Al Jawhara bint Musaed Al Jiluwi

Al Jawhara bint Musaed bin Jiluwi Al Saud (1891/1892–1919) was one of King Abdulaziz's spouses. She was the mother of King Khalid who was the fourth ruler of Saudi Arabia.

Al Jawhara bint Musaed Al Jiluwi
Born1891
Died1919
Riyadh
SpouseKing Abdulaziz
Issue
Full name
Al Jawhara bint Musaed bin Jiluwi bin Turki bin Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Saud[1][2]
HouseSaud
FatherMusaed bin Jiluwi bin Turki bin Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Saud
ReligionSunni Islam

BackgroundEdit

Al Jawhara bint Musaed was from the Al Jiluwis,[3][4] a cadet branch of the Al Saud.[5] The family, Al Jiluwi, are significant for Al Sauds since it is composed of the descendants of the younger brother of King Ibn Saud's grandfather Faisal bin Turki Al Saud. The roots of the Al Jiluwis trace back to Prince Jiluwi bin Turki bin Abdallah, who served as the governor of Unayzah during the late 1700s.[6]

Both families, Al Jiluwi and Al Sudairi, were strong supporters of the Al Saud in the early years of state formation.[6] The members of Al Jiluwis allied themselves with King Abdulaziz to eliminate the threat posed by the Al Kabir clan. For instance, Abdullah Al Jiluwi served as King Ibn Saud's deputy commander and helped him in the conquest of the eastern region of Arabia.[7] He served as the governor of the Eastern Province from 1913 to 1938.[8][9] Then, his son Saud bin Abdullah became the governor of this province (1938-1967).[9] Next, his another son, Abdul Muhsin bin Abdullah Al Jiluwi, served as the governor of the province from 1967 to 1985 until being replaced by Prince Muhammed bin Fahd.[9][10]

Additionally, the members of Al Jiluwis intermarried with the Al Sauds.[11] More specifically, the spouses of late King Faisal, late King Fahd, late King Abdullah, late Prince Sultan and late Prince Nayef were all members of Al Jiluwi clan.[12]

Al Jawhara was the daughter of Musaed, a nephew of Faisal bin Turki Al Saud.[6] Her mother was Hussa bint Abdallah bin Turki Al Turki,[13] and her paternal grandmother, Noura bint Ahmed Al Sudairi, was also from another powerful family, Al Sudairi.[14] In addition, she was the sister of King Abdulaziz's mother, Sarah bint Ahmed Al Sudairi.[15] The brother of Al Jawhara, Abdulaziz bin Musaed, was one of former governors of Hail Province.[6] The niece of Al Jawhara, Al Jawhara bint Abdulaziz bin Musaed Al Jiluwi, was the wife of late Prince Nayef and the mother of Prince Saud and Prince Mohammad, former crown prince of Saudi Arabia.[16]

MarriageEdit

Al Jawhara bint Musaed was one of the King Ibn Saud's favorite wives.[17] They were married in 1908 when she was seventeen years old.[6][15] She was the fourth spouse of King Ibn Saud.[18][15] It was the only marriage of King Ibn Saud to one of the Al Saud or a close relative.[9][19]

Their marriage produced three children; Prince Mohammad, King Khalid and Princess Al Anoud.[20] Her daughter, Al Anoud, married to the sons of Saad bin Abdul Rahman. She first married Saud bin Saad. After Saud died, she married Fahd bin Saad.[21]

Al Jawhara bint Musaed was extremely interested in horse riding and breeding. She formed a stable within the palace in Riyadh. She also hired the best Najdi horse riders to train cavalry who in turn contributed significantly in King Abdulaziz's attempts to unify Saudi Arabia.[2]

In Spring 1913 before the capture of Al Hasa King Abdulaziz was in Hofuf and sent an ode to Al Jawhara.[19] She was special for King Ibn Saud due to several reasons. First, Al Jawharah was King Ibn Saud's cousin. Secondly, she was chosen by King Ibn Saud's mother as a wife for him. And lastly, she died at young age.[22]

DeathEdit

Al Jawhara bint Musaed died in Riyadh in 1919 in the flu epidemic, which also killed Prince Turki bin Abdulaziz, eldest son of King Ibn Saud.[18][23][24] Her room in the palace was kept, not allowing anyone to enter except for King Ibn Saud's sister, Nuora.[22] Al Jawhara bint Musaid's death is reported to make King Abdulaziz so sad and devastated that he cried.[6][22] In private meetings with his friends King Abdulaziz talked about her stating that she was a great companion for him during the difficult times of establishing his rule.[19]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Al Saud Family (Saudi Arabia)". European Institute for Research on Euro-Arab Cooperation. Archived from the original on 8 March 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
  2. ^ a b "Personal trips". King Khalid Exhibition. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
  3. ^ Chapin Metz, Helen (1992). "Saudi Arabia: A Country Study". Retrieved 9 May 2012.
  4. ^ "The New Succession Law Preserves The Monarchy While Reducing The King's Prerogatives". Wikileaks. 22 November 2006. Archived from the original on 19 November 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
  5. ^ "Saudi King Solidifies Base with Extensions". Wikileaks. 7 March 2009. Archived from the original on 5 June 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
  6. ^ a b c d e f "Al Jawhara bint Musaed bin Jiluwi Al Jiluwi". Datarabia. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
  7. ^ Henderson, Simon (9 October 2009). "Factors Affecting Saudi Succession are a Family Affair". The Cutting Edge News. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
  8. ^ H. St. J. B. Philby (December 1920). "Across Arabia: From the Persian Gulf to the Red Sea" (PDF). The Geographical Journal. 56 (6): 449. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  9. ^ a b c d Michael Herb (1999). All in the family. Albany: State University of New York Press. p. 102. ISBN 0-7914-4168-7.
  10. ^ Peter J. Chelkowski; Robert J. Pranger (1988). Ideology and Power in the Middle East: Studies in Honor of George Lenczowski. Duke University Press. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
  11. ^ Teitelbaum, Joshua (1 November 2011). "Saudi Succession and Stability" (PDF). BESA Center Perspectives. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  12. ^ Abir, Mordechai (1988). Saudi Arabia in the Oil Era: Regime and Elites : Conflict and Collaboration. Kent: Croom Helm.
  13. ^ "Family tree of Al Jawhara bint Musaed bin Jiluwi Al Jiluwi". Datarabia. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
  14. ^ "Family Tree of Nura bint Ahmed Al Sudairi". Datarabia. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
  15. ^ a b c "Biography of King Khalid". King Khalid Foundation (in Arabic). p. 2. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  16. ^ "Man of the new generation". The National. 19 May 2015. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
  17. ^ Sharaf Sabri (2001). The house of Saud in commerce: A study of royal entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia. New Delhi: I.S. Publications. ISBN 81-901254-0-0.
  18. ^ a b Mark Weston (2008). Prophets and Princes: Saudi Arabia from Muhammad to the Present. John Wiley & Sons. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-470-18257-4.
  19. ^ a b c Leslie McLoughlin (21 January 1993). Ibn Saud: Founder of A Kingdom. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-349-22578-1.
  20. ^ Winberg Chai (2005). Saudi Arabia: A Modern Reader. University Press. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-88093-859-4.
  21. ^ "Family Tree of Al Anud bint Abdulaziz bin Abdul Rahman Al Saud". Datarabia. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
  22. ^ a b c "King Abdulaziz' Noble Character" (PDF). Islam House. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
  23. ^ Jennifer Reed (2009). The Saudi Royal Family. Infobase Publishing. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-4381-0476-8.
  24. ^ Bader Al Saif (22 April 2020). "Ramadan to Test Religious Elements of Saudi Pandemic Response". Carnegie Middle East Center. Retrieved 19 June 2020.