Akkala Sami language
Akkala Sami is a Sami language that was spoken in the Sami villages of A´kkel (Russian Бабинский, Finnish Akkala), Ču´kksuâl (Russian Экостровский) and Sââ´rvesjäu´rr (Russian Гирвасозеро, Finnish Hirvasjärvi), in the inland parts of the Kola Peninsula in Russia. Formerly erroneously regarded as a dialect of Kildin Sami, it has recently become recognized as an independent Sami language that is most closely related to its western neighbor Skolt Sami.
|Region||Southwest Kola Peninsula|
29 December 2003|
with the death of Maria Sergina
Akkala Sami is the most endangered eastern Sami language. On December 29, 2003, Maria Sergina – one of the last fluent native speakers of Akkala Sami – died. However, as of 2011 there were at least two people, both aged 70, with some knowledge of Akkala Sami. Remaining ethnic Akkala Samis live in the village Yona.
Although there exist a description of Akkala Sami phonology and morphology, a few published texts, and archived audio recordings, the Akkala Sami language remains among the most poorly documented Sami languages.
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The following overview is based on P. M. Zaykov's monograph. Zaykov's Uralic phonetic transcription is retained here. The middle dot ˑ denotes palatalization of the preceding consonant, analyzed by Zaykov as semisoft pronunciation.
Akkala Sami has 8 cases, singular and plural: nominative, genitive-accusative, partitive, dative-illative, locative, essive, comitative and abessive. Case and number are expressed by a combination of endings and consonant gradation:
- Nominative: no marker in the singular, weak grade in the plural.
- Genitive-accusative: weak grade in the singular, weak grade + -i in the plural.
- Partitive: this case exists only in the singular, and has the ending -tti͔.
- Dative-illative: strong grade + -a, -a͕ or -ɛ in the singular, weak grade + -i in the plural.
- Locative: weak grade + -st, -śtˑ in the singular, weak grade + -nˑ in the plural.
- Essive: this case exists only in the singular: strong grade + -nˑ.
- Comitative: weak grade + -nˑ in the singular, strong grade + -guim, -vuim or -vi̮i̭m in the plural.
- Abessive: weak grade + -ta in the singular.
The table below gives the declension of the personal pronouns monn ‘I’ and mij ‘we’. The pronouns tonn ‘you (sg.)’ and sonn ‘(s)he’ are declined like monn, the pronouns tij ‘you (pl.)’ and sij ‘they’ are declined like mij.
The interrogative pronouns mī ‘what?’ and tˑī, kī ‘who?’ are declined as follows:
|mī ‘what?’||tˑī, kī ‘who?’|
Akkala Sami verbs have three persons and two numbers, singular and plural. There are three moods: indicative, imperative and conditional; the potential mood has disappeared. Below, the paradigm of the verbs va͕n̄ˑće ‘to walk’ and korrɛ ‘to knit’ is given in the present and imperfect tense:
The verb ĺiije ‘to be’ conjugates as follows:
Compound tenses such as perfect and pluperfect are formed with the verb ĺii̭je in the present or imperfect as auxiliary, and the participle of the main verb. Examples are ĺam tĭĕhtmi̮nč ‘I have known’ from tĭĕhttɛ ‘to know’, and ĺai tui̭jāma ‘(s)he had made’ from tui̭je ‘to make’.
The conditional mood has the marker -č, which is added to the weak grade of the stem: kuarčim ‘I would sew’, vizzčik ‘you (sg.) would become tired’.
As in other Sami languages, Akkala Sami makes use of a negative verb that conjugates according to person and number, while the main verb remains unchanged. The conjugation of the negative verb is shown here together with the verb aĺ̄ḱe ‘to begin’:
The third person singular and plural of the verb ĺii̭je ‘to be’ have special contracted forms ɛĺĺa and jāĺa.
- Akkala Sami at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Akkala Sami". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-04-11. Retrieved 2014-02-07.
- Rantala, Leif, Aleftina Sergina 2009. Áhkkila sápmelaččat. Oanehis muitalus sámejoavkku birra, man maŋimuš sámegielalaš olmmoš jámii 29.12.2003. Roavvenjárga.
- Scheller, Elisabeth 2011. The Sami Language Situation in Russia. In: "Ethnic and Linguistic Context of Identity: Finno-Ugric Minorities." Uralica Helsingiensia 5. Helsinki. 79–96.
- Зайков, П. М. Бабинский диалект саамского языка (фонолого-морфологическое исследование). Петрозаводск: «Карелия», 1987.