Open main menu
Head of an ancient Mesopotamian or Iranian ruler, 2300–2000 BC, housed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Seal of the Neo-Sumerian king Ur-Nammu in the British Museum. The inscription gives Ur-Nammu's titulature as "Ur-Nammu, strong man, king of Ur".

Akkadian or Mesopotamian royal titulary refers to the royal titles and epithets (and the style they were presented in) assumed by monarchs in Ancient Mesopotamia from the Akkadian period to the fall of the Neo-Babylonian Empire (roughly 2334 to 539 BC), with some scant usage in the later Achaemenid and Seleucid periods. The titles and the order they were presented in varied from king to king, with similarities between kings usually being because of a king's explicit choice to align himself with a predecessor. Some titles, like the Akkadian šar kibrāt erbetti ("king of the Four Corners of the World") and šar kiššatim ("king of the Universe") and the Neo-Sumerian šar māt Šumeri u Akkadi ("king of Sumer and Akkad") would remain in use for more than a thousand years through several different empires and others, like the šar ilāni ("king of the gods") of the Neo-Babylonian Nabonidus (r. 556–539 BC), would only be used by a single king.

In the Akkadian-speaking kingdoms of Assyria and Babylonia, distinct styles of Akkadian titulature would develop, retaining titles and elements of earlier kings but applying new royal traditions. In Assyrian royal titulary, emphasis would typically be placed on the strength and power of the king whilst Babylonian royal titulary would usually focus on the protective role and the piety of the king. Monarchs who controlled both Assyria and Babylon (such as some of the Neo-Assyrian kings) often used "hybrid" titularies combining aspects of both. Such hybrid titularies are also recorded for the only known examples of Akkadian titularies beyond the fall of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, employed by Cyrus the Great (r. 559–530 BC) of the Achaemenid Empire and Antiochus I (r. 281–261 BC) of the Seleucid Empire, who also introduced some aspects of their own royal ideologies.

HistoryEdit

Mesopotamian royal titles vary in their contents, epithets and order depending on the ruler, dynasty and the length of a monarch's reign. Patterns of arrangement and the choice of titles and epithets usually reflect specific kings, which also meant that later rulers attempting to emulate an earlier great king often aligned themselves with their great predecessors through the titles, epithets and order chosen. As such, Akkadian-language royal inscriptions can be important sources on the royal ideology of any one given king and in exploring sociocultural factors during the reigns of individual kings.[1][2]

OriginsEdit

 
Relief with Naram-Sin of Akkad's portrait. Naram-Sin, who reigned between 2254 and 2218 BC, has been described as the first great "innovator" when it comes to Mesopotamian royal titles. Relief today housed at the Istanbul Archaeological Museum.

Though there had been kings (and thus obviously royal titles) in Mesopotamia since prehistoric times, the first great "innovator" of royal titles was Naram-Sin of Akkad (r. 2254–2218 BC), the grandson of Sargon of Akkad and the fourth ruler of the Akkadian Empire. Naram-Sin introduced the idea of kingship in the four corners (e.g. the four inhabited regions of the Earth) with the title "King of the Four Corners of the World", probably in geographical terms expressing his dominion over the regions Elam, Subartu, Amurru and Akkad (reprenting east, north, west and south respectively).[3] It is possible that Naram-Sin might have been inspired to claim the title following his conquest of the city Ebla, in which quadripartite divisions of the world and the universe were prominent parts of the city's ideology and beliefs. Naram-Sin was also the first king to claim divinity for himself during his lifetime. Though both his father Manishtushu and his grandfather Sargon were recognized as divine, they had only been deified posthumously.[4] The adoption of the title "God of Akkad" may have been due to Naram-Sin winning a great victory over a large-scale revolt against his rule. Naram-Sin was also the first Mesopotamian ruler to adopt the epithet dannum ("mighty").[5]

After the fall of Akkad, further titles would be introduced by the kings of the Third Dynasty of Ur. The founder of this dynasty, Ur-Nammu (r. 2112–2095 BC), combined the title of "king of Akkad" with the traditional "king of Sumer" in an effort to unify the north and south of Mesopotamia under his rule, creating the title of "king of Sumer and Akkad". Though the Akkadian kings had used both the titles of "king of Akkad" and "king of Sumer", the combined title was new. Sargon of Akkad had even during his reign explicitly been against linking Sumer and Akkad. There was some native Mesopotamian precedence for double titles of this kind, in the Early Dynastic III (c. 2900–2350) period, double titles were used by some kings with examples like "lord of Sumer and king of the nation" and "king of Uruk and king of Ur". These titles were unique to their respective rulers however, never appearing again, and repeated "king" at the mention of the second kingship. Ur-Nammu was acknowledged by the priesthood at Nippur and crowned as sovereign of the two lands surrounding Nippur "to right and left".[6] The fourth king of the Third Dynasty of Ur, Amar-Sin (r. 2046–2038 BC), was the first ruler to introduce the title šarru dannu ("mighty king"), replacing the earlier epithet dannum.[7]

When the Third Dynasty of Ur collapsed and its vassals once again became independent polities, the former vassal cities often only implicitly renounced their allegiance to Ur. Since the ruler of Ur was deified and thus technically a god, ruling titles like šar ("king") were applied to the principal deities of the cities. As a result, formerly subordinate titles such as šakkanakki and Išši’ak (both translating to "governor") became sovereign ruling titles.[7]

Assyrian and Babylonian titulatureEdit

 
Text and seal of Shamash-shum-ukim, a Neo-Assyrian king of Babylon, featuring a depiction of the king fighting an oryx antelope. Now housed in the British Museum.

Typically, Assyrian royal inscriptions usually glorify the strength and power of the king whilst Babylonian royal inscriptions tend to focus on the protective role and the piety of the king.[1] Assyrian titularies usually also often emphasize the royal genaeology of the king, something Babylonian titularies do not, and also drive home the king's moral and physical qualities while downplaying his role in the judicial system.[8] Assyrian epithets about royal lineage vary in how far they stretch back, most often simply discussing lineage in terms of "son of ..." or "brother of ...". Some cases display lineage stretching back much further, Shamash-shuma-ukin (r. 667–648 BC) describes himself as a "descendant of Sargon II", his great-grandfather. More extremely, Esarhaddon (r. 681–669 BC) calls himself a "descendant of the eternal seed of Bel-bani", a king who would have lived more than a thousand years before him.[9]

Assyrian royal titularies were often changed depending on where the titles were to be displayed, the titles of the same Assyrian king would have been different in their home country of Assyria and in conquered regions. Those Neo-Assyrian kings who controlled the city of Babylon used a "hybrid" titulary of sorts in the south, combining aspects of the Assyrian and Babylonian tradition, similar to how the traditional Babylonian deities were promoted in the south alongside the Assyrian main deity of Ashur.[8] The assumption of many traditional southern titles, including the ancient "king of Sumer and Akkad", by the Assyrian kings served to legitimize their rule and assert their control over Babylon and lower Mesopotamia.[2] Epithets like "chosen by the god Marduk and the goddess Sarpanit" and "favourite of the god Ashur and the goddess Mullissu", both assumed by Esarhaddon, illustrate that he was both Assyrian (Ashur and Mullissu, the main pair of Assyrian deities) and a legitimate ruler over Babylon (Marduk and Sarpanit, the main pair of Babylonian deities).[10]

Most of the Neo-Assyrian titles that speak of the king's prowess, e.g. "great king", "mighty king" and even the old "king of the Universe", a title dating back to Akkadian times, were not carried over into the succeeding Neo-Babylonian Empire with two exceptions. The founder of the Neo-Babylonian empire, Nabopolassar (r. 625–605 BC) uses some of the titles (prominently "mighty king") in his early inscriptions, possibly due to his family originating as high-ranking officials for the Assyrians (a fact he otherwise was careful to mask). The final ruler of the Neo-Babylonian empire, Nabonidus (r. 556–539 BC), took all three of the Assyrian titles in inscriptions late in his reign, deliberately aligning himself with the Neo-Assyrian kings, possibly to claim a universal empire as in the Assyrian model.[1]

Achaemenid and Seleucid useEdit

 
The Antiochus Cylinder of Antiochus I of the Seleucid Empire contains the last known example of a royal titulary written in Akkadian. The cylinder is today housed at the British Museum.

In the Cyrus Cylinder, Cyrus the Great of the Achaemenid Empire assumes many native Mesopotamian title following his 539 BC conquest of Babylon. Much like the late inscriptions of Nabonidus, the Cyrus Cylinder corresponds more to the traditional Assyrian royal titulary than it does the Babylonian.[1] When the Assyrian kings conquered Babylon, they titled themselves as both kings of Babylon and kings of Assyria. Since they were not technically legitimate Babylonian rulers in that they had not been born to the Babylonian throne, they stressed their legitimacy by deriving their kingship from the fact that they had held royal status before conquering Babylon. Cyrus does much the same in the Cyrus Cylinder, stressing that his father and grandfather were "kings of Anšan" and that Cyrus was the "heir to an eternal line of kingship".[11]

The Antiochus Cylinder, which describes how Antiochus I (r. 281–261 BC) of the Seleucid Empire rebuilt the Ezida Temple in the city of Borsippa, is one of the last known documents written in Akkadian, separated from the previous Cyrus Cylinder by around 300 years. This cylinder also contains the last known example of an Akkadian-language royal titulary, applied to Antiochus himself. It is an important source on the self-presentation of Seleucid kings and on the relations between the Seleucid rulers and the inhabitants of Babylon (located near the recently founded Seleucid capital of Seleucia). The text of the cylinder as a whole combines and reshapes elements from the Babylonian and Assyrian traditions of royal titularies, sometimes breaking with tradition to introduce aspects of the Seleucid royal ideology.[12]

Though the titulature of Antiochus I used in the cylinder has in the past been interpreted as very traditionally Babylonian in its composition, especially compared to that of Nebuchadnezzar II (r. 605–562 BC) of the Neo-Babylonian empire, only two titles in the Antiochus Cylinder actually align with titles consistently used by the Neo-Babylonian kings (those being "king of Babylon" and "provider of Esagila and Ezida". Other titles in the cylinder, including "great king", "mighty king" and "king of the Universe" are more characteristic of the Neo-Assyrian kings.[1]

Out of the titularies of all previous kings, the titulary of Antiochus most closely resembles that of Nabonidus in its arrangement though they are not identical, that of Antiochus combining Assyrian, Babylonian and Persian titles. It is possible given the large amount of time separating the Antiochus Cylinder from the last known previous example (the Cyrus Cylinder) and the rather simply and short nature of the titulary that it mixes traditions and ideas due to the limited amount of sources the scribe would have had to work with, but royal titularies were usually created with great care and consideration. It is possible that the mixture was chosen to specifically reflect a more Seleucid version of kingship, Assyrian titles like "mighty king" and "great king" fitting with the warrior king-idea used by the Seleucids in the rest of their empire. Universalizing titles like "king of the Universe" may simple have been appealing in lacking a geographical specification and that the king would not have to confine his realm to include just Babylon or Mesopotamia (which would have resulted from a title like "king of Sumer and Akkad").[13] Similar to how Cyrus the Great stressed that his lineage was royal despite him not being born to the Babylonian throne, Antiochus titulary contains the information that he is the son and heir of Seleucus I Nicator (the first Seleucid king, r. 305–281 BC), who is referred to as "the Macedonian", connecting him with the kingship of Alexander the Great and his line and granting Antiochus further legitimacy.[11]

Examples of titlesEdit

Titles centering on the king's personEdit

Descriptive titles similar to epithets, titles which center on the king's person. Titles and epithets which relate to the personality and position of the king account for about 24.9% of Neo-Assyrian titularies.[9]

Title in Akkadian Translation Example user(s) Notes
šarru dannu[14] Strong King[14] or Mighty King[7] Sargon II[14], Esarhaddon[15] Popular title, especially in Assyria.[1]
šarru rabû[14] Great King[14] Sargon II[14], Esarhaddon[15] Popular title designating the king as powerful enough to draw the respect of their adversaries, frequently used in diplomacy with other nations.[16]
šarru ša ina kullat mātāti māḫiri lā īšû[17] King who has no equals in all of the lands[17] Esarhaddon[17], Ashurbanipal[18] Only recorded for Esarhaddon (r. 681–669 BC) and Ashurbanipal (r. 668–627 BC).[17][18]

Titles centering on the king's relationship to the wordlyEdit

Titles describing the domain under the control of a king. Titles and epithets which relate to the wordly position of the king account for about 35.8% of Neo-Assyrian titularies.[9]

Specific locations and peoples (examples)Edit

Title in Akkadian Translation Example user(s) Notes
Išši’ak Aššur[19] Governor of Assyria (on behalf of the gods)[19] Shamshi-Adad I[19] Ruling title of the Old and Middle Assyrian kings.[19]
šakkanakki Bābili[14] Governor of Babylon[14] Sargon II[14], Esarhaddon[20] Ruling title of the Old Babylonian kings.[21] Title employed by some Assyrian kings who ruled over Babylon.[14]
šar Akkadi[22] King of the Akkadians[22] Agum III[22] Variant of šar māt Akkadi only recorded for Agum III of Babylon (c. 1470 BC).[22]
šar Amnānu[23] King of the Amnanu[23] Shamash-shum-ukin[23] Expressing kingship over the Amnanu, an Amorite tribal group settled in Babylonia.[24] Only recorded for Shamash-shum-ukin (r. 667–648 BC).[23]
šar Bābili[14] King of Babylon[14] Sargon II[14], Esarhaddon[15] Ruling title of monarchs of Babylon.[14]
šar Karuduniaš[22] King of Karduniaš[22] Agum III[22], Karaindash[22] Title used by the Kassite dynasty of Babylon, Karduniaš being the Kassite name for the kingdom centered in Babylon.[22]
šar Kašši[22] King of the Kassites[22] Agum III[22], Karaindash[22] Title used by the Kassite dynasty of Babylon.[22]
šar Kaššu[22] Kassite king[22] Agum III[22], Karaindash[22] Title used by the Kassite dynasty of Babylon.[22]
šar māt Akkadi[25] King of (the land of) Akkad[25] Ur-Nammu[6] Combined with "king of Sumer" by Ur-Nammu (r. 2112–2095 BC), thereafter only occurs in the combined form "king of Sumer and Akkad".[6]
šar māt Aššur[14] King of (the land of) Assyria[14] Sargon II[14], Esarhaddon[15] Ruling title of the Neo-Assyrian kings.[14]
šar māt Bābil[22] King of (the land of) Babylonia[22] Agum III[22], Karaindash[22] Rare variant of the Babylonian royal title recorded for some Kassite kings.[22]
šar māt Padan u Alman[22] King of (the land of) Padan and Alman Agum III[22] Title only recorded for Agum III of Babylon (c. 1470 BC).[22]
šar māt Šumeri[25] King of (the land of) Sumer[25] Ur-Nammu[6] Combined with "king of Akkad" by Ur-Nammu (r. 2112–2095 BC), thereafter only occurs in the combined form "king of Sumer and Akkad".[6]

Dominance over MesopotamiaEdit

Title in Akkadian Translation Example user(s) Notes
šar mātāti[26] King of the Lands[26] Ashurbanipal[18], Cyrus[27], Phraates II[26] Introduced in its simplified form by Ashurbanipal (r. 669–627 BC).[18] Saw occasional later use in the Achaemenid, Seleucid and Parthian Empires.[28][26][27]
šar mātāti šarhu[29] Glorious King of the Lands[29] Ashurnasirpal II,[29] Shalmaneser III[30] Variant of šar mātāti recorded for Ashurnasirpal II (r. 883–859 BC) and Shalmaneser III (r. 859–824 BC).[29][30]
šar māt Šumeri u Akkadi[25] King of Sumer and Akkad[25] Ur-Nammu,[6] Hammurabi[31], Esarhaddon[31], Cyrus[32] Ruling title in the Third Dynasty of Ur, used for more than 1,500 years in later empires trying to claim its and the Akkadian Empire's legacy.[31]
šar šarrāni[33] King of Kings[33] Tukulti-Ninurta I,[33] Mithridates II[34] Introduced by Tukulti-Ninurta I of Assyria (r. 1233–1197 BC),[33] "King of Kings" became an especially prominent title during the Achaemenid Empire after which it would be used in Iran and elsewhere up until modern times.[35]

Claims to universal ruleEdit

Title in Akkadian Translation Example user(s) Notes
šar kibrāt erbetti[36] King of the Four Corners of the World[36] Naram-Sin,[37] Ashurnasirpal II[36], Hammurabi,[38] Cyrus[32] Popular title introduced by Naram-Sin (r. 2254–2218 BC).[37] Used in a succession of later empires until its final use by Cyrus the Great (r. 559–530 BC).[32]
šar kullat kibrāt erbetti[39] King of All the Four Corners of the World[39] Tiglath-Pileser I[40], Ashur-bel-kala[40] Variant of šar kibrāt erbetti used in the Middle Assyrian Empire.[40]
šar kiššatim[41] King of the Universe[41] Sargon[42], Esarhaddon[41], Nabonidus,[1] Cyrus[32] Popular title introduced by Sargon of Akkad (r 2334–2284 BC).[42] Used in a succession of later empires until its final use by Antiochus I (r. 281–261 BC).[1]
šar kiššat kibrāte ša napḫar malkī kalîšunu[36] King of the Totality of the Four Corners including all their rulers[36] Ashurnasirpal II[36], Shalmaneser III[36] Variant of šar kibrāt erbetti recorded for Ashurnasirpal II (r. 883–859 BC) and Shalmaneser III (r. 859–824 BC).[36]
šar kiššat nišē[30] King of All Peoples[30] Tukulti-Ninurta I[43], Ashurnasirpal II[30] Recorded for two Middle Assyrian kings and two Neo-Assyrian kings.[30][43]

Titles centering on the king's relationship to the divineEdit

Titles describing the position of the king relative to the gods of Sumerian mythology. Titles and epithets which relate to the divine position of the king account for about 38.8% of Neo-Assyrian titularies.[9]

Title in Akkadian Translation Example user(s) Notes
šakkanakki Aššur[44] Governor of Ashur[44] Shalmaneser III[44] Separated from Išši’ak Aššur in that this title refers to being a governor explicitly on behalf of the god Ashur, not as governing the region of Assyria.[44]
šakkanakki ilāni rabûti[44] Governor of the Great Gods[44] Shalmaneser III[44] Only recorded for Shalmaneser III (r. 859–824 BC).[44]
šar ilāni[45] King of the Gods[45] Nabonidus[45] Only recorded for Nabonidus (r. 556–539 BC).[45]
šar ilāni ša šamê u erṣetim[45] King of the Gods of the Heavens and the Underworld[45] Nabonidus[45] Only recorded for Nabonidus (r. 556–539 BC).[45]
šarru migrišu/ša/šun[17] King who is his/her/their favourite[17] Esarhaddon[17], Ashurbanipal[18] Him/her/them referring to the deities of ancient Mesopotamia.[46]
šarru pāliḫšu/ša/šun[17] King who fears him/her/them[17] Esarhaddon[17] Him/her/them referring to the deities of ancient Mesopotamia.[46]
šarru šaḫtu[17] Humble King[17] Esarhaddon[17] The title speaks about humility before the gods, the king would not have shown inferiority towards other rulers.[46]
šarru zāninšu/ša/šun[14] King who provides for him/her/them[14] Sargon II[14] Him/her/them referring to the deities of ancient Mesopotamia.[46]
zānin Esagil u Ezida[1] Provider of Esagila and Ezida[1] Sargon II[14], Nebuchadnezzar II[47] One of the most common royal titles of the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian periods, used by nearly all kings.[1]

EpithetsEdit

 
Detail of a stone monument of Ashurbanipal of Assyria as a basket-bearer. Kings only expressed inferiority and humility before the divine, often using epithets to describe themselves as "providers" for the gods. Currently housed in the British Museum.

Royal epithets generally served to highlight the qualities of a specific king, many rulers having at least some unique epithets. Typical of Babylonian titles is focusing on the benevolent and coercive attributes of any one given king with only few references to violence. Neo-Assyrian rulers, including Ashurbanipal, Esarhaddon and Shamash-shuma-ukin, frequently employed the epithet rē’û kēnu (meaning "righteous shepherd") to illustrate royal benevolence. Wisdom and competence are also common points of focus, Esarhaddon is for instance referred to as itpēšu ḫāsis kal šipri ("competent one who knows every craft").[46]

Many epithets are religious in nature, usually focusing on the king as a "provider" (zānin) for the gods in some capacity, provider here meaning that the king is fulfilling his duty of providing required nourishments for the deities and keeping their temples in good condition. Considering the boastful nature of Esarhaddon's titles, his epithet kanšu ("submissive") may seem strange, his title šarru šaḫtu ("humble king") likewise so, but these titles refer to humility and inferiority in regards to the gods, for which this was appropriate. The Assyrian king would never have acknowledged inferiority in the earthly sphere.[46]

Epithets often also illustrate the king as selected to rule by the gods, the chosen words typically being migru ("favourite") and/or nibītu ("designate"). Shamash-shuma-ukin refers to himself as migir Enlil Šamaš u Marduk ("favourite of Enlil, Shamash and Marduk") and Esarhaddon refers to himself as nibīt Marduk Ṣarpanītu ("designate of Marduk (and) Sarpanit"). Marking the Assyrian king as the choice of the gods would have further legitimized his rule.[48] The king respecting the divine is sometimes expressed with words like palāḫu ("to fear") or takālu ("to trust in"). Ashurbanipal has the epithet rubû pāliḫšu/ša ("prince who fears him/her"). Religious epithets can also speak of the king's piety through his actions, typically focusing on construction (often utilizing the word epēšu, "build" or "make"). Shamash-shuma-ukin refers to himself as ēpiš Esagila ("he who (re)constructed Esagila"), referring to a major temple in Babylon.[49]

Another common theme for epithets is the king's relation to his people. Esarhaddon again being an example, he refers to himself as maḫīru kīnu ešēru ebūru napāš Nisaba ušaššû ina māti ("he who brought stable prices, successful harvests, (and) an abundance of grain to the land").[24]

Assyrian epithets often emphasize the king as a military leader and relates war to the divine as an issue part of the idea of universal rule. Epithets like "the god Aššur gave me the power to let cities fall into ruins and to enlarge Assyrian territory" are common.[2]

Examples of royal titulariesEdit

Titulary of Sargon IIEdit

 
King Sargon II of Assyria. Bas-relief from Khorsabad.

The titulature of the Neo-Assyrian king Sargon II (r. 722–705 BC), preserved in Babylon;[14]

In Akkadian:

Mu’e’’ru māt Aššur u gimir Amurrî, nibīt Asari, rubû zāninšu/ša, sipa ma-da aš-šurki-ke, šakkanakki Bābili, šar Bābili, šar kiššati, šar māt Aššur, šar māt Šumerî u Akkadî, šarru dannu, šarru rabû, šar(ru) zāninša, zānin Esagil u Ezida

Translated:

Commander of Assyria and all of Amurru, designate of Asari, prince who provides for him/her, shepherd of Assyria, governor of Babylon, king of Babylon, king of the Universe, king of Assyria, king of Sumer and Akkad, strong king, great king, king who provides for her, provider of Esagila and Ezida

It is important to note that "king of Babylon" only precedes "king of Assyria" in royal titularies made in, or displayed in, Babylon itself. On the Kition stele, discovered in Cyprus, the titles of Sargon II follow a similar pattern with some noteworthy differences; king of the Universe, king of Assyria, governor of Babylon, king of Sumer and Akkad, king of the Four Corners of the World. "King of Babylon" is dropped altogether and "governor of Babylon" has been pushed after "king of Assyria".[50]

Titulary of EsarhaddonEdit

The full titulature of the Neo-Assyrian king Esarhaddon (r. 681–669 BC), including all known epithets, composited from several royal inscriptions in Babylon;[51]

In Akkadian:

Ana nuḫḫu libbi ilūtišu u nupūš kabattišunu ṣillušunu dārû itruṣū elišu, Anum rabû ana ālišu Dēr u bītišu Edimgalkalama ušēribuma ušēšibu parak dārâti, apal Šarru-kīn, ardu pāliḫ ilūtišu rabītim, ašru, bānû bīt Aššur, bānû Esagila, bukur Sîn-aḫḫē-erība, ēpiš Bābili, ēpiš Esagila u Bābili, (ša) gimir malikī ušaknišu šēpuššu, ilāni mātāti (ša ana māt Aššur iḫīšūni šallūtu) šukuttašunu uddišu, īmuru danānšun, ina emūq Aššur Enlil Bēl u mār-Bēl kullat mātāti ibēlu, iškunu ḫegallu, iššakku ṣīru, itpēšu ḫāsis kal šipri, itût kūn libbi Enlil, kanšu, kāšid ultu tâmtim elīti adi tâmtim šaplīti, liblibbi Bēl-bāni zēru dārû, maḫīru kīnu ešēru ebūru napāš Nisaba ušaššû ina māti, malku na’adu, mār Adasi, mār Sîn-aḫḫē-erība, migir Aššur u Mullissu, migir bēl bēlē, migir Irnini, muddiš Eanna, muddiš Ekur, muddiš ilāni u ištarāti, mūdû puluḫti ilūtišu rabīti, mukīn sattukkī, mupaḫḫir nišēšu sapḫāti, murappiš ekurrāt ilāni, mušaklil ešrēti (kullat) (u) māḫāz, mušandil māḫāzī, mušēṣû nūru, muštapik karê ašnan, muštē’’û ašrāt ilāni rabûti, mutaqqin nišē [dalḫāti], (ša) narām Ṣarpanītum, nibīt Marduk, nibīt Marduk Ṣarpanītu, pāliḫ bēl bēlē, pāliḫ ilūtišunu rabīti, pāliḫ Nabû u Marduk, per’u Baltil šūquru, rē’û kēnu, rēšu mutnennû, rēšu šaḫtu, rubû enqu, rubû [kēnu], rubû na’adu, rubû pāliḫki, (ša) Aššur Sîn Šamaš Bēl Nabû ana šuklulu māḫāzī udduše ešrēti iptū ḫasīsuš, ša bēlūssunu [putūqu], ša durugšu Baltil, ša ina māḫāzu rabûti simāti ištakkanu uštēširu šuluḫḫu, ša ina palîšu Elam ula šemū, ša ina qerebšina ištakkanu simāti, ša ina ūmīšu sunqu u ḫušaḫḫu ušaṣṣû, ša ultu ṣeḫrišu ana DNN u ilāni rabûti ittaklu, ša ultu ūmē ṣeḫrišu bēlūssunu putūquma qurussunu dallu, šakkanakki Bābili, šar Bābili, šar kibrāti erbetti, šar kiššati, šar māt Aššur, šar māt Šumerî u Akkadî, šar šarrāni māt [Muṣri] māt pa-ta-ri-is u [māt Kūsi], šarru dannu, šar(ru) ēpiš Eanna, šar(ru) migrišu/ša, šar(ru) pāliḫša, šarru rabû, šarru ša ina kullat [mātāti] māḫiri lā [īšû], šarru ša ina ūmē palîšu Marduk ana Bābili salīmu iršû ina Esagil irmû šubassu, šarru ša ultu ṣeḫrišu ana Nabû Tašmētum u Nanāya ittaklu, šarru šaḫtu, šuklulu ešrēti, tiriṣ Enlil, tiriṣ qātī Aššur, ukinnu isqušun, ultu qereb māt Aššur ana ašrišunu utēršunūti, zānin Ezida, zāninu, zēr šarrūti kisitti ṣâti

Translated:

One over whom they extended their eternal protective shade in order to soothe their divine heart(s) and set their mind(s) at rest, who made Great-Anu enter into his city Der and his temple Edimgalkalama and had (him) sit upon (his) eternal cult dais, heir of Sargon, servant who fears his great divinity, obedient one, who (re)built the Ashur temple, who rebuilt Esagila, child of Sennacherib, who (re)constructed Babylon, who (re)constructed Esagila and Babylon, who placed all rulers at his feet, who restored the adornment(s) of the (plundered) deities of all lands (who had hastened to Assyria), who realized their power, who by the force of Ashur, Enlil, Bel, and the Son-of-Bel ruled over all lands, who established plenty, exalted vice-regent, competent one who knows every craft, steadfast choice of Enlil, submissive, conqueror from the Upper Sea to the Lower Sea, descendant of the eternal seed of Bel-bani, who brought stable prices, successful harvests, (and) an abundance of grain to the land, attentive ruler, son of Adasi, son of Sennacherib, favourite of Ashur and Mullissu, favourite of the lord of lords, favourite of Irnini, renewer of Eanna, renewer of Ekur, renewer of gods and goddesses, who knows how to fear his great divinity, (re)establisher of the regular offerings, reassembler of his dispersed people, extender of the temples of the (great) gods, who perfected (all) the sanctuaries (and) cult centres, expander of the cult centres, who brought about light, who piles up heaps of grain and cereal, who is assiduous toward the sanctuaries of the great gods, who reorganized the (troubled) people, who is beloved of Sarpanit, designate of Marduk, who fears the lord of lords, who fears their great divinity, who fears Nabu and Marduk, valuable scion of Baltil, righteous shepherd, pious servant, humble servant, clever prince, righteous prince, attentive prince, prince who fears you, whose mind Ashur, Sin, Shamash, Bel, and Nabu opened for perfecting the cult centres (and) renovating (their) sanctuaries, who is constantly attentive to their rule, who is of pure Baltil descent, who put appropriate procedures in the great cult centres (and) has purification rites kept in order, in whose reign Elam was disobedient, who put appropriate procedures in them, who expelled famine and starvation during his days, who from his youth trusted in DNN, and the (other) great gods, who from the days of his youth was constantly attentive to their rule and praised their valour, governor of Babylon, king of Babylon, king of the Four Corners of the World, king of the Universe, king of Assyria, king of Sumer and Akkad, king of the kings of lower Egypt, upper Egypt, and Kush, strong king, king who reconstructed Eanna, king who is his/her favourite, king who fears her, great king, king who [has] no equal in all of [the lands], king in whose days of reign Marduk had mercy on Babylon (and again) took up his residence in Esagila, king who from his youth trusted in Nabu, Tashmetum, and Nanaya, humble king, perfecter of sanctuaries, one to whom Enlil has stretched out (his hands), one to whom Ashur has stretched out (his hands), who (re)established their income, who returned them from Assyria to their (proper) places, provider of Ezida, provider, one of royal seed and primeval ancestry

Titulary of Nebuchadnezzar IIEdit

 
Terracotta cylinder of King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon, housed at the British Museum.

The titulature of the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II (r. 605–562 BC), preserved in Babylon;[47]

In Akkadian:

šar Bābili, rē’û kīnu, itût kūn libbi Marduk, iššakku ṣīru, narām Nabium, mūdâ emqa, ša ana alkakāt ilāni rabûti bašâ uznāšu, šakkanakku lā āneḫa, zānin Esagil u Ezida

Translated:

King of Babylon, true shepherd, chosen by the steadfast heart of Marduk, exalted governor, beloved of Nabu, knowing one, wise one, who pays attention to the ways of the great gods, untiring governor, provider of Esagila and Ezida

Titulary of Antiochus IEdit

The Antiochus Cylinder is the last known Akkadian-language royal inscription, separated from the last known previous one (the Cyrus Cylinder) by 300 years. At the time it was made, Akkadian was no longer a spoken language and the cylinder's contents were likely inspired by earlier royal inscriptions by Assyrian and Babylonian kings.[53] The Akkadian-language titulature of the Seleucid king Antiochus I (r. 281–261 BC) is preserved in the Antiochus Cylinder from Babylon;[54]

In Akkadian:

šarru rabû, šarru dannu, šar kiššatim, šar Bābili, šar mātāti, zānin Esagil u Ezida, ibila sag kal šam Silukku šarru, lugal Makkadunāya, šar Bābili

Translated:

Great king, mighty king, king of the Universe, king of Babylon, king of the Lands, provider of Esagila and Ezida, foremost heir of Seleucus, the king, the Macedonian, king of Babylon

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Stevens 2014, p. 73.
  2. ^ a b c Soares 2017, p. 21.
  3. ^ Hallo 1980, p. 189.
  4. ^ Hallo 1980, p. 190.
  5. ^ Hallo 1980, p. 191.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Hallo 1980, p. 192.
  7. ^ a b c Hallo 1980, p. 193.
  8. ^ a b Karlsson 2017, p. 1.
  9. ^ a b c d Karlsson 2017, p. 12.
  10. ^ Soares 2017, p. 28.
  11. ^ a b Stevens 2014, p. 77.
  12. ^ Stevens 2014, p. 72.
  13. ^ Stevens 2014, p. 75.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Karlsson 2017, p. 2.
  15. ^ a b c d Karlsson 2017, p. 6.
  16. ^ Cohen & Westbrook 1999.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Karlsson 2017, p. 7.
  18. ^ a b c d e Karlsson 2017, p. 10.
  19. ^ a b c d Liverani 2013.
  20. ^ Karlsson 2017, p. 5.
  21. ^ Hallo 1980, p. 194.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Goetze 1964, p. 98.
  23. ^ a b c d Karlsson 2017, p. 11.
  24. ^ a b Karlsson 2017, p. 14.
  25. ^ a b c d e f Da Riva 2013, p. 72.
  26. ^ a b c d Shayegan 2011, p. 43.
  27. ^ a b Waerzeggers & Seire 2018, p. 40.
  28. ^ Kosmin 2014, p. 113.
  29. ^ a b c d Johandi 2012, p. 170.
  30. ^ a b c d e f Karlsson 2016, p. 153.
  31. ^ a b c Porter 1994, p. 79.
  32. ^ a b c d Cyrus Cylinder Translation.
  33. ^ a b c d Handy 1994, p. 112.
  34. ^ Olbrycht 2009, p. 165.
  35. ^ Saikal & Schnabel 2003, p. 9.
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h Karlsson 2013, p. 135.
  37. ^ a b Raaflaub & Talbert 2010, p. 153.
  38. ^ De Mieroop 2004, p. 119.
  39. ^ a b Karlsson 2016, p. 150.
  40. ^ a b c Karlsson 2013, p. 255.
  41. ^ a b c Roaf & Zgoll 2001, p. 284.
  42. ^ a b Levin 2002, p. 362.
  43. ^ a b Sazonov 2011, p. 26.
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h Karlsson 2016, p. 77.
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h Oshima 2017, p. 655.
  46. ^ a b c d e f Karlsson 2017, p. 13.
  47. ^ a b Stevens 2014, p. 74.
  48. ^ Karlsson 2017, p. 15.
  49. ^ Karlsson 2017, p. 16.
  50. ^ Radner 2010, p. 435.
  51. ^ Karlsson 2017, p. 3.
  52. ^ Hoover 2009, pp. 30–31.
  53. ^ Stevens 2014, p. 71.
  54. ^ Stevens 2014, p. 68.

BibliographyEdit

WebsitesEdit