Open main menu

Aldebaran, also designated α Tauri (Latinized to Alpha Tauri, abbreviated Alpha Tau, α Tau), is a red giant star located about 65 light-years from the Sun in the zodiac constellation Taurus. It is the brightest star in Taurus and generally the fourteenth-brightest star in the night sky, though it varies slowly in brightness between magnitude 0.75 and 0.95.

Aldebaran
Taurus constellation map.svg
The position of Aldebaran in the Taurus constellation.
Observation data
Epoch J2000.0      Equinox J2000.0
Constellation Taurus
Pronunciation /ælˈdɛbərən/[1][2]
Right ascension  04h 35m 55.23907s[3]
Declination +16° 30′ 33.4885″[3]
Apparent magnitude (V) 0.86[4]
Characteristics
Evolutionary stage Red giant branch[5]
Spectral type K5+ III[6]
Apparent magnitude (J) −2.095[7]
U−B color index +1.92[4]
B−V color index +1.44[4]
Variable type LB[8]
Astrometry
Radial velocity (Rv)+54.26±0.03[9] km/s
Proper motion (μ) RA: 63.45±0.84[3] mas/yr
Dec.: −188.94±0.65[3] mas/yr
Parallax (π)49.97 ± 0.75[10] mas
Distance65.3 ± 1.0 ly
(20.0 ± 0.3 pc)
Absolute magnitude (MV)−0.641±0.034[10]
Details
Mass1.16±0.07[11] M
Radius44.13±0.84[12] R
Luminosity518±32[12] L
Surface gravity (log g)1.59[12] cgs
Temperature3,910[12] K
Metallicity [Fe/H]−0.15±0.2[13] dex
Rotation520 days[14]
Rotational velocity (v sin i)2.7[15] km/s
Age6.4+1.4
−1.1
[11] Gyr
Other designations
87 Tauri, α Tauri, BD+16°629, GJ 171.1, GJ 9159, HD 29139, HIP 21421, HR 1457, SAO 94027
Database references
SIMBADdata
ARICNSdata

The planetary exploration probe Pioneer 10 is currently heading in the general direction of the star and should make its closest approach in about two million years.

Aldebaran hosts a planet several times the size of Jupiter, named Aldebaran b.

Contents

NomenclatureEdit

α Tauri is the star's Bayer designation. The name Aldebaran is derived from the Arabic for "the Follower" (الدبران),[16][17] because it seems to follow the Pleiades.[18][19]

In 2016, the International Astronomical Union organized a Working Group on Star Names (WGSN)[20] to catalog and standardize proper names for stars. The WGSN's first bulletin of July 2016[21] included a table of the first two batches of names approved by the WGSN, which included Aldebaran for this star. It is now so entered in the IAU Catalog of Star Names.[22]

Names in other languagesEdit

MythologyEdit

This easily seen and striking star in its suggestive asterism is a popular subject for ancient and modern myths.

  • Mexican culture: For the Seris of northwestern Mexico, this star provides light for the seven women giving birth (Pleiades). It has three names: Hant Caalajc Ipápjö, Queeto, and Azoj Yeen oo Caap ("star that goes ahead"). The lunar month corresponding to October is called Queeto yaao "Aldebaran's path".[26]
  • Aboriginal culture: in the Clarence River of northeastern New South Wales, this star is the Ancestor Karambal, who stole another man's wife. The woman's husband tracked him down and burned the tree in which he was hiding. It is believed that he rose to the sky as smoke and became the star Aldebaran.[27]

Observational historyEdit

On 11 March AD 509, a lunar occultation of Aldebaran was observed in Athens, Greece.[28] English astronomer Edmund Halley studied the timing of this event, and in 1718 concluded that Aldebaran must have changed position since that time, moving several minutes of arc further to the north. This, as well as observations of the changing positions of stars Sirius and Arcturus, led to the discovery of proper motion. Based on present day observations, the position of Aldebaran has shifted 7′ in the last 2000 years; roughly a quarter the diameter of the full moon.[29][30] 5,000 years ago the vernal equinox was close to Aldebaran.[31]

English astronomer William Herschel discovered a faint companion to Aldebaran in 1782;[32] an 11th magnitude star at an angular separation of 117. This star was shown to be itself a close double star by S. W. Burnham in 1888, and he discovered an additional 14th magnitude companion at an angular separation of 31″. Follow on measurements of proper motion showed that Herschel's companion was diverging from Aldebaran, and hence they were not physically connected. However, the companion discovered by Burnham had almost exactly the same proper motion as Aldebaran, suggesting that the two formed a wide binary star system.[33]

Working at his private observatory in Tulse Hill, England, in 1864 William Huggins performed the first studies of the spectrum of Aldebaran, where he was able to identify the lines of nine elements, including iron, sodium, calcium, and magnesium. In 1886, Edward C. Pickering at the Harvard College Observatory used a photographic plate to capture fifty absorption lines in the spectrum of Aldebaran. This became part of the Draper Catalogue, published in 1890. By 1887, the photographic technique had improved to the point that it was possible to measure a star's radial velocity from the amount of Doppler shift in the spectrum. By this means, the recession velocity of Aldebaran was estimated as 30 miles per second (48 km/s), using measurements performed at Potsdam Observatory by Hermann C. Vogel and his assistant Julius Scheiner.[34]

Aldebaran was observed using an interferometer attached to the Hooker Telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory in 1921 in order to measure its angular diameter, but it was not resolved in these observations.[35]

Physical characteristicsEdit

 
Size comparison between Aldebaran and the Sun

Aldebaran is listed as the spectral standard for type K5+ III star,[6] which indicates it is a giant star that has evolved off the main sequence band of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram after exhausting the hydrogen at its core. The collapse of the centre of the star into a degenerate helium core has ignited a shell of hydrogen outside the core and Aldebaran is now on the red giant branch (RGB).[5]

The effective temperature of Aldebaran's photosphere is 3,910 K. It has a surface gravity of 1.59 cgs, typical for a giant star, but around 25 times lower than the Earth's and 700 times lower than the sun's. Its metallicity is about 30% lower than the sun's.

Measurements by the Hipparcos satellite and other sources put Aldebaran around 65.3 light-years (20.0 parsecs) away.[10] Asteroseismology has determined that it is about 16% more massive than the Sun,[11] yet it shines with 518 times the Sun's luminosity due to the expanded radius. It has expanded to 44 times the diameter of the Sun,[12] approximately 61 million kilometres. Aldebaran is a slightly variable star, of the slow irregular type LB. It varies by about 0.2 magnitudes between apparent magnitude 0.75 and 0.95.[8] With a near-infrared J band magnitude of −2.1, only Betelgeuse (−2.9), R Doradus (−2.6), and Arcturus (−2.2) are brighter at that wavelength.[7]

The photosphere shows abundances of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen that suggest the giant has gone through its first dredge-up stage—a normal step in the evolution of a star into a red giant during which material from deep within the star is brought up to the surface by convection.[36] With its slow rotation, Aldebaran lacks a dynamo needed to generate a corona and hence is not a source of hard X-ray emission. However, small scale magnetic fields may still be present in the lower atmosphere, resulting from convection turbulence near the surface. The measured strength of the magnetic field on Aldebaran is 0.22 Gauss.[37] Any resulting soft X-ray emissions from this region may be attenuated by the chromosphere, although ultraviolet emission has been detected in the spectrum.[38] The star is currently losing mass at a rate of (1–1.6) × 10−11 M yr−1 (about one Earth mass in 300,000 years) with a velocity of 30 km s−1.[36] This stellar wind may be generated by the weak magnetic fields in the lower atmosphere.[38]

Beyond the chromosphere of Aldebaran is an extended molecular outer atmosphere (MOLsphere) where the temperature is cool enough for molecules of gas to form. This region lies between 1.2 and 2.8 times the radius of the star, with temperatures of 1,000−2,000 K. The spectrum reveals lines of carbon monoxide, water, and titanium oxide.[36] Past this radius, the modest outflow of the stellar wind itself declines in temperature to about 7,500 K at a distance of 1 astronomical unit (AU)−the distance of the Earth from the Sun. The wind continues to expand until it reaches the termination shock boundary with the hot, ionized interstellar medium that dominates the Local Bubble, forming a roughly spherical astrosphere with a radius of around 1,000 AU, centered on Aldebaran.[39]

ObservationEdit

 
Occultation of Aldebaran by the Moon. Aldebaran is the red dot to the right, barely visible in the thumbnail.

Aldebaran is one of the easiest stars to find in the night sky, partly due to its brightness and partly due to its spatial relation to one of the more noticeable asterisms in the sky. If one follows the three stars of Orion's belt from left to right (in the Northern Hemisphere) or right to left (in the Southern), the first bright star found by continuing that line is Aldebaran.

Since the star is located (by chance) in the line of sight between the Earth and the Hyades, it has the appearance of being the brightest member of the more scattered Hyades open star cluster that makes up the bull's-head-shaped asterism; however, the star cluster is actually more than twice as far away, at about 150 light years.

Aldebaran is 5.47 degrees south of the ecliptic and can be occulted by the Moon. Such occultations occur when the Moon's ascending node is near the autumnal equinox. A series of 49 occultations occurred starting on 29 January 2015 and ending at 3 September 2018.[40] Each event was visible from points in the northern hemisphere or close to the equator; people in e.g. Australia or South Africa can never observe an Aldebaran occultation since it is too far south of the ecliptic. A reasonably accurate estimate for the diameter of Aldebaran was obtained during the occultation of 22 September 1978.[41] Aldebaran is in conjunction with the Sun around June 1 of each year.[42]

Visual companionsEdit

Five faint stars are positioned so that they appear close to Aldebaran. These double star components were given upper-case Latin letter designations more or less in the order of their discovery, with the letter A reserved for the primary star. Some of the characteristics of these components, including their position relative to Aldebaran, are listed in the table.

WDS 04359+1631 Catalogue Entry[43]
α Tau Apparent
Magnitude
Angular
Separation
(″)
Position
Angle
(°)
Year Parallax (mas)
B 13.60 31.60 113 2007 47.3417±0.1055[44]
C 11.30 129.50 32 2011 19.1267±0.4274[45]
D 13.70
E 12.00 36.10 323 2000
F 13.60 255.70 121 2000 0.1626±0.0369[46]

Some surveys, for example Gaia Data Release 2,[44] have indicated that Alpha Tauri B may have about the same proper motion and parallax as Aldebaran and thus may be a physical binary system. However these measurements are difficult to make because the dim B component appears so close to the bright primary star. The resulting margin of error is too large to positively establish (or exclude) a physical relationship between the two stars. So far neither the B component, nor anything else, has been unambiguously shown to be physically associated with Aldebaran.[47] A spectral type of M2.5 has been published for Alpha Tauri B.[48]

Alpha Tauri CD is a binary system with the C and D component stars gravitationally bound to and co-orbiting each other. These co-orbiting stars have been shown to be located far beyond Aldebaran and are members of the Hyades star cluster. As with the rest of the stars in the cluster they do not physically interact with Aldebaran in any way.[32]

Planetary systemEdit

In 1993, radial velocity measurements of Aldebaran, Arcturus and Pollux showed that Aldebaran exhibited a long-period radial velocity oscillation, which could be interpreted as a substellar companion. The measurements for Aldebaran implied a companion with a minimum mass 11.4 times that of Jupiter in a 643-day orbit at a separation of 2.0 AU (300 Gm) in a mildly eccentric orbit. However, all three stars surveyed showed similar oscillations yielding similar companion masses, and the authors concluded that the variation was likely to be intrinsic to the star rather than due to the gravitational effect of a companion.[49]

In 2015 a study showed stable long-term evidence for both a planetary companion and stellar activity.[14] An asteroseismic analysis of the residuals to the planet fit has determined that Aldebaran b has a minimum mass of 5.8±0.7 Jupiter masses.[11]

View from this starEdit

If the Sun were to be observed from this star, it would be located at the antipodal point of Aldebaran's coordinates, at  16h 35m 55s, –16° 30′ 33″ in the constellation Ophiuchus. Assuming a distance of 20 pc and negligible extinction, it would be a faint 6.3 magnitude star, dimmer than Uranus at maximum brightness from Earth at 5.38.[50]

In modern cultureEdit

The name Aldebaran or Alpha Tauri has been adopted many times, including

The star also appears in works of fiction such as Far From the Madding Crowd and Down and Out in Paris and London. It is frequently seen in science fiction, including the Lensman series and Fallen Dragon. As the brightest star in a Zodiac constellation, it is also given great significance within astrology.

The planetary exploration probe Pioneer 10 is no longer powered or in contact with Earth, but its trajectory is taking it in the general direction of Aldebaran. It is expected to make its closest approach in about two million years.[51]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Aldebaran". Oxford Dictionary. Retrieved 2019-01-09.
  2. ^ "Aldebaran". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2019-01-09.
  3. ^ a b c d Van Leeuwen, F. (2007). "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 474 (2): 653–664. arXiv:0708.1752. Bibcode:2007A&A...474..653V. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078357.
  4. ^ a b c Ducati, J. R. (2002). "VizieR Online Data Catalog: Catalogue of Stellar Photometry in Johnson's 11-color system". CDS/ADC Collection of Electronic Catalogues. 2237: 0. Bibcode:2002yCat.2237....0D.
  5. ^ a b Stock, Stephan; Reffert, Sabine; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Hauschildt, P. (2018). "Precise radial velocities of giant stars. X. Bayesian stellar parameters and evolutionary stages for 372 giant stars from the Lick planet search". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 616: A33. arXiv:1805.04094. Bibcode:2018A&A...616A..33S. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201833111.
  6. ^ a b Keenan, Philip C.; McNeil, Raymond C. (1989). "The Perkins Catalog of Revised MK Types for the Cooler Stars". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 71: 245. Bibcode:1989ApJS...71..245K.
  7. ^ a b Cutri, R. M.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Van Dyk, S.; Beichman, C. A.; Carpenter, J. M.; Chester, T.; Cambresy, L.; Evans, T.; Fowler, J.; Gizis, J.; Howard, E.; Huchra, J.; Jarrett, T.; Kopan, E. L.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Light, R. M.; Marsh, K. A.; McCallon, H.; Schneider, S.; Stiening, R.; Sykes, M.; Weinberg, M.; Wheaton, W. A.; Wheelock, S.; Zacarias, N. (2003). "VizieR Online Data Catalog: 2MASS All-Sky Catalog of Point Sources (Cutri+ 2003)". VizieR On-line Data Catalog: II/246. Originally Published In: 2003yCat.2246....0C. 2246: II/246. Bibcode:2003yCat.2246....0C.
  8. ^ a b "Query= alf Tau". General Catalogue of Variable Stars. Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2009-12-16.
  9. ^ Famaey, B.; Jorissen, A.; Luri, X.; Mayor, M.; Udry, S.; Dejonghe, H.; Turon, C. (2005). "Local kinematics of K and M giants from CORAVEL/Hipparcos/Tycho-2 data. Revisiting the concept of superclusters". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 430: 165–186. arXiv:astro-ph/0409579. Bibcode:2005A&A...430..165F. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20041272.
  10. ^ a b c Gatewood, George (July 2008). "Astrometric Studies of Aldebaran, Arcturus, Vega, the Hyades, and Other Regions". The Astronomical Journal. 136 (1): 452–460. Bibcode:2008AJ....136..452G. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/136/1/452.
  11. ^ a b c d Farr, Will M.; Pope, Benjamin J. S.; Davies, Guy R.; North, Thomas S. H.; White, Timothy R.; Barrett, Jim W.; Miglio, Andrea; Lund, Mikkel N.; Antoci, Victoria; Fredslund Andersen, Mads; Grundahl, Frank; Huber, Daniel (2018). "Aldebaran b's Temperate Past Uncovered in Planet Search Data". The Astrophysical Journal. 865 (2): L20. Bibcode:2018ApJ...865L..20F.
  12. ^ a b c d e Piau, L; Kervella, P; Dib, S; Hauschildt, P (February 2011). "Surface convection and red-giant radius measurements". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 526: A100. arXiv:1010.3649. Bibcode:2011A&A...526A.100P. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201014442.
  13. ^ Decin, L; Vandenbussche, B; Waelkens, C; Decin, G; Eriksson, K; Gustafsson, B; Plez, B; Sauval, A. J (March 2003). "ISO-SWS calibration and the accurate modelling of cool-star atmospheres. IV. G9 to M2 stars". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 400 (2): 709–729. arXiv:astro-ph/0207653. Bibcode:2003A&A...400..709D. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20021786.
  14. ^ a b Hatzes, A. P.; Cochran, W. D.; et al. (2015). "Long-lived, long-period radial velocity variations in Aldebaran: A planetary companion and stellar activity". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 580: A31. arXiv:1505.03454. Bibcode:2015A&A...580A..31H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201425519.
  15. ^ Sundqvist, J. O.; Ryde, N.; Harper, G. M.; Kruger, A.; Richter, M. J. (2008). "Mg I emission lines at 12 and 18 $\mu{\rm m}$ in K giants". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 486 (3): 985–993. arXiv:0806.0466. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200809778.
  16. ^ Paul Curnow. "Night Sky Tour". Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  17. ^ Jim Kaler. "ALDEBARAN (Alpha Tauri)". Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  18. ^ Falkner, David E. (2011). "The Winter Constellations". The Mythology of the Night Sky. Patrick Moore's Practical Astronomy Series. pp. 19–56. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-0137-7_3. ISBN 978-1-4614-0136-0.
  19. ^ Richard H. Allen (28 February 2013). Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning. Courier Corporation. p. 284. ISBN 978-0-486-13766-7.
  20. ^ "IAU Working Group on Star Names (WGSN)". Retrieved 22 May 2016.
  21. ^ "Bulletin of the IAU Working Group on Star Names, No. 1" (PDF). Retrieved 28 July 2016.
  22. ^ "IAU Catalog of Star Names". Retrieved 28 July 2016.
  23. ^ Λαμπαδίας. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  24. ^ 陳久金 (2005). 中國星座神話 (in Chinese). 五南圖書出版股份有限公司. ISBN 978-986-7332-25-7.
  25. ^ "香港太空館 - 研究資源 - 亮星中英對照表]" (in Chinese). Hong Kong Space Museum. Archived from the original on 2008-10-25. Retrieved 2019-01-09.
  26. ^ Moser, Mary B.; Marlett, Stephen A. (2005). Comcáac quih yaza quih hant ihíip hac: Diccionario seri-español-inglés (PDF) (in Spanish and English). Hermosillo, Sonora and Mexico City: Universidad de Sonora and Plaza y Valdés Editores.
  27. ^ Clarke, Philip A. (2007). Aboriginal People and Their Plants. New South Wales: Rosenberg Publishing Pty Ltd. p. 30. ISBN 9781877058516.
  28. ^ Lynn, W. T. (1885). "Occultation of Aldebaran in the sixth century. - Bliss, Astronomer Royal". The Observatory. 8: 86. Bibcode:1885Obs.....8...86L.
  29. ^ Halley, Edmund (1717). "Considerations on the Change of the Latitudes of Some of the Principal Fixt Stars. By Edmund Halley, R. S. Sec". Philosophical Transactions. 30 (351–363): 736–738. Bibcode:1717RSPT...30..736H. doi:10.1098/rstl.1717.0025.
  30. ^ Burnham, Robert (1978). Burnham's Celestial Handbook: An Observer's Guide to the Universe Beyond the Solar System. 3. Courier Corporation. p. 1810. ISBN 978-0486236735.
  31. ^ Freedman, Immanuel (2015). "The Marduk Star Nēbiru". Cuneiform Digital Library Bulletin: 3.
  32. ^ a b Griffin, R. F. (September 1985). "Alpha Tauri CD - A well-known Hyades binary". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 97: 858–859. Bibcode:1985PASP...97..858G. doi:10.1086/131616. ISSN 0004-6280.
  33. ^ Gore, John Ellard (1904). "Stellar Satellites". Studies in astronomy. Chatto & Windus. pp. 107–109.
  34. ^ Clerke, Agnes Mary (1908). A Popular History of Astronomy During the Nineteenth Century (4th ed.). Adam and Charles Black. pp. 381–382, 385, 406.
  35. ^ Pease, F. G. (June 1921). "The Angular Diameter of a Bootis by the Interferometer". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 33 (193): 171. Bibcode:1921PASP...33..171P. doi:10.1086/123068.
  36. ^ a b c Ohnaka, K. (May 2013). "Spatially resolved, high-spectral resolution observation of the K giant Aldebaran in the CO first overtone lines with VLTI/AMBER". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 553: 8. arXiv:1303.4763. Bibcode:2013A&A...553A...3O. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201321207. A3.
  37. ^ Aurière, M.; et al. (February 2015). "The magnetic fields at the surface of active single G-K giants". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 574: 30. arXiv:1411.6230. Bibcode:2015A&A...574A..90A. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201424579. A90.
  38. ^ a b Ayres, Thomas R.; Brown, Alexander; Harper, Graham M. (November 2003). "Buried Alive in the Coronal Graveyard". The Astrophysical Journal. 598 (1): 610–625. Bibcode:2003ApJ...598..610A. doi:10.1086/378699.
  39. ^ Wood, Brian E.; et al. (February 2007). "The Wind-ISM Interaction of alpha Tauri". The Astrophysical Journal. 655 (2): 946–957. Bibcode:2007ApJ...655..946W. doi:10.1086/510404.
  40. ^ Können, G. P.; Meeus, J. (1972). "Occultation series of five stars". Journal of the British Astronomical Association. 82: 431. Bibcode:1972JBAA...82..431K.
  41. ^ White, N. M. (June 1979). "Lunar occultation of the Hyades and diameters of Alpha Tauri and Theta-1 Tauri". The Astronomical Journal. 84: 872–876. Bibcode:1979AJ.....84..872W. doi:10.1086/112489.
  42. ^ Star Maps created using XEphem (2008). "LASCO Star Maps (identify objects in the field of view for any day of the year)". Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment (LASCO). Retrieved 2012-06-01. 2012 (with Venus and Mercury) and 2011
  43. ^ Mason, B. D.; et al. (2014). "The Washington Visual Double Star Catalog". The Astronomical Journal. 122 (6): 3466–3471. Bibcode:2001AJ....122.3466M. doi:10.1086/323920.
  44. ^ a b Brown, A. G. A.; et al. (Gaia collaboration) (August 2018). "Gaia Data Release 2: Summary of the contents and survey properties". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 616. A1. arXiv:1804.09365. Bibcode:2018A&A...616A...1G. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201833051. Gaia DR2 record for this source at VizieR.
  45. ^ Brown, A. G. A.; et al. (Gaia collaboration) (August 2018). "Gaia Data Release 2: Summary of the contents and survey properties". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 616. A1. arXiv:1804.09365. Bibcode:2018A&A...616A...1G. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201833051. Gaia DR2 record for this source at VizieR.
  46. ^ Brown, A. G. A.; et al. (Gaia collaboration) (August 2018). "Gaia Data Release 2: Summary of the contents and survey properties". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 616. A1. arXiv:1804.09365. Bibcode:2018A&A...616A...1G. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201833051. Gaia DR2 record for this source at VizieR.
  47. ^ Poveda, A.; et al. (April 1994). "Statistical studies of visual double and multiple stars. II. A catalogue of nearby wide binary and multiple systems". Revista Mexicana de Astronomia y Astrofisica. 28 (1): 43–89. Bibcode:1994RMxAA..28...43P.
  48. ^ Bidelman, W. P. (1985). "G.P. Kuiper's spectral classifications of proper-motion stars". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 59: 197. Bibcode:1985ApJS...59..197B.
  49. ^ Hatzes, A.; Cochran, W. (1993). "Long-period radial velocity variations in three K giants". The Astrophysical Journal. 413 (1): 339–348. Bibcode:1993ApJ...413..339H. doi:10.1086/173002.
  50. ^ "Uranus Fact Sheet". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2018-12-12.
  51. ^ Nieto, Michael Martin; Anderson, John D. (January 2007). "Search for a solution of the Pioneer anomaly". Contemporary Physics. 48 (1): 41–54. arXiv:0709.3866. Bibcode:2007ConPh..48...41N. doi:10.1080/00107510701462061.

External linksEdit

Coordinates:   04h 35m 55.2s, +16° 30′ 33″