit

Potential candidates Ahmed Gaid Salah and Noureddine Bedoui won't run.[citation needed][clarification needed] Former prime minister Abdelaziz Belkhadem was expected to be a candidate. The Tajamou Amel El-Djazaïr former minister Amar Ghoul (in prison at the time) announced his participation in the vote.[citation needed]

145 people picked up their application forms, including:[25]

  • Ali Benflis, former head of government;
  • Abdelaziz Belaid, president of the El Moustakbal Front;
  • Aissa Belhadi, president of the Front of Good Governance;
  • Abdelkader Bengrina, president of the El-Bina Movement;
  • Ali Zeghdoud, president of the Algerian Rally party;
  • Mourad Arroudj, president of Errafah;
  • Belkacem Sahli, president of the Republican National Alliance;
  • Abdelmadjid Tebboune, former Prime Minister;
  • Rabah Bencherif;
  • Azzedine Mihoubi, former Minister of Culture;
  • Rabah Bencherif;
  • Souleymen Bakhlili, journalist;
  • Ahmed Ben Nâamane, writer;
  • Abderrahmane Arrar, coordinator of the Civil Force for Change.

Projected condidatesEdit

This list includes all the candidates who have deposited their candidacy file with the Independent National Elections Authority:

List of potential candidates for the December elections
Number Condidate Career Nominee of
1 Noui Kharchi[26] University Professor Independent (supported by National Liberation Front)
2 Belkacem Sahli[27] Party leader National Republican Alliance
3 Raouf Ayeb[28] Pharmacist Independent
4 Souleymane Bakhlili[29] Journalist Independent
5 Abbas Djamel[30] University Professor Independent
6 Abdelhakim Hamadi[31] Independent
7 Abderrahman Arare[31] Association leader Independent
8 Abderrezak Hbirate[32][33] Independent
9 Abdelaziz Belaid[34][35] Party leader Future Front
10 Abdelkader Bengrina[31] Party leader National Construction Movement
11 Abdelmadjid Tebboune[32][36] Former First Minister Independent
12 Abelmonaim Najia[37] Lawyer Independent
13 Azzedine Mihoubi[36] Party leader Democratic National Rally[38]
14 Ali Benflis[32][36][39] Former First Minister Vanguards Liberties Party
15 Ali Zeghdoude[40][41] Party leader Algerian Rally
16 Ali Skouri[42] Independent
17 Aissa Belhadi[43] Party leader El Hokm Errachid
18 Fares Mesdour[44] University Professor Independent
19 Labbas Ayadi[45] Independent
20 Mohammed BouAouina[45] Independent
21 Mohammed Dhif[45] Independent
22 Mourad Arouj[46][47] Party leader

Final candidatesEdit

The list below is the final list of candidates for the presidentials of 12 December 2019, after the Constitutional Council rejected all the appeals submitted for failure to establish and not to fulfill the essential requirements contained in Articles 139 and 142 of the Organic Law related to the electoral system, amended and supplemented. The candidates whose appeals were rejected (09) are: Belkacem Sahili, Ali Skouri, Abdel Hakim Hammadi, Noui Kharchi, Muhammad Dhaif, Abdelhakim Hamadi, Mohammed BouAouina, Fares Mesdour, Raouf Ayeb.[48][49]

List of candidates for the elections[50][51][52][53]
Photo Condidate Career Nominee of Submitted forms Accepted forms
  Abdelkader Bengrina Party leader National Construction Movement 93,151 83,342
  Abdelaziz Belaid Party leader Future Front 85,166 77,239
  Azzedine Mihoubi Party leader Democratic National Rally 70,599 65,743
  Ali Benflis Party leader Vanguards Liberties Party 89,472 81,295
  Abdelmadjid Tebboune Former First Minister Independent (supported by National Liberation Front) 124,125 104,826

Al Jazeera English described the five candidates as "all part of the political establishment", whose departure from power is one of the main aims of the 2019 Algerian protests.[54] Thomson Reuters described the candidates as "men on the ballot [who] all have close links with the establishment, and though some of them pushed for reforms, many still see them as part of an entrenched, unchanging elite."[55]

Election scheduleEdit

The timetable for the presidential elections, and the following is an illustrative schedule for the dates and procedures for the presidential elections, 12 December 2019:

12 December 2019 presidential election calendar [56]
Number Legal action Date
1 Date of calling the electoral commission to elect the President of the Republic 15 September 2019
2 Extraordinary review of the electoral lists 22 September 2019 - 6 October 2019
3 Submit objections to registration or cancellation 7 October 2019 -

12 October 2019

4 Periodic review of the electoral lists 12 October 2019 -

17 October 2019

5 Deposit the candidacy declaration 17 October 2019 -

26 October 2019

6 Set up voting agencies 1 October 2019 -

8 December 2019

7 Publish the list of voting office members and additional members 27 October 2019 -

10 November 2019

8 Delivering the list of voting office members and additional members to the legally qualified representatives of the candidates at their request 27 October 2019 -

10 November 2019

9 The start and end date of the election campaign 17 November 2019 -

8 December 2019

10 Preventing the publication, broadcasting and probing of opinions, exploring the intentions of voters in voting, and measuring the popularity of candidates at the national level 9 December 2019 -

12 December 2019

11 Preventing the publication, broadcasting and probing of opinions and exploring the voters ’intentions to vote and measuring the popularity of the candidates in relation to the community residing abroad 7 December 2019 -

12 December 2019

12 Election date and time 12 December 2019

from 08h00 to 19h00

13 To object to the validity of the voting operations 12 December 2019

(Election day)

14 The announcement of the final results of the presidential elections by the Constitutional Council 16 December 2019 -

25 December 2019

Second round case
15 The start and end date of the election campaign for the second round It opens twelve (12) days before and ends two (2) days before the polling date
16 The date of the second round of the Election 31 December 2019 -

9 January 2020

BoycottEdit

ProtestorsEdit

In the weekly protests that continued the early 2019 protests that led to Bouteflika dropping his candidacy for the initially scheduled election and resigning from the presidency, twenty thousand protestors called for the 12 December election to be boycotted on the grounds that the system of people in power under Bouteflika remained in place.[8] In the 1 November 2019 demonstration of two hundred thousand demonstrators, on the 37th Friday weekly protest, demonstrators called for all members of the system of power in place to be dismissed and for a radical change in the political system.[10] They rejected the 12 December election, with slogans describing it as "an election with the gangs" and as an "election organised by a corrupt power [which] is a trap for idiots" (French: les élections d’un pouvoir corrompu est un piège à cons).[9]

Prominent individuals and organisationsEdit

Former prime minister Ahmed Benbitour, former minister Abdelaziz Rahabi, Ali Fawzi Rebaine, Mohamed Said and Rachid Nekkaz, announced that they are not candidates because of the political climate.[citation needed]

On 28 September, Abdallah Djaballah, president of the Justice and Development Front, announced that his party will not take part in the elections.[11] This was followed by the Society for Peace Movement, which made a similar decision for the same reasons.[citation needed]

The Forces of the Democratic Alternative, a coalition including the Socialist Forces Front (FFS), the Rally for Culture and Democracy (RCD), the Workers' Party (PT), the Socialist Workers Party (PST), the Union for Change and Progress (UCP), the Democratic and Social Movement (MDS), the Party for Secularism and Democracy (PLD) and the Algerian League for the Defense of Human Rights (LADDH),[57] announced their refusal to participate in the vote.[11][58]

MayorsEdit

In September, 56 mayors in Kabylie stated that they would refuse to organise the practical aspects of the 12 December election in their municipalities and would do everything in their power to prevent the election taking place.[59]

ResultsEdit

Preliminary results showed that former Prime Minister and Minister of Housing Abdelmadjid Tebboune won the election in the first round, leading his nearest opponent (Abdelkader Bengrina of the Islamist El Binaa party) by over 40% of the valid votes. The official estimate of the turnout of just under 40% of eligible voters was the lowest of any Algerian presidential election held since independence, primarily due to boycotts by citizens and political parties alike. The Rally for Culture and Democracy estimated the turnout five times lower, at 8%.[60] The low turnout, as well as the relatively high number of spoiled ballots out of those who did participate, was seen as a continuation of the pro-democracy protests that preceded the resignation of Abdelaziz Bouteflika, as all approved candidates in the election were seen as members of the political establishment.

CandidatePartyVotes%
Abdelmadjid TebbouneIndependent4,947,52358.13
Abdelkader BengrinaEl Binaa1,477,83617.37
Ali BenflisTalaie El Houriyate897,83110.55
Azzedine MihoubiDemocratic National Rally619,2257.28
Abdelaziz BelaïdFuture Front568,0006.67
Total8,510,415100.00
Valid votes8,510,41587.24
Invalid/blank votes1,244,92512.76
Total votes9,755,340100.00
Registered voters/turnout24,464,16139.88
Source: APS

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Algerian presidential election fixed for December 12, says interim president". France 24. 16 September 2019.
  2. ^ Algerian president Abdelaziz Bouteflika drops bid for fifth term BBC News, 11 March 2019
  3. ^ Abdelkader Bensalah named Algeria's interim president France24, 9 April 2019
  4. ^ "Algeria to hold elections on July 4: presidency". Al Jazeera. 10 April 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  5. ^ "Algeria elections planned for 4 July 'impossible', authorities say". BBC News. 2 June 2019.
  6. ^ a b c Hammadi, Souhila (16 September 2019). "Lois organiques encadrant les élections – Bâclage des procédures et violation de la Constitution" [Basic laws defining elections – Rushed procedures and violation of the constitution]. Liberté (Algeria) (in French). Archived from the original on 4 December 2019. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
  7. ^ a b Abdeladim, Farid (11 April 2019). "Fouad Makhlouf, SG de la Hiise " La création d'une instance d'organisation des élections est illégale "" [Fouad Makhlouf, Secretary-General of HIISE, "The creation of an electoral body for organising elections is illegal"]. Liberté (Algeria) (in French). Archived from the original on 4 December 2019. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
  8. ^ a b "Five candidates to run in Algeria's presidential election next month". Thomson Reuters. 2 November 2019. Archived from the original on 2 November 2019. Retrieved 2 November 2019.
  9. ^ a b Djouadi, Farouk (1 November 2019). "Marche du 1er novembre à Alger : l'incroyable force de la révolution pacifique". El Watan. Archived from the original on 2 November 2019. Retrieved 2 November 2019.
  10. ^ a b "Algerians protest election plan, mark independence war". Al Jazeera English. 1 November 2019. Archived from the original on 2 November 2019. Retrieved 2 November 2019.
  11. ^ a b c Ouarabi, Mokrane Ait (30 September 2019). "Présidentielle du 12 décembre : Le front du boycott s'élargit" [12 December presidential election: the boycott front widens]. El Watan (in French). Archived from the original on 2 November 2019. Retrieved 2 November 2019.
  12. ^ People's Democratic Republic of Algeria: Election for President IFES
  13. ^ a b Farid, Farid Y. (11 March 2019). "Algerians have been out in force against their president's bid for a fifth term". Quartz Africa. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  14. ^ "Algeria rocked by mass protest against Bouteflika re-election bid". Middle East Eye. 22 February 2019.
  15. ^ "Algerian police use tear gas as rare anti-government protests enter third day". Reuters. 24 February 2019.
  16. ^ "Multiple targeted internet disruptions in Algeria amid mass-demonstrations". NetBlocks. 22 February 2019. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  17. ^ "Algerian Constitutional Council declares presidency vacant". TASS. 3 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  18. ^ "Abdelkader Bensalah, un fidèle de Bouteflika qui va assurer l'intérim en Algérie". Le Monde (in French). 4 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  19. ^ "In face of protests, Algeria leader vows to quit early if re-elected". AFP. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  20. ^ "Algeria president drops bid for fifth term". BBC. 11 March 2019. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  21. ^ "HOME PAGE,البرنامج-الرئأسي". ghani mahdi (in Arabic).
  22. ^ "Ali Ghediri premier candidat déclaré à la prochaine présidentielle". Algérie Patriotique. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  23. ^ Mouloudj, Mohamed (28 May 2019). "Ils sont les seuls à avoir déposé leur dossier au conseil constitutionnel – présidentielle du 4 juillet: Ce qu'on sait des 2 candidats" [They are the only ones who lodged their applications with the constitutional council – 4 July presidential election: what we know of the two candidates]. Liberté (Algeria) (in French). Archived from the original on 28 May 2019. Retrieved 2 November 2019.
  24. ^ "L'élection présidentielle du 4 juillet annulée" [Cancellation of the 4 July presidential election]. TSA Algérie (in French). 2 June 2019. Archived from the original on 2 November 2019. Retrieved 2 November 2019.
  25. ^ "Présidentielle du 12 décembre: 145 postulants retirent les formulaires de souscription" [12 December presidential election: 145 candidates retrieved their application forms]. Algérie Presse Service (in French). 18 October 2019. Archived from the original on 2 November 2019. Retrieved 2 November 2019.
  26. ^ "خرشي النوي يودع ملف ترشحه أمام السلطة المستقلة للإنتخابات" [Noui Kharchi filed his candidacy file with the Independent Election Authority]. النهار أونلاين (in Arabic). 26 October 2019. Archived from the original on 30 October 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  27. ^ "ساحلي: ترشحي جاء لتجسيد السيادة التي طالب بها الحراك الشعبي" [Sahli: My candidacy came to embody the sovereignty demanded by the Hirak movement]. النهار أونلاين (in Arabic). 26 October 2019. Archived from the original on 31 October 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  28. ^ "رؤوف عايب يودع ملف ترشحه للإنتخابات الرئاسية" [Raouf Ayeb filed his candidacy file for the presidential elections]. النهار أونلاين (in Arabic). 26 October 2019. Archived from the original on 30 October 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  29. ^ "سليمان بخليلي: الإنتخابات الرئاسية هي الحل الوحيد للخروج من الأزمة" [Souleymane Bakhlili: Presidential elections are the only solution to get out of the crisis]. النهار أونلاين (in Arabic). 26 October 2019. Archived from the original on 31 October 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  30. ^ Saoud, chakib. "السيد عباس جمال يودع ملف ترشحه بمقر السلطة الوطنية المستقلة" [Mr. Abbas Djamal files his candidacy file at the headquarters of the Independent National Authority]. www.aps.dz (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 27 October 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  31. ^ a b c "رئاسيات: قائمة الـ 22 الذين أودعوا ملفاتهم" [Presidentials: a list of the 22 who deposited their files]. elkhabar.com (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 16 December 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  32. ^ a b c "تبون "ديمقراطي"... بن فليس يتحدى وزغدود باستمارات فارغة!" [Tebboune is a "democratic" ... Ben Felas is challenging and Zughdoud with empty forms!]. الشروق أونلاين (in Arabic). 26 October 2019. Archived from the original on 16 December 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  33. ^ Saoud, chakib. "السيد عبد الرزاق هبيرات يودع ملف ترشحه بمقر السلطة الوطنية المستقلة للانتخابات" [Mr. Abderrezak Hbirate files his candidacy file at the headquarters of the Independent National Elections Authority]. www.aps.dz (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 27 October 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  34. ^ "عبد العزيز بلعيد : نثق في مؤسسات الدولة ولا نشك في وقوف الشعب بجانبنا" [Abdelaziz Belaid: We trust in state institutions and do not doubt that the people will stand by our side]. النهار أونلاين (in Arabic). 26 October 2019. Archived from the original on 31 October 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  35. ^ chakib, Saoud. "السيد عبد العزيز بلعيد يودع ملف ترشحه بمقر السلطة الوطنية المستقلة للانتخابات" [Mr. Abdelaziz Belaid files his candidacy at the headquarters of the Independent National Elections Authority]. www.aps.dz (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 27 October 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  36. ^ a b c "14 راغب أودعوا ملفات ترشحهم أمام السلطة المستقلة للإنتخابات" [14 willing persons have deposited files to run before the Independent Election Authority]. النهار أونلاين (in Arabic). 26 October 2019. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  37. ^ "ناجية عبد المنعم يودع ملف ترشحه رسميا للإستحقاق الرئاسي" [Abelmonaim Najia officially filed his candidacy for the presidential elections]. النهار أونلاين (in Arabic). 27 October 2019. Archived from the original on 30 October 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  38. ^ "هؤلاء أبرز المترشحين للرئسيات 12 ديسمبر" [These are the most prominent candidates for the December 12 presidential elections]. النهار أونلاين (in Arabic). 27 October 2019. Archived from the original on 7 November 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  39. ^ chakib, Saoud. "Mr. Ali Benflis files his candidacy file at the headquarters of the Independent National Elections Authority". www.aps.dz (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 27 October 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  40. ^ "الراغب في الترشح علي زغدود يقدم استمارات فارغة !" [Projected condidates Ali Zaghdoud submits blank forms!]. النهار أونلاين (in Arabic). 26 October 2019. Archived from the original on 29 October 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  41. ^ "علي زغدود يودع ملف ترشحه للرئاسيات لدى سلطة الانتخابات". الشروق أونلاين (in Arabic). 26 October 2019. Archived from the original on 16 December 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  42. ^ "علي سكوري يودع ملف ترشحه لدى السلطة المستقلة للإنتخابات" [Ali Skouri filed his candidacy file with the Independent Elections Authority]. النهار أونلاين (in Arabic). 26 October 2019. Archived from the original on 30 October 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  43. ^ "بلهادي عيسى يودع ملف ترشحه رسميا للانتخابات 12 ديسمبر" [Aissa Belhadi officially files his candidacy for the December 12th elections]. النهار أونلاين (in Arabic). 27 October 2019. Archived from the original on 30 October 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  44. ^ "فارس مسدور يودع ملف ترشحه للرلئاسيات" [Fares Mesdour filed his candidacy for the presidentials]. البلاد (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 28 October 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  45. ^ a b c "22 راغبا في الترشح يودعون ملفاتهم لدى السلطة الوطنية للإنتخابات" [22 person who want to run file their files with the National Election Authority]. النهار أونلاين (in Arabic). 27 October 2019. Archived from the original on 30 October 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  46. ^ "مراد عروج يودع ملف ترشحه أمام السلطة المستقلة للإنتخابات" [Mourad Arouj filed his candidacy file with the Independent Election Authority]. النهار أونلاين (in Arabic). 26 October 2019. Archived from the original on 30 October 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  47. ^ chakib, Saoud. "السيد مراد عروج يودع ملف ترشحه بمقر السلطة الوطنية المستقلة للانتخابات" [Mr. Mourad Arouj files his candidacy file at the headquarters of the Independent National Elections Authority]. www.aps.dz (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 27 October 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  48. ^ "المجلس الدستوري يكشف عن القائمة النهائية للمترشحين" [The Constitutional Council reveals the final list of candidates]. elkhabar.com (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 16 December 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  49. ^ "المجلس الدستوري يرفض جميع الطعون ويبقي على قائمة السلطة الوطنية للانتخابات | الإذاعة الجزائرية" [The Constitutional Council rejects all appeals and maintains the National Election Authority list]. radioalgerie.dz (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 10 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  50. ^ "قرار المجلس الدستوري.. هل يمكن انتظار مفاجأة في قائمة المترشحين؟" [The decision of the Constitutional Council .. Is it possible to wait for a surprise in the list of candidates?]. الشروق أونلاين (in Arabic). 9 November 2019. Archived from the original on 16 December 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  51. ^ "بالتفاصيل.. هؤلاء هم المترشحون الخمسة لرئاسيات ديسمبر 2019" [In details... these are the five candidates for the December 2019 presidential elections]. النهار أونلاين (in Arabic). 2 November 2019. Archived from the original on 8 November 2019. Retrieved 2 November 2019.
  52. ^ "بتاريخ 23 يوليو 2019، تمت إحالة الدفع بعدم الدستورية إلى المجلس الدستوري، من قبل المحكمة العليا، حول نص المادة 416 الفقرة 1 من قانون الإجراءات الجزائية، المعدل والمتمم..." [On 23 July 2019, the claim of unconstitutionality was referred to the Constitutional Council, by the Supreme Court, regarding the text of Article 416 Paragraph 1 of the Criminal Procedure Code, amended and supplemented ...]. www.conseil-constitutionnel.dz. Archived from the original on 5 June 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  53. ^ "رئاسيات 2019.. المجلس الدستوري يعلن عن القائمة النهائية للمترشحين" [Presidencies of 2019 .. The Constitutional Council announces the final list of candidates]. النهار أونلاين (in Arabic). 9 November 2019. Archived from the original on 10 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  54. ^ "Algeria presidential election: Five candidates announced". Al Jazeera English. 3 November 2019. Archived from the original on 3 November 2019. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
  55. ^ Chikhi, Lamine (17 November 2019). "Algerian protesters attack 'garbage' presidential campaign". Thomson Reuters. Archived from the original on 17 November 2019. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  56. ^ "رزنامة الإنتخابات الرئاسية 12 ديسمبر 2019" [12 December 2019 presidential election calendar] (PDF) (in Arabic). Independent National Election Authority. 7 December 2019. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  57. ^ Lamriben, Hocine (10 September 2019). "Réunies hier au siège du RCD : Les Forces de l'Alternative démocratique rejettent "l'agenda de la présidentielle"". El Watan. Archived from the original on 3 November 2019. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
  58. ^ Ouarabi, Mokrane Ait (4 November 2019). "PLD : "Cette présidentielle ne garantit pas le départ du système"" [This presidential election doesn't guarantee that the removal of the system]. El Watan (in French). Archived from the original on 5 November 2019. Retrieved 5 November 2019.
  59. ^ Zahir, Boukhelifa (24 September 2019). "Kabylie, vers un boycott massif des élections du 12 décembre" [Kabylie, twoards a massive boycott of the 12 December election]. Kab News (in French). Archived from the original on 2 November 2019. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
  60. ^ "Le RCD s'offusque du comportement du pouvoir : "Le taux de participation réel à la présidentielle n'a pas dépassé les 8%"" [RCD vexed by the authorities' behaviour: "The real participation rate in the presidential election was no more than 8%"]. El Watan (in French). 15 December 2019. Archived from the original on 16 December 2019. Retrieved 16 December 2019.