Al-Anfal

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Al-Anfal (Arabic: ٱلْأَنْفَال‎, al-ʾAnfāl, "The Spoils of War")[1] is the eighth chapter sūrah) of the Quran, with 75 verses (āyāt). Regarding the timing and contextual background of the supposed revelation (Asbāb al-nuzūl), it is a "Medinan surah", completed after the Battle of Badr.

Sura 8 of the Quran
ٱلْأَنْفَال
Al-Anfal
ClassificationMeccan
PositionJuzʼ 9 to 10
Hizb no.15 to 19
No. of Rukus10
No. of verses75
No. of Sajdahsnone

It forms a pair with the next surah, At-Tawba.

ExegesisEdit

Verse 8:12Edit

Verse 8:12 (Remember) when your Lord revealed to the angels, "Verily, I am with you, so keep firm those who have believed. I will cast terror into the hearts of those who have disbelieved, so strike them over the necks, and smite over all their fingers and toes.'[1]:Verse 8:12

Tafsir Ibn Kathir says this means, "you -- angels -- support the believers, strengthen their (battle) front against their enemies, thus, implementing My command to you. I will cast fear, disgrace and humiliation over those who defied My command and denied My Messenger".[1]:Verse 8:12

Verse 8:17Edit

Muhammad al-Baqir narrates in hadith that:

Know that whatever property you may gain, one fifth belongs to God, the Messenger, for near relatives and the orphans, the needy, and the [stranded] traveler

which refers to the relatives of the Messenger of Allah. "Al-Khums (one fifth) belongs to Allah, the Messenger and to us (his Ahl al-Bayt)".[2] One source states that Ubay ibn Khalaf was ransomed after Badr, but was killed by Muslims with a spear in the Battle of Uhud (625 CE). Verse [Quran 8:17] was revealed in this occasion.[3]

Verses 8:42 and 8:47Edit

The Battle of Badr is also the subject of this Surah, which details military conduct and operations. Though the Surah does not name Badr, it describes the battle several times:

Remember ye were on the hither side of the valley, and they on the farther side, and the caravan on lower ground than ye. Even if ye had made a mutual appointment to meet, ye would certainly have failed in the appointment: But (thus ye met), that Allah might accomplish a matter. For to Allah do all questions go back (for decision). [Quran 8:42]

And be not like those turned on his heels, and said: "Lo! I am clear of you; lo! I see what ye see not; Lo! I fear Allah. for Allah is strict in punishment. [Quran 8:47]

These verses highlighted both the chance encounter of the battle (both sides had blundered into each other) as well as the underestimation of both the size of Meccan army by the Muslims and the fierceness of the Muslim army by the Meccans. The Meccan army was described in the second verses, and "Satan" may be referring to Amr ibn Hishām, who was hated by the Muslims and allegedly pushed for the battle repeatedly.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Ibn Kathir. "Tafsir Ibn Kathir (English): Surah Al Anfal". Quran 4 U. Tafsir. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
  2. ^ Al-Kulayni, Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Ya’qub (2015). Kitab al-Kafi. South Huntington, NY: The Islamic Seminary Inc. ISBN 9780991430864.
  3. ^ Umm `Umara Nasiba Bint Ka`B Al-Ans.Ariyya (Ra)

External linksEdit