|Regions with significant populations|
|North African parts of the Arab world, Swahili Coast|
|Arabic, Berber languages, Teda language, Comorian, Swahili|
|Related ethnic groups|
Afro-Arab communities were founded in the Nile Valley, as Arabs conquered these lands and arabised the local Nilotic people. Most Afro-Arabs in the Sudans were mainly of Nilotic and Bantu origins, influenced by the old Arabian civilization in language and culture only.
In the Maghreb region of North Africa, the black Tuareg can be found, they are Arabised to a great extent and they are another group of Afro-Arabs who are of black Berber origin. Moreover, the Toubou people are a further group of Black Negroes who have adopted Islam and who have adopted Arab culture in the Arab countries that they live in, like Libya and Sudan.
By around the 10th century CE, Arabs had established commercial settlements on the Swahili Coast. The Portuguese conquered these trading centers after the discovery of the Cape Road. From the 1700s to the early 1800s, Muslim forces of the Sultanate of Muscat reseized these market towns, especially on the islands of Pemba and Zanzibar. In these territories, the Oman Arabs helped convert the local "negro" populations to Islam, the Negro populations thereby established Afro-Arab communities. They adopted the culture of the Arabs to a great extent and almost all of them converted to Islam
In the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, descendants of people from the Swahili Coast perform traditional Liwa and Fann At-Tanbura music and dance. The mizmar is also performed by Afro-Arabs in the Tihamah and Hejaz regions of Saudi Arabia. The ancestors of these Negros were originally brought to the Arabian Gulf as slaves. But today they are fully recognised citizens of the Persian Gulf States, even if they do not have any Arab ancestry.
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- Gunnar M Ahmad Abdel Ghaffar Muhammad Chr Michelsens Institutt (2013). Sudan Divided: Continuing Conflict in a Contested State. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 90. ISBN 1137338245. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
- Mazrui 2014, p. 77
- Guarak 2011, pp. 7, 401.
- Hinde 1897, p. 2.
- Poul Rovsing Olsen, "La Musique Africaine dans le Golfe Persique", Journal of the International Folk Music Council, Vol. 19, (1967), pp. 28-36
- Guarak, Mawut Achiecque Mach (2011). Integration and Fragmentation of the Sudan: An African Renaissance. AuthorHouse. ISBN 9781456723569.
- Hinde, Sidney Langford (1897). The Fall of the Congo Arabs. London: Methuen & Co.
- Mazrui, Alamin M.; Mutunga, Willy, eds. (2004). Debating the African Condition: Race, gender, and culture conflict (illustrated ed.). Africa World Press. ISBN 9781592211456.
- Mazrui, Ali A. (2014). The Politics of Gender and the Culture of Sexuality: Western, Islamic, and African Perspectives. University Press of America. ISBN 9780761864035.
- Arab Slave Trade Afo-Arab relations and the Arab Slave Trade
- "Black Africans in (Arab) West Asia" - a cited ColorQ.org essay
- Prof. Helmi Sharawy, Arab Culture and African Culture: ambiguous relations, paper extracted from the book The Dialogue between the Arab culture and other cultures', Arab League, Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organisation (ALECSO), Tunis, 1999.
- Resolution on Afro-arab Co-operation of The Council of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity, 23, February 23–28, 1987.
- African Union/league of Arab States Inter-secretariat Consultative Meeting On Afro-arab Cooperation, Addis Ababa: 10–12 May 2005.
- Maho M. Sebiane, « Le statut socio-économique de la pratique musicale aux Émirats arabes unis : la tradition du leiwah à Dubai », Chroniques yéménites, 14, 2007.[permanent dead link].
- Afro-Arabian origins of the Early Yemenites and their Conquest and Settlement of Spain