The first of many Alexandrias in the Far East of the Macedonian Empire, Alexandria in Ariana was a city in what is now Afghanistan, one of the twenty-plus cities founded or renamed by Alexander the Great. The third largest Afghan city, Herat, is the city's modern name.
Mercator Map (1578) - Asiae-Tabula IX
The location of this town is difficult to determine due to the sparsity of ancient sources. However:
- Ptolemy places it near lake Arius possibly on the west side of lake Zerra at a town called Corra.
- Pliny says it was on the Arias River at the location of modern Herat.
- Eratosthenes states that Alexandria Arion is 3870 Stadia from Bactra and 6400 Stadia from the Caspian Gates.
- Mannert takes the Arius River to be the modern Hari river making the site the village of Pilki.
- Jona Lendering (16 December 2007). "Alexander the Great: his towns". Livius.org. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
- "The Empire and Expeditions of Alexander the Great". World Digital Library. 1833. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- Pliny vi 61 93
- Strabo, xi 8,9 and 10.
- Ptolemey, Geography vi 17
- Pliny History Nat vi 23
- Strabo xi c 8
- Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, Volume 1 By Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (Great Britain) p.317