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Alexa is an intelligent personal assistant developed by Amazon, first used in the Amazon Echo and the Amazon Echo Dot devices developed by Amazon Lab126. It is capable of voice interaction, music playback, making to-do lists, setting alarms, streaming podcasts, playing audiobooks, and providing weather, traffic, and other real-time information, such as news.[2] Alexa can also control several smart devices using itself as a home automation system. Users can extend the Alexa capabilities by installing "skills" (additional functionality developed by third-party vendors, in other settings more commonly called apps).

Amazon Alexa
Amazon Alexa Logo.png
Developer(s) Amazon
Initial release November 2014; 3 years ago (2014-11)
Operating system Fire OS 5.0 or later, iOS 8.0 or later[1]
Android 4.4 or later
Available in
Type Intelligent personal assistant, cloud-based voice service

Most devices with Alexa allow users to activate the device using a wake-word (such as Echo); other devices (such as the Amazon mobile app on iOS or Android) require the user to push a button to activate Alexa's listening mode. Currently, interaction and communication with Alexa are only available in English, German and Japanese. In November 2017, Alexa became available in the Canadian market in English only.[3]

As of September 2017, Amazon had more than 5,000 employees working on Alexa and related products.[4]



In November 2014, Amazon announced Alexa alongside the Echo.[5] Alexa was inspired by the computer voice and conversational system on board the Starship Enterprise in science fiction TV series and movies, beginning with Star Trek: The Original Series and Star Trek: The Next Generation.[6]

The name Alexa was chosen due to the fact that it has a hard consonant with the X and therefore could be recognized with higher precision. The name is also claimed to be reminiscent of the Library of Alexandria, which is also used by Amazon Alexa Internet for the same reason.[7][8][9] In June 2015, Amazon announced Alexa Fund, a program that would invest in companies making voice control skills and technologies. The US$100 million in funds has invested in companies including Ecobee, Orange Chef, Scout Alarm, Garageio, Toymail, MARA, and Mojio.[10] In 2016 the Alexa Prize was announced to advance the technology.

In January 2017, the first Alexa Conference took place in Nashville, Tennessee, an independent gathering of the worldwide community of Alexa developers and enthusiasts.[11][12][13] The follow-up has been announced, to be keynoted by original Amazon Alexa / Connected Home product head Ahmed Bouzid.[14]

At the Amazon Web Services Re:Invent conference in Las Vegas, Amazon announced Alexa for Business and the ability for app developers to have paid add-ons to their skills.


Logo for the Amazon Alexa app available on the App Store and Google Play

A companion app is available from the Apple App Store, Google Play, and Amazon Appstore. The app can be used by owners of Alexa-enabled devices to install skills, control music, manage alarms, and view shopping lists. It also allows users to review the recognized text on the app screen and to send feedback to Amazon concerning whether the recognition was good or bad. A web interface is also available to set up compatible devices (e.g., Amazon Echo, Amazon Dot, Amazon Echo Show).


Alexa offers weather reports provided by AccuWeather and news provided by TuneIn from a variety of sources including local radio stations, NPR, and ESPN.[15] Additionally, Alexa-supported devices stream music from the owner's Amazon Music accounts and have built-in support for Pandora and Spotify accounts.[16] Alexa can play music from streaming services such as Apple Music and Google Play Music from a phone or tablet. Alexa can manage voice-controlled alarms, timers, and shopping and to-do lists, and can access Wikipedia articles.[17] Alexa devices will respond to questions about items in the user's Google Calendar. As of November 2016, the Alexa Appstore had over 5,000 functions ("skills") available for users to download,[18] up from 1,000 functions in June 2016.[19] As of a partnership with fellow technology company, Microsoft, Alexa will be available via its competing virtual personal assistant, Cortana. This functionality was said to come later in 2017[20]; although as of January 2018, is still not available.

Home automationEdit

In the home automation space, Alexa can interact with devices from Belkin Wemo, ecobee, Geeni, IFTTT,[21] Insteon, LIFX, LightwaveRF, Nest Thermostats, Philips Hue, SmartThings, Wink,[22][23] and Yonomi.[24] The Home Automation feature was launched on April 8, 2015.[25]


Take-out food can be ordered using Alexa; as of May 2017 food ordering using Alexa is supported by Domino's Pizza, Grubhub, Pizza Hut, Seamless, and Wingstop.[26] Also, users of Alexa in the UK can order meals via Just Eat.[27] In early 2017, Starbucks announced a private beta for placing pick-up orders using Alexa.[28] In addition, users can order meals using Amazon Prime Now via Alexa in 20 major US cities.[29] With the introduction of Amazon Key in November 2017, Alexa also works together with the smart lock and the Alexa Cloud Cam included in the service to allow Amazon couriers to unlock customers' front doors and deliver packages inside.[30]


Alexa supports a multitude of subscription-based and free streaming services on Amazon devices. These streaming services include: Prime Music, Amazon Music, Amazon Music Unlimited, TuneIn, iHeartRadio, Audible, Pandora, and Spotify Premium. However, some of these music services are not available on other Alexa-enabled products that are manufactured by companies external of its services. This unavailability also includes Amazon's own Fire TV devices or tablets.[31]

Alexa is able to stream media and music directly. To do this, Alexa's device should be linked to the Amazon account, which enables access to one's Amazon Music library, in addition to any audiobooks available in one's Audible library. Amazon Prime members have an additional ability to access stations, playlists, and over two million songs free of charge. Amazon Music Unlimited subscribers also have access to a list of millions of songs.

Amazon Music for PC allows one to play personal music from Google Play, iTunes, and others on an Alexa device. This can be done by uploading one's collection to My Music on Amazon from a computer. Up to 250 songs can be uploaded free of charge. Once this is done, Alexa can play this music and control playback through voice command options.


Alexa allows the user to hear updates on supported sports teams. A way to do this is by adding the sports team to the list created under Alexa's Sports Update app section. [32]

The user are able to hear updates on up to 15 supported teams:[32]

  • MLS - Major League Soccer
  • EPL - English Premier League
  • NBA - National Basketball Association
  • NCAA men’s basketball - National Collegiate Athletic Association
  • UEFA Champions League - Union of European Football Association
  • FA Cup - Football Association Challenge Cup
  • MLB - Major League Baseball
  • NHL - National Hockey League
  • NCAA FBS football - National Collegiate Athletic Association: Football Bowl Subdivision
  • NFL - National Football League
  • German Bundesliga 2nd Division
  • WNBA - Women's National Basketball Association
  • German Bundesliga 1st Division

Messaging and callsEdit

There are a number of ways messages can be sent from Alexa's application. Alexa is able to deliver messages to a recipient's Alexa application, as well as to all of their Echo devices that are both supported and associated with their Amazon account. Alexa is able to send typed messages only from Alexa's app. If one sends a message from an associated Echo device, it will be sent as a voice message. Alexa cannot send attachments such as videos and photos.[33]

For households with more than one member, one's Alexa contacts are pooled across all of the devices that are registered to its associated account. However, within Alexa's app one is only able to start conversations with its Alexa contacts.[34] When accessed and supported by an Alexa app or Echo device, Alexa messaging is available to anyone in one's household. These messages can be heard by anyone with access in the household. This messaging feature does not yet contain a password protection or associated PIN. Anyone who has access to one's cell phone number is able to use this feature to contact them through their supported Alexa app or Echo device. The feature to block alerts for messages and calls is available temporarily by utilizing the Do Not Disturb feature.[35]


Alexa for Business is a paid subscription service allowing companies to use Alexa to join conference calls, schedule meeting rooms, and custom skills designed by 3rd-party vendors.[36] At launch, notable skills are available from SAP, Microsoft, and Salesforce.[37]

Alexa Skills KitEdit

Amazon allows developers to build and publish skills for Alexa using the Alexa Skills Kit. These skills are third-party developed voice experiences that add to the capabilities of any Alexa-enabled device (such as the Echo). These skills are available for free download using the Alexa app. Skills are continuously being added to increase the capabilities available to the user. A "Smart Home Skill API" is available.[38] All of the code runs in the cloud – nothing is on any user's device. A developer can follow tutorials to learn how to quickly build voice experiences for their new and existing applications.[39]

Alexa Voice ServiceEdit

Amazon allows device manufacturers to integrate Alexa voice capabilities into their own connected products by using the Alexa Voice Service (AVS), a cloud-based service that provides APIs to interface with Alexa. Products built using AVS have access to Alexa's growing list of capabilities including all of the Alexa Skills. AVS provides cloud-based automatic speech recognition (ASR) and natural language understanding (NLU). There are no fees for companies looking to integrate Alexa into their products by using AVS.[citation needed]

The voice of Amazon Alexa is generated by a long short-term memory artificial neural network.[40][41][42]

Amazon LexEdit

On November 30, 2016 Amazon announced that they will make the speech recognition and natural language processing technology behind Alexa available for developers under the name of Amazon Lex. This new service would allow developers to create their own chatbots that can interact in a conversational manner, similar to Alexa. Along with the connection to various Amazon services, the initial version will provide connectivity to Facebook Messenger, with Slack and Twilio integration to follow.[43][44]

Reception and issuesEdit

There are concerns about the access Amazon has to private conversations in the home and other non-verbal indications that can identify who is present in the home with non-stop audio pick-up from Alexa-enabled devices.[45][46] Amazon responds to these concerns by stating that the devices only stream recordings from the user's home when the 'wake word' activates the device. The device is technically capable of streaming voice recordings at all times, and in fact will always be listening to detect if a user has uttered the wake word.

Amazon uses past voice recordings sent to the cloud service to improve response to future questions the user may pose. To address privacy concerns, the user can delete voice recordings that are currently associated with the user's account, but doing so may degrade the user's experience using search functions. To delete these recordings, the user can visit the Manage My Device page on or contact Amazon customer service.

Alexa uses an address stored in the companion app when it needs a location.[47] Amazon and third-party apps and websites use location information to provide location-based services and store information to provide voice services, the Maps app, Find Your Device, and to monitor the performance and accuracy of location services. For example, Echo voice services use the user's location to respond to the user's requests for nearby restaurants or stores. Similarly, Alexa uses the user's location to process the user's mapping-related requests and improve the Maps experience. All information collected is subject to the Privacy Notice.[48]

Amazon retains digital recordings of users' audio spoken after the "wake word," and while the audio recordings are subject to demands by law enforcement, government agents, and other entities via subpoena, Amazon publishes some information about the warrants it receives, the subpoenas it receives, and some of the warrant-less demands it receives, allowing customers some indication as to the percentage of government demands for customer information it receives.[49]


As of February 2018, Alexa is available in 38 countries. Most recently, Alexa launched in Australia and New Zealand on February 1, 2018.[50]

Release dates
Date Country
November 6, 2014 (limited)
June 28, 2015 (full)
  United States
September 28, 2016   United Kingdom
October 26, 2016   Germany
October 4, 2017 (limited)   India
November 15, 2017   Japan
December 5, 2017   Canada
December 8, 2017   Belgium
  Costa Rica
  Czech Republic
  El Salvador
January 25, 2018   Ireland[51]
February 1, 2018   Australia
  New Zealand

Supported devicesEdit

Smart speakersEdit

TVs and media boxesEdit

Phones and tabletsEdit

Laptops and desktopsEdit

  • Asus ZenBook and VivoBook laptops (2018)[77]
  • HP Pavilion Wave desktop
  • Lenovo ThinkPad X1 laptops (2018)[78]
  • Acer Aspire, Spin, Switch and Swift notebooks[79]
  • Acer Aspire all-in-one desktops

Smart homeEdit

Wearables and earphonesEdit

  • OV by ONvocal headphones[89]
  • Lynx robot[90]
  • Pebble Core[91] (cancelled due to Fitbit acquisition, product did not reach retail)
  • Orion Labs Onyx smart walkie-talkie[92]
  • iMCO CoWatch[93]
  • Martian mVoice Smartwatches[94]
  • Omate Rise Smartwatch[95]
  • Bragi Dash and Dash Pro earbuds[96]



  • Roger (app)[104]
  • EchoSim (website)[105]
  • Amazon iOS and Android shopping apps (only for purchasing products from[106]
  • Amazon Music iOS and Android apps (only for music playback)[107]
  • Amazon Alexa mobile app

Alexa PrizeEdit

In September 2016, a university student competition called the Alexa Prize was announced for November of that year.[108] The prize is equipped with a total of $2.5 million and teams and their universities can win cash and research grants. The process started with team selection in 2016.[109] The 2017 inaugural competition focuses on the challenge of building a socialbot. The University of Washington student team was awarded first place for the 2017 prize. [110] A second year of the competition has been announced.

Alexa FundEdit

Given Amazon's strong belief in voice technologies, Amazon announced a US$100 million venture capital fund on June 25, 2015. By specifically targeting developers, device-makers and innovative companies of all sizes, Amazon aims at making digital voice assistants more powerful for its users.[111] Eligible projects for financial funding base on either creating new Alexa capabilities by using the Alexa Skills Kit (ASK) or Alexa Voice Service (AVS).[112]

The final selection of companies originates from the customer perspective and works backwards, specific elements that are considered for potential investments are: level of customer centricity, degree of innovation, motivation of leadership, fit to Alexa product/service line, amount of other funding raised.[112]

Besides financial support, Amazon provides business and technology expertise, help for bringing products to the market, aid for hard- and software development as well as enhanced marketing support on proprietary Amazon platforms.

The list of funded business includes (in alphabetical order): DefinedCrows, Dragon Innovation, Ecobee, Embodied Inc., Garageio, Invoxia,, Luma, Mara, Mojio (2x times), Musaic, Nucleus, Orange Chef, Owlet Baby Care, Petnet, Rachio, Ring, Scout, Sutro, Thalmic Labs, Toymail Co., TrackR and Vesper.[113]


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External linksEdit