Aimé Jacques Alexandre Bonpland (French: [ɛme bɔ̃plɑ̃]; 22 August 1773 – 11 May 1858) was a French explorer and botanist who traveled with Alexander von Humboldt in Latin America from 1799 to 1804. He co-authored volumes of the scientific results of their expedition.
|Born||22 August 1773|
|Died||11 May 1858 (aged 84)|
|Alma mater||University of Paris|
|Known for||Travel with Alexander von Humboldt|
Marguerite-Olive de La Coste
|Awards||French Academy of Sciences|
|Fields||Physician, biologist, botanist, natural history|
|Author abbrev. (botany)||Bonpl.|
Bonpland was born as Aimé Jacques Alexandre Goujaud in La Rochelle, France, on 22, 28, or 29 August 1773. His father was a physician and, around 1790, he joined his brother Michael in Paris, where they both studied medicine. From 1791, they attended courses given at Paris's Botanical Museum of Natural History. Their teachers included Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, and René Louiche Desfontaines; Aimé further studied under Jean-Nicolas Corvisart and may have attended classes given by Pierre-Joseph Desault at the Hôtel-Dieu. During this period, Aimé also befriended his fellow student, Xavier Bichat.
Having befriended Alexander von Humboldt at Corvisart's house, he joined him on a five-year journey to Tenerife and the Spanish colonial empire in the Americas, traveling to what later became the independent states of Venezuela, Cuba, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Mexico, as well as the Orinoco and Amazon basins, with a last stop in the United States. During this trip, he collected and classified about 6,000 plants that were mostly unknown in Europe up to that time. His account of these findings was published as a series of volumes from 1808 to 1816 entitled Equatorial Plants (French: Plantes equinoxiales).
Upon his return to Paris, Napoleon granted him a pension of 3000 francs per year in return for the many specimens he bestowed upon the Museum of Natural History. The Empress Josephine was very fond of him and installed him as superintendent over the gardens at Malmaison, where many seeds he had brought from the Americas were cultivated. In 1813, he published his Description of the Rare Plants Cultivated at Malmaison and in Navarre (Description des plantes rares cultivées à Malmaison et à Navarre). During this period, he also became acquainted with Gay-Lussac, Arago, and other eminent scientists and, after the abdication of Fontainebleau, vainly pleaded with Napoleon to retire to Venezuela. He was present at Josephine's deathbed.
In 1816, he took various European plants to Buenos Aires, where he was elected professor of natural history. He soon left his post, however, to explore the interior of South America. In 1821, he established a colony at Santa Ana near the Paraná for the specific object of harvesting and selling yerba mate. The colony was located in territory claimed by both Paraguay and Argentina; further, José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia, dictator of Paraguay, "feared that Bonpland's success in cultivating mate would interfere with his own attempt to monopolize that business." The Paraguayans therefore destroyed the colony on December 8, 1821, and Bonpland was arrested as a spy and detained at Santa Maria, Paraguay until 1829. During his captivity, he married and had several children. He was given freedom of movement and acted as a physician for the local poor and the military garrison. At the same epoch, the Swiss naturalist Johann Rudolph Rengger also stayed in Paraguay: he was not allowed to cross the strictly guarded border, but was free to circulate pending the request of a special permit for each excursion.
Bonpland was freed in 1829 and in 1831 returned to Argentina, where he settled at San Borja in Corrientes. There, aged 58, he married a local woman and made a living farming and trading in yerba mate. In 1853, he returned to Santa Ana, where he cultivated the orange trees he had introduced. He received a 10 000-piastre estate from the Corrientes government in gratitude for his work in the province. The small town around it is now known as "Bonpland" in his honor. A different small town in Misiones province just south of Santa Ana (Misiones) is also named Bonpland.
Bonpland's biography was written by Adolphe Brunel. A fictionalized account of his travels with Humboldt occurs in Daniel Kehlmann's Die Vermessung der Welt, translated by Carol Brown Janeway as Measuring the World: A Novel.
Bonpland Street in the upscale Buenos Aires neighborhood of Palermo Hollywood lies among streets named after Charles Darwin, Robert FitzRoy, and Alexander von Humboldt. There is also a Bonpland Street in the city of Bahía Blanca, Argentina, in Caracas, Venezuela, and in Montevideo, Uruguay.
The lunar crater Bonpland is named after him. Also Pico Bonpland in the Venezuelan Andes is named to his honor, although he never visited the Venezuelan Andes. A peak of over 2,300 m (7,500 ft) in New Zealand also bears his name. The mountain is near the head of Lake Wakatipu in the South Island.
The following genera and species have been named or described by Aimé Bonpland.
- Acacia subulata
- Alchornea castaneifolia
- Arceuthobium vaginatum
- Aristida divaricata
- Arrabidaea chica
- Astragalus geminiflorus
- Banksia marginata
- Brachyotum confertum
- Bertholletia excelsa
- Brugmansia suaveolens
- Brunellia ovalifolia
- Cavanillesia platanifolia
- Centronia mutisii
- Cephalanthus salicifolius
- Ceroxylon alpinum
- Chuquiraga jussieui
- Claytonia perfoliata
- Coriaria thymifolia
- Dorstenia tenuis
- Draba violacea
- Eucalyptus diversifolia
- Eudema nubigena
- Eugenia albida
- Huperzia crassa
- Hydrocleys nymphoides
- Iochroma fuchsioides
- Ipomoea arborescens
- Iresine diffusa
- Jacksonia furcellata
- Juniperus phoenicea
- Lilaea scilloides
- Limnobium laevigatum
- Limnocharis flava
- Ludwigia helminthorrhiza
- Ludwigia sedioides
- Maurandya antirrhiniflora
- Melaleuca pallida
- Miconia caelata
- Miconia guayaquilensis
- Miconia lacera
- Miconia minutiflora
- Miconia theaezans
- Mimosa somnians
- Monochaetum multiflorum
- Passiflora arborea
- Pinguicula moranensis
- Prosopis laevigata
- Prosopis pallida
- Prumnopitys montana
- Quararibea cordata
- Quercus crassifolia
- Quercus crassipes
- Quercus depressa
- Quercus diversifolia
- Quercus humboldtii
- Quercus mexicana
- Quercus obtusata
- Quercus xalapensis
- Smilax havanensis
- Stanhopea grandiflora
- Stanhopea jenischiana
- Styrax tomentosus
- Symphoricarpos microphyllus
- Symplocos coccinea
- Tagetes zypaquirensis
- Theobroma bicolor
- Trichilia acuminata
- Viola cheiranthifolia
- Vitis tiliifolia
- Zieria laevigata
- 1805: Essai sur la géographie des plantes. Written with Alexander von Humboldt.
- 1811: A collection of observations on zoology and comparative anatomy written with Alexander von Humboldt, Printing JH Stone, Paris. Digital version at the website Gallica.
- 1813: Description of rare plants grown at Malmaison and Navarre by Aimé Bonpland. Printing P. The elder Didot, Paris. By Aimé Bonpland dedicated to the Empress Joséphine. Digital version at the website Botanicus, and Digital version of the illustrations at the website of the Bibliothèque interuniversitaire de santé (Interuniversity Library of Health).
- 1815: Nova plantarum genera and species written with Alexander von Humboldt and Karl Sigismund Kunth, Volume 1, Lutetiae Parisiorum, Paris. Digital version at the website Botanicus.
- 1816: Monograph Melastomacées including all plants of this order including Rhexies, Volume 1, Paris.
- 1817: Nova plantarum genera and species written with Alexander von Humboldt and Karl Sigismund Kunth, Volume 2, Lutetiae Parisiorum, Paris. Digital version at the website Botanicus.
- 1818: Nova plantarum genera and species written with Alexander von Humboldt and Karl Sigismund Kunth, Volume 3, Lutetiae Parisiorum, Paris. Digital version at the website Botanicus.
- 1820: Nova plantarum genera and species written with Alexander von Humboldt and Karl Sigismund Kunth, Volume 4, Lutetiae Parisiorum, Paris. Digital version at the website Botanicus.
- 1821: Nova plantarum genera and species written with Alexander von Humboldt and Karl Sigismund Kunth, Volume 5, Lutetiae Parisiorum, Paris. Digital version at the website Botanicus.
- 1823: Nova plantarum genera and species written with Alexander von Humboldt and Karl Sigismund Kunth, Volume 6, Lutetiae Parisiorum, Paris. Digital version at the website Botanicus.
- 1823: Monograph Melastomacées including all plants of this order including Rhexies, Volume 2, Paris.
- 1825: Nova plantarum genera and species written with Alexander von Humboldt and Karl Sigismund Kunth, Volume 7, Lutetiae Parisiorum, Paris. Digital version at the website Botanicus.
- Chisholm (1911).
- International Plant Names Index. Bonpl.
- ACAB (1900).
- EB (1878).
- Smith, Charles (2007), "Aimé Jacques Alexandre (Goujaud) Bonpland", Some Biogeographers, Evolutionists, and Ecologists: Chrono-Biographical Sketches.
- Parish register. Paroisse Saint-Barthélémy, La Rochelle. Archives départementales, Charente-Maritime, Archives en ligne.
- AJSA (1858).
- Stephen Bell (2010). A Life in Shadow: Aimé Bonpland in Southern South America, 1817–1858 (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 3. ISBN 9780804774277.
- AC (1879).
- Daum, Andreas (2019). Alexander von Humboldt. Munich: C. H. Beck. pp. 44‒61. ISBN 978-3-406-73436-6.
- Timothy Rooks (12 December 2019). "How Alexander von Humboldt put South America on the map | DW | 12.07.2019". dw.com. Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 3 March 2020. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
- Stephen Bell (2010). A Life in Shadow: Aimé Bonpland in Southern South America, 1817–1858 (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 196. ISBN 9780804774277.
- George Sarton (1943) "Aimé Bonpland (1773–1858)", Isis 34: 385–99, reprinted in George Sarton on the History of Science (1962), Dorothy Stimson editor, Harvard University Press
- Rengger, Johan Rudolf: (1827) Ensayo Historico
- Chavez, Julios Cesar (1942), El Supremo Dictador. (in Spanish)
- Schinini, Aurelio (2013) Aimé Bonpland: Un naturalista francés en Corrientes.
- Albert Schumann (1889), "Rengger, Johann Rudolf", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB) (in German), vol. 28, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 220–222
- Obregón (1999), "Los soportes histórico y científico de la pieza Humboldt & Bonpland, taxidermistas de Ibsen Martínez", Latin American Theatre Review. (in Spanish)
- "Muncipio de Bonpland". Government of Corrientes. Retrieved 2021-05-01.
- Sastre, C (2003). "Alicia Lourteig (1913-2003)". Adansonia. Series 3. 25 (2): 149–150.
- OCLC 5184922
- "Aimé Bonpland, un descubridor científico". Espores: La veu del Botànic (in European Spanish). 2012-01-26. Retrieved 2021-05-01.
Su nombre permanece en una calle de esta ciudad, en una de las cumbres más altas de Venezuela
- "Aimé Bonpland". Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. USGS Astrogeology Research Program.
- "La travesía de Humboldt". ArcGIS (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-05-01.
- Brockie, Bob (2016-07-04). "Adventurers proved how exciting life of a scientist can be". Stuff. Retrieved 2021-05-01.
- Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. Vol. I. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1900. .
- Ripley, George; Dana, Charles A., eds. (1879). The American Cyclopædia. Vol. III. New York: D. Appleton & Co. p. 72. .
- "Misc. Scientific Intelligence: Death of Bonpland", The American Journal of Science and Arts, 2nd Series, Vol. XXVI, No. LXXVII, New Haven: Hayes, November 1858, pp. 301 ff.
- Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 4 (9th ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1878. p. 36. .
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 4 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 213. .
- Works by Aimé Bonpland at Biodiversity Heritage Library
- Works by Aimé Bonpland at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- Works by Aimé Bonpland at Open Library
- Works by Aimé Bonpland at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Aimé Bonpland at Internet Archive
- View biographical information in Australian National Botanic Gardens
- View biographical information on and digitized titles by Aimė Bonpland in Botanicus.org