Albert Anastasia (born Umberto Anastasio, September 26, 1902 – October 25, 1957) was an Italian-American mobster, hitman and crime lord, and one of the most ruthless and feared organized crime figures in United States history. One of the founders of the modern American Mafia and the founder and boss of Murder, Inc., Anastasia was boss of what became the modern Gambino crime family. Anastasia is considered by the FBI to be one of the deadliest criminals of all time. According to former NYPD Detective Ralph Salerno, Anastasia murdered tens of thousands of people during his reign of terror, while former FBI Assistant Director James Kallstrom believes the number of people that Anastasia has killed is unquestionably in the thousands; however, the exact number is unknown.
September 26, 1902
|Died||October 25, 1957 (aged 55)|
|Cause of death||Assassination|
|Known for||Boss of Murder, Inc.|
|Title||Boss of the Gambino crime family|
|Parent(s)||Raffaello Anastasio (1869–1920)|
Louisa Nomina de Filippi (1885–1925)
|Relatives||Anthony Anastasio (brother, 1906–1963)|
Gerardo Anastasia (brother)
Salvatore Anastasia (brother, 1919–1973)
Jack O'Halloran (son, 1943-present) Umberto, son, born 1935, educated in Saint Cecilia H.S., Englewood, NJ., living on Bluff Road, Fort Lee, NJ
Anastasia was unarguably the most dangerous and feared hitman of the Cosa Nostra's golden era, earning the infamous nicknames "The One-Man Army", "Mad Hatter" and "Lord High Executioner". Anastasia was also in control of the New York waterfront for most of his criminal career, including the dockworker unions.
Albert Anastasia was born on September 26, 1902, in Parghelia, Calabria, Italy. His parents were Raffaele Anastasio and Luisa Nomina de Filippi. The family name was "Anastasio", but Albert started using "Anastasia" in 1921. Anastasia's father was a railway worker who died after World War I, leaving behind nine sons and three daughters. Albert's brothers included Salvatore, Frank, Joseph, Gerardo, and Anthony Anastasio. Anastasia was married to Elsa Barnesi; they had two sons and two daughters.
In 1919, Anastasia and three of his brothers arrived in New York City, working on a freighter. Deserting the ship, the brothers illegally entered the United States. The boys soon started working as longshoremen on the Brooklyn waterfront.
On March 17, 1921, Anastasia was convicted of murdering longshoreman George Turino as the result of a quarrel. He was sentenced to death and sent to Sing Sing State Prison in Ossining, New York to await execution. Due to a legal technicality, however, Anastasia won a retrial in 1922. Because four of the original prosecution witnesses had disappeared in the meantime, Anastasia was released from custody. The following year, on June 6, 1923, Anastasia was convicted of illegal possession of a firearm and sentenced to two years in city prison.
Rise to powerEdit
By the late 1920s, Anastasia had become a top leader of the International Longshoremen's Association (ILA), controlling six local chapters of the labor union in Brooklyn. Anastasia allied himself with Giuseppe "Joe the Boss" Masseria, a powerful mafia leader in Brooklyn. Anastasia soon became close associates with future Cosa Nostra bosses Joe Adonis, Charles "Lucky" Luciano, Vito Genovese, and Frank Costello.
In 1928, Anastasia was charged with a murder in Brooklyn, but the witnesses either disappeared or refused to testify in court.
In 1930, Luciano finalized his plans to take over the organized crime rackets in New York by destroying the two old-line Mafia factions headed by Masseria and Salvatore Maranzano. Luciano outlined his plot to Anastasia, who joined him and other Italian mafiosos in the plot. Anastasia assured Luciano that he would kill everyone for Luciano to reach the top. Anastasia knew that if Luciano ran things, he would eventually get a "piece of the action." By this point, Luciano had secretly given his support to Maranzano.
On April 15, 1931, Anastasia allegedly participated in Masseria's murder. Luciano had lured Masseria to a meeting at a Coney Island restaurant. During their meal, Luciano excused himself to go to the restroom. As soon as he was gone, Anastasia, Genovese, Adonis, and Seigel rushed into the dining room and shot Masseria to death. The war ended with Maranzano as the winner. No one was ever indicted in the Masseria murder. In Luciano's subsequent reorganization of New York's Cosa Nostra into its current Five Families, Anastasia was appointed underboss of the crime family of Vincent Mangano, the modern Gambino crime family.
In September 1931, Maranzano was murdered and Luciano became the preeminent mobster in America. To avoid the power struggles and turf disputes that led to the Castellammarese War, Luciano established the National Crime Syndicate, consisting of the major family bosses from around the country and the so-called "five families" of New York. The Syndicate was meant to serve as a deliberative body to solve disputes, carve up and distribute territories, and regulate lucrative illegal activities such as racketeering, gambling, and bootlegging (which came to a close with the repeal of Prohibition in 1933). The American Mafia had their own governing body, known as the Commission.
In 1932, Anastasia was indicted on charges of murdering another man with an ice pick, but the case was dropped due to lack of witnesses. The following year, he was charged with killing a man who worked in a laundry; again, there were no witnesses willing to testify.
To reward Anastasia's loyalty, Luciano placed him and Louis "Lepke" Buchalter, the nation's leading labor racketeer, in control of the Syndicate's enforcement arm, Murder, Inc. The troop, also known as "The Brownsville Boys", was a group of Jewish and Italian contract killers that operated out of the back room of Midnight Rose's, a candy store owned by mobster Louis Capone in the Brownsville neighborhood of Brooklyn. During its ten years of operation, it is estimated that Murder Inc. committed thousands of murders, many of which were never solved. For his leadership in Murder, Inc., Anastasia was nicknamed the "Mad Hatter" and the "Lord High Executioner". Unlike Lepke and many other members of Murder, Inc., Anastasia was never prosecuted for any of these murders. It is doubted by some that he even was involved, since as the underboss of a family, he had his own killers to use if needed. During this period, Anastasia's business card claimed that he was a "sales representative" for the Convertible Mattress Corporation in Brooklyn.
On June 7, 1936, Luciano was convicted on 62 counts of forced prostitution. On July 18, 1936, he received a 30 to 50-year sentence in state prison.  Genovese became acting boss, but he was forced to flee to Italy in 1937 after being indicted on a 1934 murder. Costello now became acting boss of the Luciano crime family.
In May 1939, Anastasia allegedly ordered the murder of Morris Diamond, a Teamsters Union official in Brooklyn who had opposed Buchalter's attempts to maintain control of the Garment District in Manhattan. In the summer of 1939, he allegedly organized the murder of Peter Panto, an ILA activist who had been leading a movement for democratic reforms in the union's local chapters, and refused to be intimidated by ILA officials. On July 14, 1939, Panto disappeared; his body was later recovered on a farm in New Jersey.
In 1941, Abe Reles, a gang leader from Brownsville, Brooklyn who had been supplying Anastasia and Murder, Inc. with hitmen for the previous decade, was arrested by law enforcement, effectively ending Murder, Inc. Reles decided to testify for the government to save himself from the death penalty, leading to the conviction of seven members of Murder Inc. Reles also had information that could implicate Anastasia in the Diamond and Panto murders. Fearful of prosecution, Anastasia offered a $100,000 reward for Reles' murder. On November 12, 1941, Reles was found dead on a restaurant roof outside the Half Moon Hotel in Coney Island. Reles was being guarded at a sixth floor room during an ongoing trial. In 1951, a grand jury ruled that Reles accidentally died while climbing down to the fifth floor using sheets tied to a heating radiator. However, many officials still suspected that Reles had been murdered.
In the spring of 1942, Anastasia allegedly ordered the murder of an associate, Anthony Romeo, who had been arrested and questioned in the Panto killing. At the end of June, Romeo's body was discovered near Guyencourt, Delaware, having been beaten and shot multiple times.
World War IIEdit
During World War II, Anastasia reportedly conceived the plan to win a pardon for the imprisoned Luciano by helping the war effort. With America needing allies in Sicily to advance the invasion of Italy, and the desire of the U.S. Navy to dedicate its resources to the war, Anastasia orchestrated a deal to obtain lighter treatment and eventual parole for Luciano, in exchange for the Mafia's protection of the waterfront and Luciano's assistance with his associates in Sicily.
In 1942, Anastasia joined the U.S. Army, likely motivated by a desire to escape the criminal investigations that were dismantling Murder, Inc. Attaining the rank of technical sergeant, he trained soldiers to be longshoremen at Fort Indiantown Gap in Pennsylvania. In 1943, as a reward for his military service, he received U.S. citizenship. The following year, Anastasia was honorably discharged and moved his family to a ranch house on Bluff Road in Fort Lee, New Jersey.
In 1945, U.S. military authorities in Sicily returned Genovese to the U.S. to be tried for the 1934 Boccia murder. However, after the death of the main prosecution witness, all charges were dropped against Genovese. In 1946, New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey commuted Luciano's sentence, and the federal government immediately deported him to Italy.
Despite being a mob power in his own right, Anastasia was nominally the underboss of the Mangano crime family, under boss Vincent Mangano. During his 20-year rule, Mangano had resented Anastasia's close ties to Luciano and Costello, particularly the fact that they had obtained Anastasia's services without first seeking Mangano's permission. This and other business disputes led to heated, almost physical fights between the two mobsters. In early 1951, Mangano went missing and his body was never found. That April, the body of Vincent's brother, Philip Mangano, was discovered in a wetland in Bergen Beach, Brooklyn. No one was ever arrested in the Mangano murders, but it was widely assumed that Anastasia had them killed.
After the deaths of the Manganos, Anastasia, who had been serving as acting boss of their family, met with the Commission, claiming that the brothers wanted to kill him, yet did not admit to killing them. With Costello's prodding, the Commission confirmed Anastasia's ascension as boss of the renamed Anastasia family; Costello wanted Anastasia as an ally against the ambitious and resentful Genovese. Anastasia was also supported by Joseph Bonanno, who simply wanted to avoid a gang war.
In March 1952, Anastasia allegedly ordered the murder of Arnold Schuster, a New York man who successfully identified fugitive bank robber Willie Sutton, resulting in Sutton's arrest. When Anastasia saw Schuster being interviewed on television, he allegedly said: "I can't stand squealers! Hit that guy!" On March 8, 1952, a gunman shot Schuster to death on a street in Borough Park, Brooklyn. Government witness Joseph Valachi accused Anastasia of ordering the murder in 1963, but many people in law enforcement were skeptical of it. No one was ever arrested in the Schuster murder.
On December 9, 1952, the federal government filed suit to denaturalize Anastasia and deport him because he lied on his citizenship application.
To take control of the Luciano family, Genovese needed to kill Costello. Unable to do so without also eliminating Anastasia, Genovese looked for allies. He used Anastasia's brutal behavior against him in an effort to win supporters, portraying Anastasia as an unstable killer who threatened to bring law enforcement pressure on the Cosa Nostra. In addition, Genovese pointed out that Anastasia had been selling memberships to his crime family for $50,000, a clear violation of Commission rules that infuriated many high-level mobsters. According to Valachi, Anastasia had been losing large amounts of money betting on horse races, making him even more surly and unpredictable.
Over the next few years, Genovese secretly won the support of Anastasia caporegime Carlo Gambino, offering him the leadership of Anastasia's family in return for his cooperation. Genovese also received tacit approval from Meyer Lansky. One of Luciano's earliest associates, Lansky handled most of Luciano's U.S. business interests. Lansky and Genovese were also business associates from the 1920s. Genovese could not kill Anastasia and Costello without Lansky's support.
Anastasia's greed soon drove Lansky to help Genovese. During the 1950s, Lansky controlled all of the casino operations in Cuba, offering the Cosa Nostra bosses lesser shares of his profits. When Anastasia demanded a larger share, Lansky refused. Anastasia then started his own casino racket in Cuba. While Lansky had preferred watching Anastasia and Genovese battle each other from the sidelines, Lansky now threw his active support to Genovese.
On May 23, 1955, Anastasia pleaded guilty to tax evasion for underreporting his income during the late 1940s. On June 3, 1955, Anastasia was sentenced to one year in federal prison and a $20,000 fine. After his conviction, the federal government successfully petitioned to revoke Anastasia's citizenship so he could be deported. However, on September 19, 1955, a higher court overturned this ruling.
In early 1957, Genovese decided to move on Costello. On May 2, 1957, gunman Vincent Gigante shot and wounded Costello outside his apartment building. Although the wound was superficial, it persuaded Costello to relinquish power to Genovese and retire. Genovese then controlled what is now called the Genovese crime family. Bonanno would later credit himself with arranging a sitdown, where he kept Anastasia from immediately taking Genovese to war in response.
On June 17 of that year, Frank Scalice, Anastasia's underboss and the man identified as directly responsible for selling Gambino memberships, was also assassinated. According to Valachi, Anastasia approved the hit, and the subsequent murder of Scalice's brother Joseph, after offering to forgive his threats to avenge Frank.
On the morning of October 25, 1957, Anastasia entered the barber shop of the Park Sheraton Hotel, at 56th Street and 7th Avenue in Midtown Manhattan. Anastasia's driver parked the car in an underground garage and then took a walk outside, leaving him unprotected. As Anastasia relaxed in the barber's chair, two men—scarves covering their faces—rushed in, shoved the barber out of the way, and fired at Anastasia. After the first volley of bullets, Anastasia allegedly lunged at his killers. However, the stunned Anastasia had actually attacked the gunmen's reflections in the wall mirror of the barber shop. The gunmen continued firing until Anastasia finally fell dead on the floor.
The Anastasia homicide generated a tremendous amount of public interest and sparked a high-profile police investigation. Per New York Times journalist and Five Families author Selwyn Raab, "The vivid image of a helpless victim swathed in white towels was stamped in the public memory." However, no one was charged in this case. Over time, speculation on who killed Anastasia has centered on Profaci crime family mobster Joe Gallo, the Patriarca crime family of Providence, Rhode Island, and certain drug dealers with the Gambino family.
Initially, the NYPD concluded that Anastasia's homicide had been arranged by Genovese and Gambino and that it was carried out by a crew led by Gallo. At one point, Gallo boasted to an associate of his part in the hit, "You can just call the five of us the barbershop quintet." Elsewhere, Genovese had traditionally strong ties to Patriarca boss Raymond L. S. Patriarca.
Gambino was expected to be proclaimed boss of Anastasia's family at the November 14, 1957, Apalachin Meeting, called by Genovese to discuss the future of Cosa Nostra in light of his takeover. When the meeting was raided by police, to the detriment of Genovese's reputation, Gambino's appointment was postponed to a later meeting in New York City. Under Gambino, Anthony Anastasio saw his power curtailed, and in frustration, he began passing information to the FBI shortly before his 1963 death.
Genovese enjoyed a short reign as family boss. In 1957, after the disastrous Apalachin Meeting, Luciano, Costello, and Gambino conspired to entrap Genovese with a narcotics conviction, bribing a drug dealer to testify he had personally worked with Genovese. On July 7, 1958, Genovese was indicted on narcotics trafficking charges. On April 17, 1959, he was sentenced to 15 years in state prison.
Anastasia's funeral service was conducted at a Brooklyn funeral home; the Roman Catholic Diocese of Brooklyn had refused to sanction a church burial. Anastasia was interred in Green-Wood Cemetery in Greenwood Heights, Brooklyn, attended by a handful of friends and relatives.
Anastasia's 6,529-square-foot hilltop mansion located in Fort Lee, New Jersey, sold for $6.9 million in late December 2017. Anastasia lived in the 25-room mansion from 1947 until his assassination. In 1958, less than a year after his death, comedian Buddy Hackett and his wife purchased the mansion, and after renovations, lived there through most of the 1960s.
- After the Anastasia assassination, the barber chairs at the Park Sheraton Hotel were repositioned to face away from the mirror. The Anastasia chair was later auctioned off for $7,000. In February 2012, the chair became an exhibit at the Mob Museum in Las Vegas.
- The 1959 film Inside the Mafia opens with the scene of Anastasia's assassination.
- Anastasia's murder, as well as the 1957 Apalachin Meeting, were referenced in the 1999 film Analyze This, starring Robert De Niro and Billy Crystal.
- The fictional character Johnny Friendly (played by Lee J. Cobb) in the classic 1954 American film On the Waterfront was partially based on Anastasia.
- Mayra Montero's novel Son de Almendra (English title: Dancing to "Almendra") is based on Anastasia's murder.
- In The Day of The Jackal, a 1973 novel by Frederick Forsyth, a detective considers Marco Vitellino, a fictitious bodyguard who was absent during Anastasia's assassination as one of several suspects who could be an assassin contracted to kill French President Charles de Gaulle. The bodyguard is ruled out because he doesn't fit the description of the assassin.
- The TV series M*A*S*H makes a reference to Anastasia's death, anachronistically, as the Korean War had already been over for four years when Anastasia was killed.
- In Mafia II, Don Alberto Clemente is partially based on Anastasia, particularly his known violations of Mafia code by trying to "sell" made men. Clemente's death was based on a combination of Anastasia's assassination as well as the attempted murder of Adolf Hitler at the Wolf's Den.
- In the TV series The West Wing Season 4, Episode 11 "Holy Night", Jules Ziegler, the estranged father of White House Communications Director Toby Ziegler visits Toby at the White House. Following a query from the Justice Department, Toby asks his father, a former member of Murder, Inc. when Albert Anastasia was killed. Jules answers, "October 1957", and later tells his son, "You should know when Anastasia was killed." Toby, still angry at his father for having been involved in organized crime, retorts, "I know when Anastasia was killed!"
- In an episode of The Sopranos, mob boss Junior Soprano tells his nephew Tony Soprano that he wishes problems were settled amicably like they were in the 1950s when it was peaceful. Tony replies he remembered seeing the picture of Anastasia "all amicably" in a pool of blood on the barbershop floor. "There were exceptions," Junior replied.
- Italian movie of 1973 with Alberto Sordi: My Brother Anastasia.
- Anastasia was portrayed by Gianni Russo in the 1975 film Lepke, starring Tony Curtis.
- A fictional payback hit for Anastasia's murder is described in "Before the Play", the prologue of The Shining. In the book, the fictional Overlook Hotel was a popular meeting place and neutral ground for organized crime figures in the post-war era. The target was a powerful mobster who was guarded by two gunmen he had loaned from New York City. Three hit-men with shotguns took out the bodyguards. They then shot down the target in his room and then castrated his corpse as proof they had killed him.
- Anastasia's murder is mentioned in Harold Robbins book The Raiders (1995). Although in the book the hit is carried out by an obfuscated assassin known only by the pseudonym Malditesta (Italian for a greatly painful headache).
- MMG rapper Rick Ross entitled his 2010 mixtape "The Albert Anastasia EP".
- He will be portrayed by Garry Pastore in the 2019 movie The Irishman.
- Freeman, Ira Henry (October 26, 1957). "Anastasia Rose in Stormy Ranks". New York Times. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
- "Albert Anastasia Part 1". FBI Records: The Vault. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- Davis, John H. (1994). Mafia dynasty : the rise and fall of the Gambino crime family (1st Harper paperbacks ed.). New York, N.Y.: HarperPaperbacks. p. 40. ISBN 0-06-109184-7.
- Mass, Peter (1968). The Valachi Papers (1986 Pocket Books revised ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 78. ISBN 0-671-63173-X.
- Raab, Selwyn (2005). Five Families: The Rise, Decline, and Resurgence of America's Most Powerful Mafia Empires. New York: Thomas Dunne Books. pp. 30, 33. ISBN 0-312--36181-5.
- Davis, p. 47
- Davis, p. 57
- "Lucania Convicted With 8 in Vice Ring on 62 Counts Each" (PDF). New York Times. June 8, 1936. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- "LUCANIA SENTENCED TO 30 TO 50 YEARS; COURT WARNS RING". New York Times. June 19, 1936. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
- Perlmutter, Emanuel (April 1, 1951). "Story of Murder, Inc.:Big Business in Crime" (PDF). New York Times. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
- "Inquiry Discredit O'Dwyer for Calling Reles Important" (PDF). New York Times. December 22, 1951. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- Davis, p. 58
- Ward, Nathan (September 24, 2010). "Excerpt; "Dark Harbor"". New York Times. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- Elmaleh, Edmund (2009). The canary sang but couldn't fly : the fatal fall of Abe Reles, the mobster who shattered Murder, Inc.'s code of silence. New York: Sterling Pub. Co., Inc. ISBN 1-4027-6113-9.
- Turkus, Burton B.; Feder, Sid (2003). Murder, Inc. : the story of "the Syndicate" (2nd Da Capo Press ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81288-6.
- Davis, pp. 59-61
- "Dewey Commutes Luciano Sentence". New York Times. January 4, 1946. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- Davis, pp. 62-64
- "Aide of Joe Adonis is Found Shot Dead" (PDF). New York Times. April 20, 1951. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- Gage, Nicholas (October 16, 1976). "Carlo Gambino, a Mafia Leader, Dies in His Long Island Home at 74" (PDF). New York Times. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- Raab, p. 101
- Duffy, Peter (February 17, 2002). "CITY LORE; Willie Sutton, Urbane Scoundrel". New York Times. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- Bigart, Homer (October 3, 1963). "Police Deride Valachi Data as Stale Rumor and Gossip" (PDF). New York Times. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- "U.S. Files Suit as First Step to Deport Albert Anastasia" (PDF). New York Times. December 10, 1952. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
- Davis, pp. 78-79
- "Anastasia Admits Evading U.S. Taxes" (PDF). New York Times. May 24, 1955. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- "Anastasia Gets Year In Tax Case" (PDF). New York Times. June 4, 1955. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- "Anastasia Wins Plea" (PDF). New York Times. September 20, 1955. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- "Costello is Shot Entering Home; Gunman Escapes Wound" (PDF). New York Times. May 3, 1957. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- Raab, pp. 110-111
- Maas, pp. 205-206
- "Albert Anastasia". Biography.com. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
- "Anastasia Slain in a Hotel Here: Led Murder, Inc" (PDF). New York Times. October 26, 1957. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
Death took The Executioner yesterday. Umberto (called Albert) Anastasia, master killer for Murder, Inc., a homicidal gangster troop that plagued the city from 1931 to 1940, was murdered by two gunmen. ...
- Raab, p. 116
- Raab, p. 726
- Gage, Nicholas (July 10, 1972). "The Mafia at War". New York Magazine. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
- Davis, pp. 83-84
- Davis, pp. 88-90
- Maas, p. 208
- "The Smoking Gun: Tough Love". New York Magazine. Retrieved 2013-05-08.
- Davis, pp. 92-93
- "U.S. Jury Indicts Genovese, Gigante in Narcotics Plot" (PDF). New York Times. July 8, 1958. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- Feinberg, Alexander (April 17, 1959). "Genovese Is Given 15 Years in Prison In Narcotics Case". New York Times. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- Perlmutter, Emanuel (October 29, 1957). "Anastasia is Buried in Stark Ceremony" (PDF). New York Times. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
- "Mafia kngpin's hilltop mansion sells for $6.9million". Jackson Observer. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
- "COMEDIAN BUYS HOME; Buddy Hackett New Owner of Anastasia House in Fort Lee", The New York Times, August 30, 1958; accessed March 30, 2011. "Mr. Hackett lives at 581 Nordhoff Drive, Leonia. He intends to take possession as soon as improvements are completed. The house was built in 1945 by Anastasia at a cost said to be $100,000."
- "Rubber-faced funnyman whose talent stretched far: Buddy Hackett: Comedian and Actor, 1924-2003" (obituary) in The Sydney Morning Herald, 2008-07-11, p. 30 (from The Telegraph, London).
- "Mob Museum Unveils Historically Significant Artifact, Announces Partnership with Major Collector". The Mob Museum home page. Archived from the original on 22 December 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
- ""Analyze This" (1999); Memorable Quotes". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- ""On the Waterfront" (1954); Trivia". Internet Movie Data Base. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- Montero, Mayra (2007). Dancing to "Almendra": a Novel. New York: Picador. ISBN 978-0-312-42673-6.
- King, Stephen. "Before the Play", Whispers Volume 5, No.1–2 August 1982.