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Agaricus is a genus of mushrooms containing both edible and poisonous species, with possibly over 300 members worldwide.[2][3] The genus includes the common ("button") mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and the field mushroom (Agaricus campestris), the dominant cultivated mushrooms of the West.

Agaricus
Agaricus campestris.jpg
Agaricus campestris
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Agaricaceae
Genus: Agaricus
L.:Fr. emend Karst.
Type species
Agaricus campestris
L.:Fr.
Synonyms[1]
  • Amanita Dill. ex Boehm. (1760)
  • Fungus Tourn. ex Adans. (1763)
  • Hypophyllum Paulet (1808)
  • Myces Paulet (1808)
  • Agaricus trib. Psalliota Fr. (1821)
  • Pratella (Pers.) Gray (1821)
  • Psalliota (Fr.) P.Kumm. (1871)

Members of Agaricus are characterized by having a fleshy cap or pileus, from the underside of which grow a number of radiating plates or gills on which are produced the naked spores. They are distinguished from other members of their family, Agaricaceae, by their chocolate-brown spores. Members of Agaricus also have a stem or stipe, which elevates it above the object on which the mushroom grows, or substrate, and a partial veil, which protects the developing gills and later forms a ring or annulus on the stalk.

TaxonomyEdit

 
1855 field notes with synonymy of Hypophyllum (quoted literarure) with Omphalia and Agaricus (added handwritten notes).

For many years, members of the genus Agaricus were given the generic name Psalliota, and this can still be seen in older books on mushrooms. All proposals to conserve Agaricus against Psalliota or vice versa have so far been considered superfluous.[4]

Several origins of Agaricus have been proposed. It possibly originates from ancient Sarmatia Europaea, where people Agari, promontory Agarum and a river Agarus were known (all located on the northern shore of Sea of Azov, probably, near modern Berdiansk in Ukraine).[5][6][7] Note also Greek ἀγαρικόν, "a sort of tree fungus" (There has been an Agaricon Adans. genus, treated by Donk in Persoonia 1:180.)

Dok reports Linnaeus' name is devalidated (so the proper author citation apparently is "L. per Fr., 1821") because Agaricus was not linked to Tournefort's name. Linnaeus places both Agaricus Dill. and Amanita Dill. in synonymy, but truly a replacement for Amanita Dill., which would require A. quercinus, not A. campestris be the type. This question is compounded because Fries himself used Agaricus roughly in Linnaeus' sense (which leads to issues with Amanita), and A. campestris was eventually excluded from Agaricus by Karsten and was apparently in Lepiota at the time Donk wrote this, commenting that a type conservation might become necessary.[8]

The alternate name for the genus, Psalliota, derived from the Greek psalion/ψάλιον, "ring", was first published by Fries (1821) as trib. Psalliota. The type is Agaricus campestris (widely accepted, except by Earle, who proposed A. cretaceus). Paul Kummer (not Quélet, who merely excluded Stropharia) was the first to elevate the tribe to a genus. Psalliota was the tribe containing the type of Agaricus, so when separated, it should have caused the rest of the genus to be renamed, but this is not what happened.[9]

PhylogeneticsEdit

The use of phylogenetic analysis to determine evolutionary relationships amongst Agaricus species has increased the understanding of this taxonomically difficult genus, although much work remains to be done to fully delineate infrageneric relationships. Prior to these analyses, the genus Agaricus, as circumscribed by Rolf Singer, was divided into 42 species grouped into five sections based on reactions of mushroom tissue to air or various chemical reagents, as well as subtle differences in mushroom morphology.[10] Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis demonstrated this classification scheme needed revision.[11]

SectionsEdit

This genus is divided into several sections:

Contains 19 species in six subgroups similar to the horse mushroom, A. arvensis, it has versatile heterothallic life cycles.[12]
Outlined by Singer in 1948, this section includes species with various characteristics similar to the type species A. xanthodermus.[13] The section forms a single clade based on analysis of ITS1+2.[14]
Based on DNA analysis of ITS1, ITS2, and 5.8S sequences, this section (also known as section Hortenses) may be divided into six distinct clades, five of which correspond to well-known species from the temperate Northern Hemisphere: A. bisporus, A. subfloccosus, A. bitorquis, A. vaporarius and A. cupressicola. The sixth clade comprises the species complex A. devoniensis.[15]

List of speciesEdit

The fungal genus Agaricus contains about 200 species worldwide.[16]

 
Common button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus
 
Field mushroom, Agaricus campestris
 
The wine-colored Agaricus, Agaricus subrutilescens
 
Yellow stainer, Agaricus xanthodermus

Echigoshirayukidake (Basidiomycetes-X) is also thought to be in Agaricus, either as a subspecies of Agaricus blazei[46] or a new species.[47]

ReferencesEdit

EdibilityEdit

The genus contains the most widely consumed and best-known mushroom today, A. bisporus, with A. campestris also being well known. The most notable inedible species is the yellow-staining mushroom, A. xanthodermus.[citation needed] All three are found worldwide.

One species reported from Africa, A. aurantioviolaceus, is reportedly deadly poisonous.[48]

See alsoEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ "Synonymy: Agaricus L., Sp. pl. 2: 1171 (1753)". Index Fungorum. CAB International. Retrieved 2013-08-29.
  2. ^ Bas C. (1991). A short introduction to the ecology, taxonomy and nomenclature of the genus Agaricus, 21–24. In L.J.L.D. Van Griensven (ed.), Genetics and breeding of Agaricus. Pudoc, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
  3. ^ Capelli A. (1984). Agaricus. L.: Fr. (Psalliota Fr.). Liberia editrice Bella Giovanna, Saronno, Italy
  4. ^ Wakesfield E. (1940). "Nomina genérica conservando. Contributions from the Nomenclature Committee of the British Mycological Society, III". Transactions of the British Mycological Society. 24 (3–4): 282–293. doi:10.1016/s0007-1536(40)80028-4.
  5. ^ Rolfe R. T., Rolfe F. W. (1874). "The derivation of fungus names". The Romance of the Fungus World. Courier Corporation. pp. 292–293. ISBN 9780486231051.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  6. ^ R. Talbert, ed. (2000). "Map 84. Maeotis". Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton University Press.
  7. ^ W. Smith, ed. (1854). "Agari". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. Vol.I. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company. p. 72. (on Google Books, on archive.org)
  8. ^ Donk, M.A. (1962). "The generic names proposed for Agaricaceae". Beiheifte zur Nova Hedwigia. 5: 1–320. ISSN 0078-2238.
  9. ^ Donk, M.A. (1962). "The generic names proposed for Agaricaceae". Beiheifte zur Nova Hedwigia 5: 1–320. ISSN 0078-2238
  10. ^ Singer, Rolf (1987). Agaricales in Modern Taxonomy. Lubrecht & Cramer Ltd. ISBN 978-3-7682-0143-8.
  11. ^ Bunyard BA, Nicholson MS, Royse DJ (December 1996). "Phylogeny of the genus Agaricus inferred from restriction analysis of enzymatically amplified ribosomal DNA". Fungal Genet Biol. 20 (4): 243–53. doi:10.1006/fgbi.1996.0039. PMID 9045755.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  12. ^ Calvo-Bado L, Noble R, Challen M, Dobrovin-Pennington A, Elliott T (February 2000). "Sexuality and Genetic Identity in the Agaricus Section Arvenses". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66 (2): 728–34. doi:10.1128/AEM.66.2.728-734.2000. PMC 91888. PMID 10653743.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  13. ^ Singer R (1948). "Diagnoses Fungorum Novorum Agaricalium". Sydowia. 2: 26–42.
  14. ^ Kerrigan RW, Callac P, Guinberteau J, Challen MP, Parra LA (2005). "Agaricus section Xanthodermatei: a phylogenetic reconstruction with commentary on taxa". Mycologia. 97 (6): 1292–315. doi:10.3852/mycologia.97.6.1292. PMID 16722221.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  15. ^ Challen MP, Kerrigan RW, Callac P (2003). "A phylogenetic reconstruction and emendation of Agaricus section Duploannulatae". Mycologia. 95 (1): 61–73. doi:10.2307/3761962. JSTOR 3761962. PMID 21156589.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  16. ^ Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi (10th ed.). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-85199-826-8.
  17. ^ a b c d Kerrigan RW, Callac P, Parra LA (2008). "New and rare taxa in Agaricus section Bivelares (Duploannulati)". Mycologia. 100 (6): 876–92. doi:10.3852/08-019. PMID 19202842.
  18. ^ He, Mao-Qiang; Chuankid, Boontiya; Hyde, Kevin D.; Cheewangkoon, Ratchadawan; Zhao, Rui-Lin (2018). "A new section and species of Agaricus subgenus Pseudochitonia from Thailand". MycoKeys. 40 (40): 53–67. doi:10.3897/mycokeys.40.26918. PMC 6160818. PMID 30271264.
  19. ^ a b Pilát A. (1951). The Bohemian species of the genus Agaricus. Prague, 142 pp.
  20. ^ a b Murrill WA (1922). "Dark-spored agarics: III. Agaricus". Mycologia. 14 (4): 200–221. doi:10.2307/3753642. JSTOR 3753642.
  21. ^ (1899). Spegazzini C. (1899). Fungi argentini novi vel critici. Anales Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires 24: 167–186.
  22. ^ Geml J, Geiser DM, Royse DJ (2004). "Molecular evolution of Agaricus species based on ITS and LSU rDNA sequences". Mycological Progress. 3 (2): 157–76. doi:10.1007/s11557-006-0086-8.
  23. ^ Parra LA, Mua A, Cappelli A, Callac P (2012). "Agaricus biannulatus sp. nov., una nuova specie della sezione Xanthodermatei raccolta in Sardegna e Sicilia". Micologia e Vegetazione Mediterranea (in Italian). 26 (1): 3–30.
  24. ^ a b Thongklang N, Nawaz R, Khalid AN, Chen J, Hyde KD, Zhao R, Parra LA, Hanif M, Moinard M, Callac P (2014). "Morphological and molecular characterization of three Agaricus species from tropical Asia (Pakistan, Thailand) reveals a new group in section Xanthodermatei". Mycologia. 106 (6): 1220–32. doi:10.3852/14-076. PMID 25152000.
  25. ^ Parra LA (2005). "Nomenclatural study of the genus Agaricus L. (Agaricales, Basidiomycotina) of the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands". Cuadernos de Trabajo Flora Micológica Ibérica. 21: 3–101.
  26. ^ Parra LA, Muñoz G, Callac P (2014). "Agaricus caballeroi sp. nov., una nueva especie de la sección Nigrobrunnescentes recolectada en España". Micologia e Vegetazione Mediterranea (in Spanish). 29 (1): 21–38.
  27. ^ Peck CH (1895). "New species of Fungi". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 22 (5): 198–211. doi:10.2307/2478162. JSTOR 2478162.
  28. ^ a b Geml J, Laursen GA, Nusbaum HC, Taylor DL (2007). "Two new species of Agaricus from the subantarctic". Mycotaxon. 100: 193–208.
  29. ^ a b c d e Lebel T, Syme A (2011). "Sequestrate species of Agaricus and Macrolepiota from Australia: new species and combinations, and their position in a calibrated phylogeny". Mycologia. 104 (2): 496–520. doi:10.3852/11-092. PMID 22067305.
  30. ^ a b Lebel T. (2013). "Two new species of sequestrate Agaricus (section Minores) from Australia". Mycological Progress. 12 (4): 699–707. doi:10.1007/s11557-012-0879-x.
  31. ^ Bates ST, Chapman RM, Islam MB, Schwabe A, Wardenaar ECP, Evenson VS (2016). "Phylogenetic placement of the secotioid fungus Araneosa columellata within Agaricus". Mycotaxon. 131 (1): 103–110. doi:10.5248/131.103.
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  33. ^ Blanco-Dios JB. (2001). "Agaricales des dunes de Galice (nord-ouest de l'Espagne). 1. Agaricus freirei Blanco-Dios, sp. nov". Documents Mycologiques (in French). 31 (127): 27–34.
  34. ^ Parra LA, Arrillaga P (2002). "Agaricus laskibarii. A new species from French coastal sand-dunes of Seignosse". Doc Mycol. 31 (124): 33–38.
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  36. ^ Nauta MM (1999). "The Mycoflora of the Falkland Islands: II. Notes on the genus Agaricus". Kew Bulletin. 54 (3): 621–635. doi:10.2307/4110859. JSTOR 4110859.
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  39. ^ a b Callac P, Guinberteau J (2005). "Morphological and molecular characterization of two novel species of Agaricus section Xanthodermatei". Mycologia. 97 (2): 416–24. doi:10.3852/mycologia.97.2.416. PMID 16396349.
  40. ^ Raithelhuber J (1986). "Nomina nova". Metrodiana. 14: 22.
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  43. ^ Singer R, Moser M (1965). "Forest mycology and forest communities in South America". Mycopathol. Mycol. Appl. 26 (2–3): 129–191. doi:10.1007/BF02049773.
  44. ^ Heinemann P (1986). "Agarici Austroamericani VI. Apernu sur les Agaricus de Patagonie et de la Terre de Feu". Bull. Jard. Bot. Belg. 56 (3/4): 417–446. doi:10.2307/3668202. JSTOR 3668202.
  45. ^ Gerault A. (2005). Florule evolutive des basidiomycotina du Finistere – Homobasidiomycetes – Agaricales: 22.
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External linksEdit