Alaskan ice cream

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Alaskan ice cream (also known as akutaq, Alaskan Indian ice cream, Eskimo ice cream, Indian ice cream or Native ice cream) is a dessert made of dried fish (especially pike, sheefish or inconnu, whitefish or cisco, freshwater whitefishes), dried moose or caribou meat and fat and berries (especially cowberry, bilberry, cranberry, bearberry, crowberry, [high-bush] salmonberry, low-bush salmonberry, raspberry, prickly rose) or mild sweeteners such as roots of Indian potato or wild carrot, mixed and whipped with a whisk or formerly hand made by Alaskan Athabaskans. Traditionally, it was made with whipped fat mixed with berries like cranberries, salmonberries, crowberries, cloudberries (also known as salmonberry in Alaska), and blueberries, fish, tundra greens, or roots with animal oil or fat. It may also include whitefish, caribou tallow, moose tallow, walrus tallow, or seal oil. There is also a kind of akutaq which is called snow akutaq. The most common recipes for Indian ice cream consist of dried and pulverized moose or caribou tenderloin that is blended with moose fat (traditionally in a birch bark container) until the mixture is light and fluffy. It may be eaten unfrozen or frozen, and in the latter case it somewhat resembles commercial ice cream.[1]

Alaskan ice cream
Alaska wild berries.jpg
Alaska wild berries from the Innoko National Wildlife Refuge, a mixture of true berries (blue Vaccinium uliginosum and red Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and aggregate fruits (red Rubus arcticus). These berries are used in Alaskan ice cream.
Alternative namesNative ice cream, Alaskan ice cream
TypeDessert
Place of originUnited States
Region or stateAlaska
Created byAlaskan Athabaskans
Main ingredientsdried fish or meat, fat, berries

Not to be confused with Canadian Indian ice cream (or sxusem) of First Nations in British Columbia and kulfi (or Indian ice cream) from the Indian Subcontinent of Asia.

The "ice cream songs" used to be sung during the preparation of Alaskan Athabascan Indian ice cream.[2]

Recent additions include sugar, milk, and vegetable shortening.[citation needed]

Native namesEdit

Athabaskan language ice cream literally
Ahtna ?
Dena’ina nivagi[3]
Deg Xinag vanhgiq[4][5]
Holikachuk nathdlod[5]
Koyukon nonaałdlode[6] "creamed one" or "that which has been whipped up"
Upper Kuskokwim nemaje[7][8]
Lower Tanana nonathdlodi[2]
Tanacross nanehdlaad[9]
Upper Tanana ?
Gwich’in it’suh[10]
Hän ?
Inuit-Yupik language ice cream literally
Iñupiaq (Northern) akutuq 'mixed/stirred together'
Inupiaq (Bering Straits) agutaq 'mixed/stirred together'
Yup'ik akutaq 'mixed/stirred together'
Alutiiq (Northern) akutaq, sisuq
Alutiiq (Southern) akutaq, pirinaq

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Priscilla Russell Kari, Tanaina Plantlore, Dena'ina K'et'una (1987), p. 61.
  2. ^ a b "Keynote abstracts - HLK 2010, Lund University". Conference.sol.lu.se. Retrieved 23 April 2018. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  3. ^ "Land Use and Economy of Lime Village" (PDF). Subsistence.adfg.state.ak.us. Retrieved 23 April 2018. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  4. ^ "Course: Deg Xinag Learners' Dictionary". Ankn.uaf.edu. Retrieved 23 April 2018. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  5. ^ a b "ABCD" (PDF). Adfg.alaska.gov. Retrieved 23 April 2018. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  6. ^ "EFGH" (PDF). Subsistence.adfg.state.ak.us. Retrieved 23 April 2018. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  7. ^ The Upper Kuskokwim People and Gathering Plants in the Upper Kuskokwim Archived December 24, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ "Whitefish Biology, Distribution, and Fisheries in the Yukon and Kuskokwim River Drainages in Alaska: a Synthesis of Available Information" (PDF). Rapidresearch.com. Retrieved 23 April 2018. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  9. ^ Tanacross Learnersʼ Dictionary Archived 2010-12-02 at the Wayback Machine by I. S. Arnold, G. Holton, and R. Thoman (2009)
  10. ^ "Gwich'in Social & Cultural Institute". Plants.gwichin.ca. Archived from the original on 4 December 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2018. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)