Al-Ma'un

Necessaries [1] (Arabic: الماعون‎, al-māʻūn, aka "Small Kindnesses, Almsgiving, Acts of Kindness, and Have You Seen") is the 107th chapter (surah) of the Qur'an with 7 verses (ayat).

Sura 107 of the Quran
الماعون
Al-Māʻūn
The Acts of Kindness
ClassificationMeccan
Other namesAlmsgiving, The Daily Necessaries, Charity, Assistance
PositionJuzʼ 30
No. of verses7
۝ [2] WHAT thinkest thou of him who denieth the future judgment as a falsehood?
۝ It is he who pusheth away the orphan;[u 1]
۝ and stirreth not up others to feed the poor.
۝ Woe be unto those who pray,
۝ and who are negligent at their prayer:
۝ who play the hypocrites,
۝ and deny necessaries[x 1] to the needy.[3]
  1. ^ u The person here intended, according to some, was Abu Jahl, who turned away an orphan, to whom he was guardian, and who came to him naked, and asked for some relief out of his own money. Some say it was Abu Sufyan, who, having killed a camel, when an orphan begged a piece of the flesh, beat him away with his staff; and others think it was Walid ibn al-Mughirah etc.
  1. ^ x The original word al Maûn properly signifies utensils, or whatever is of necessary use, as a hatchet, a pot, a dish, and a needle, to which some add a bucket and a hand-mill; or, according to a tradition of Ayesha, fire, water, and salt; and this signification it bore in the time of ignorance: but since the establishment of the Mohammedan religion, the word has been used to denote alms, either legal or voluntary; which seems to be the true meaning in this place.

Regarding the timing and contextual background of the supposed revelation (asbāb al-nuzūl), it is an earlier "Meccan surah", which means it is believed to have been revealed in Mecca, instead of later in Medina.

TopicEdit

This surah is concerned with two of the core teachings of Islam, how one prays and how one gives.[4] The Surah discusses the character of those who claim to be Muslims but are oblivious of the hereafter. These people deprive the orphans of their rights, are heedless to the dues of the destitute, and pray without holding God in remembrance, forgetting the objective behind prayer. Their charitable acts are a display of their false piety, since they do not give for the love of God. The Surah has been so designated after the word al-ma`un occurring at the end of the last verse. Abdullah ibn Masud said: "During the time of the Messenger of God we used to consider ma'un (things of daily use) lending a bucket and cooking-pot."[5]Ibn Abbas said: "(Those who are neglectful of their prayer) are the ones who delay their prayer."[6][7]

Conditions of revelationEdit

According to 'Alī ibn Ahmad al-Wāhidī (d. 468/1075), Muqatil and al-Kalbi reported that the sūrah was revealed about Al-'As ibn Wa'il, while Ibn Jurayj reported that the immediate cause of relation was Abu Sufyan ibn Harb's driving an orphan away with a stick.[8]

Placement and coherence with other surahsEdit

The idea of textual relation between the verses of a chapter has been discussed under various titles such as nazm and munasabah in non-English literature and coherence, text relations, intertextuality, and unity in English literature. Hamiduddin Farahi, an Islamic scholar of the Indian subcontinent, is known for his work on the concept of nazm, or coherence, in the Quran. Fakhruddin al-Razi (died 1209 CE), Zarkashi (died 1392) and several other classical as well as contemporary Quranic scholars have contributed to the studies.[9] This surah belongs to the last (7th) group of surahs which starts from Surah Al-Mulk (67) and runs till the end of the Quran. According to Javed Ahmad Ghamidi

The theme of this group is Warning the leadership of the Quraysh of the consequences of the Hereafter, and delivering glad tidings to Muhammad (sws) of the supremacy of the truth in Arabia. This theme gradually reaches its culmination through the arrangement of various surahs in this group.[10][11]

Phase From To Central theme
I Al-Mulk [Quran 67:1] Al-Jinn [Quran 72:1] Indhar (Warning)
II Al-Muzzammil [Quran 73:1] Al-Inshirah [Quran 94:1] Indhar-i ‘am (Augmented Warning)
III At-Tin [Quran 95:1] Quraysh (surah) [Quran 106:1] Itmam al-Hujjah (Conclusive Communication of the Truth)
IV Al-Ma'un [Quran 107:1] Al-Ikhlas [Quran 112:1] Hijrah and Bara’ah (Migration and Acquittal)
V Al-Falaq [Quran 113:1] Al-Nas [Quran 114:1] The Conclusion/The End

Connection with previous surahEdit

In the previous pair of sūrahs – Al-Fil and Quraysh (surah) – it is explained that the tribe of Quraysh has been blessed with the favors of peace and sustenance because of the Kaaba. These blessings should have induced them to worship the Lord of this Sacred House with all sincerity and should have striven to fulfill the objective for which it was built and given in their custody.[9][12] Surah al-Ma‘un is directed at the Quraysh, and its theme is to inform their leadership, of the doom that has been destined for them because of their crimes.[10]

Connection with next surahEdit

This surah complement the subject-matter of the next surah Al-Kawthar. The first surah presents a charge sheet of the crimes of the leadership of the Quraysh, the characters of the Quraysh chiefs is depicted along with the warning, while the succeeding surah declares their removal from the custodianship of the Kaaba and gives glad tidings to Muhammad.[10][13][9]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ George Sale AlKoran
  2. ^ Arabic script in Unicode symbol for a Quran verse, U+06DD, page 3, Proposal for additional Unicode characters
  3. ^ George Sale translation
  4. ^ http://www.islamreligion.com/articles/10762/
  5. ^ Grade: Hasan (Al-Albani) Sunan Abi Dawud Book#9 Book of Zakat (Kitab Al-Zakat) كتاب الزكاة 9 Zakat (Kitab Al-Zakat); (552) Chapter: The Rights Relating To Property(33) باب فِي حُقُوقِ الْمَالِ 1657; in-book reference : Book 9, Hadith 102; English translation: Book 9, Hadith 1653
  6. ^ Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Tafsir al-Tabari (12/706)
  7. ^ Tafsir Ibn Kathir [1]
  8. ^ al-Wahidi, `Ali ibn Ahmad. "Asbab al-Nuzul: The Revelation Reason of the Verses of Surah ( Al-Mâ'ûn )". Altafsir.com. Translated by Guezzou, Mokrane. Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
  9. ^ a b c Hamiduddin Farahi, translated by Tariq Mahmood Hashmi (2008). Exordium to coherence in the Quran : an English translation of Fātiḥah Niẓām al-Qurʼān (1st ed.). Lahore: al-Mawrid. ISBN 9698799575.
  10. ^ a b c Javed Ahmad Ghamidi
  11. ^ https://www.javedahmedghamidi.org/#!/quran-home
  12. ^ Tadabbur-i-Quran
  13. ^ Nouman Ali Khan

External linksEdit