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al-Falaq (Arabic: الفلق‎, "Dawn, Daybreak") is the 113th chapter (sūrah) of the Qur'an. It is a brief five verse invocation, asking God (Allah) for protection from the evil of Satan. This surah and the 114th (and last) surah in the Qur'an, an-Nās, are collectively referred to as al-Mu'awwidhatayn "the Refuges", as both begin "I seek refuge", an-Nās tells to seek God for refuge from the evil from within, while al-Falaq tells to seek God for refuge from the evil from outside, so reading both of them would protect a person from his own mischief and the mischief of others.

Sura 113 of the Quran
الفلق
Al-Falaq
The Daybreak
ClassificationMeccan
Other namesDawn
The Rising Dawn
PositionJuzʼ 30
No. of verses5
No. of words23
No. of letters71
al-Nas →

Contents

HadithEdit

The first and foremost exegesis/tafsir of the Qur'an is found in hadith of Muhammad.[1] Although scholars including ibn Taymiyyah claim that Muhammad has commented on the whole of the Qur'an, others including Ghazali cite the limited amount of narratives, thus indicating that he has commented only on a portion of the Qur'an.[2] Ḥadīth (حديث) is literally "speech" or "report", that is a recorded saying or tradition of Muhammad validated by isnad; with Sirah Rasul Allah these comprise the sunnah and reveal shariah. According to Aishah,[3][4] the life of Prophet Muhammad was practical implementation of Qur'an.[5][6][7] Therefore, higher count of hadith elevates the importance of the pertinent surah from a certain perspective. This surah was held in special esteem in hadith, which can be observed by these related narratives. According to hadith, the prophet Muhammad used to recite this surah before sleeping every night.

  • Abu 'Abdullah narrated that Ibn 'Abis Al-Juhani told him that: The Messenger of Allah [SAW] said to him: "O Ibn 'Abis, shall I not tell you of the best thing with which those who seek refuge with Allah may do so?" He said: "Yes, O Messenger of Allah." He said: "Say: I seek refuge with (Allah) the Lord of the daybreak."(Al-Falaq), "Say: I seek refuge with (Allah) the Lord of mankind."(Al-Nas) - these two Surahs."[8][9][10]
  • Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported: Whenever the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) went to bed, he would blow upon his hands recite Al-Mu'awwidhat; and pass his hands over his body (Al-Bukhari and Muslim). [11]
  • Aishah said : Every night when he prophet (May peace be upon him) went to his bed, he joined his hands and breathed into them, reciting into them:”say: he is Allah, One”(Al-Ikhlas) and say ; I seek refuge in the Lord of the dawn(Al-Falaq) and Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of men(Al-Nas). Then he would wipe as much of his body as he could with his hands, beginning with his head, his face and the front of his body, doing that three times.[12]
  • Uqba ibn Amir reported: The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "Do you not know that last night certain Ayat were revealed the like of which there is no precedence. They are: 'Say: I seek refuge with (Allah) the Rubb of the daybreak' (Al-Falaq), and 'Say: I seek refuge with (Allah) the Rubb of mankind' (Surah 114)."[13][14][15]

ContextEdit

Regarding the timing and contextual background of the revelation (asbāb al-nuzūl), it is an earlier "Meccan surah", which means it is believed to have been revealed in Mecca, instead of later in Medina.

The word "al-Falaq" in the first verse, a generic term referring to the process of 'splitting', has been restricted in most translations to one particular type of splitting, namely 'daybreak' or 'dawn'.[16]

Verse 4 refers to one of soothsayer techniques to partially tie a knot, utter a curse and spit into the knot and pull it tight. In the pre-Islamic period, soothsayers claimed the power to cause various illnesses. According to soothsayers the knot had to be found and untied before the curse could be lifted. This practice is condemned in verse 4.[17]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Şatibi, El-muvafakat
  2. ^ Muhsin Demirci, Tefsir Usulü, 120
  3. ^ Grade : Sahih (Al-Albani) صحيح (الألباني) حكم : Reference : Sunan Abi Dawud 1342 In-book reference : Book 5, Hadith 93 English translation : Book 5, Hadith 1337
  4. ^ Al-Adab Al-Mufrad » Dealings with people and good character - كتاب English reference : Book 14, Hadith 308 Arabic reference : Book 1, Hadith 308
  5. ^ Sahih Al- Jami' AI-Saghir, No.4811
  6. ^ Sunan Ibn Majah 2333 In-book reference : Book 13, Hadith 26 English translation : Vol. 3, Book 13, Hadith 2333
  7. ^ Grade : Sahih (Darussalam) Reference : Sunan an-Nasa'i 1601 In-book reference : Book 20, Hadith 4 English translation : Vol. 2, Book 20, Hadith 1602
  8. ^ Sunan an-Nasa'i 5432 In-book reference : Book 50, Hadith 5 English translation : Vol. 6, Book 50, Hadith 5434
  9. ^ Sunan Abi Dawud 1462 In-book reference : Book 8, Hadith 47 English translation : Book 8, Hadith 1457
  10. ^ Sunan an-Nasa'i 5436 In-book reference : Book 50, Hadith 9 English translation : Vol. 6, Book 50, Hadith 5438
  11. ^ Riyad as-Salihin Book 16, Hadith 1461
  12. ^ Sunan Abu Dawud 5056 In-book reference : Book 43, Hadith 284 English translation : Book 42, Hadith 5038
  13. ^ Sahih Muslim Book 9, Hadith 1014
  14. ^ Sunan an-Nasa'i 954 In-book reference : Book 11, Hadith 79 English translation : Vol. 2, Book 11, Hadith 955
  15. ^ Jami` at-Tirmidhi English reference : Vol. 5, Book 44, Hadith 3367 Arabic reference : Book 47, Hadith 3693
  16. ^ Leaman, ed. by Oliver (2008). The Qur'an : an encyclopedia (Reprinted. ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-32639-1.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  17. ^ Newby, Gordon D. (2002). A concise encyclopedia of Islam. Oneworld. ISBN 1-85168-295-3.

External linksEdit