The African diaspora in the Americas refers to the people born in the Americas with partial, predominantly, or completely African ancestry. Many are descendants of persons enslaved in Africa and transferred to the Americas by Europeans, then forced to work mostly in European-owned mines and plantations, between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries.
|Regions with significant populations|
|Throughout the Americas|
|Brazil||96,795,294 (14,517,961 black only; 82,277,333 Pardos)|
|United States||46,936,733 (2020)|
14.2% of the total U.S. population (2020)
41,104,200 (2020) (one race)
12.4% of the total U.S. population (2020)
|Ecuador||1,200,000[permanent dead link]|
|Puerto Rico||285,874, including multiracial|
|Trinidad and Tobago||452,536|
|English, Portuguese, Spanish, French, Haitian Creole, Papiamento, Dutch, English creole, African languages and many others|
|Christianity, Rastafari, Afro-American religions, Traditional African religions, Islam, others|
|Related ethnic groups|
|African diaspora, Maroons|
After the United States achieved independence, next came the independence of Haiti, a country populated almost entirely by people of African descent and the second American colony to win its independence from European colonial powers. After the process of independence, many countries have encouraged European immigration to America, thus reducing the proportion of black and mulatto population throughout the country: Brazil, the United States, and the Dominican Republic. Miscegenation and more flexible concepts of race have also reduced the overall population identifying as black in Latin America, whereas the one-drop rule in the United States has had the opposite effect.
From 21 to 25 November 1995, the Continental Congress of Black Peoples of the Americas was held. Black people still face discrimination in most parts of the continent. According to David D.E. Ferrari, vice president of the World Bank for the Region of Latin America and the Caribbean, black people have lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, more frequent and more widespread diseases, higher rates of illiteracy and lower income than Americans of different ethnic origin. Women, also the subjects of gender discrimination, suffer worse living conditions.
In Brazil, with 6.9% of phenotypically Black population and 43.8% of pardo (mestizo), poverty is common. It is nevertheless important to note that the´Pardo category includes all mulattoes, zambos and the result of their intermixing with other groups (which is sufficiently Subsaharan-looking to be negro and not sufficiently European-looking or Levantine-looking to be branco), but it is majority of African descent, with most White Brazilians having at least one recent African and/or Native American ancestor and Pardos also being caboclos, descendants of Whites and Amerindians, or mestizos. There are more definitions of the differences and social disparity between blacks and "non-white orpardo" than whites in Brazil in the Black people article section.
According to various studies, the main genetic contribution to Brazilians is African (always above 65%, and an American study found it as high as 77%), and Pardos possess a higher degree of African descent when compared to the general White Brazilian and African-Brazilian populations (the previous mostly with some detectable non-white ancestor and the latter highly miscegenated) and exhibit a greater Amerindian contribution in areas such as the Amazon Basin and a stronger African contribution in the areas of historical slavery such as Southeastern Brazil and coastal Northeastern cities, nevertheless both are present in all regions, and that physical features did much correlate with detectable ancestry in many instances.
On November 4, 2008, the first mulatto U.S. president, Barack Obama, won 52% of the vote, following positive results in states that had traditionally been won by Republican presidents, such as Indiana and Virginia.
|Country||Percentage of population|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||93%|
|Turks and Caicos||90%|
|Antigua and Barbuda||90%|
|Vincent and the Grenadines||66%|
|Trinidad and Tobago||34.2%|
Notable people of African descent in the AmericasEdit
- Kareem Abdul-Jabbar – American basketball player
- Archie Alleyne – Canadian musician
- Deandre Ayton – Bahamian basketball player
- Ronald Acuna Jr. – Venezuelan baseball player
- Ozzie Albies – Curaçaoan baseball player
- Laz Alonso – Cuban actor
- Edem Awumey – Canadian writer
- Susana Baca – Peruvian musician
- Leandro Barbosa – Brazilian basketball player
- Charles Barkley – American basketball player
- RJ Barrett – Canadian basketball player
- Abelardo Barroso – Cuban singer
- Mario Bazán – Peruvian athlete
- DaMarcus Beasley – American football player
- Jean Beausejour – Chilean football player
- Adrián Beltré - Dominican baseball player
- Halle Berry – American actress
- Beyoncé – American singer
- Usain Bolt – Jamaican sprinter
- Cory Booker – American politician
- E. R. Braithwaite – Guyanese writer, educator and diplomat
- Melvin Brown – Mexican football player
- Rudel Calero – Nicaraguan football player
- Mariah Carey – American singer
- Ramiro Castillo – Bolivian football player
- Aimé Césaire – Martinican author, philosopher and politician
- Bill Cosby – American actor and comedian
- Celia Cruz – Cuban singer
- Teófilo Cubillas – Peruvian football player
- Stephen Curry – American basketball player
- Edwidge Danticat – Haitian-American author
- Oscar D'León – Venezuelan musician
- Giovani dos Santos – Mexican football player
- Drake – Canadian rapper
- Tim Duncan – American basketball player
- Kevin Durant – American basketball player
- Giovanny Espinoza – Ecuadorian football player
- Patrick Ewing – Jamaican basketball player
- Frantz Fanon – Martinican philosopher and Pan-Africanist
- Jefferson Farfán – Peruvian football player
- Marcus Garvey – Jamaican Pan-Africanist
- Juan José Nieto Gil – Colombian president
- Edray H. Goins – African American president of the National Association of Mathematicians (NAM)
- Eddy Grant – Guyanese pop and reggae music star
- Kevin Hanchard – Canadian actor
- Devern Hansack – Nicaraguan baseball pitcher
- James Harden – American basketball player
- Kamala Harris – American politician, Vice President of the United States
- Wilson Harris – Guyanese writer
- Buddy Hield – Bahamian basketball player
- Kyrie Irving – American basketball player
- Michael Jackson – American singer
- Janet Jackson – American singer
- Lamar Jackson - American football player
- C. L. R. James – Trinidadian historian and academic
- LeBron James – American basketball player
- Wyclef Jean – Haitian musician
- Dwayne Johnson – American actor and wrestler
- Magic Johnson – American basketball player
- Michael Jordan – American basketball player
- Colin Kaepernick – American civil rights activist and American football player
- Martin Luther King Jr. – American civil rights activist
- Don Lemon – American journalist
- Mia Love – American politician
- Malcolm X – American human rights activist
- Bob Marley – Jamaican reggae musician
- Jackson Martínez – Colombian football player
- Margareth Menezes – Brazilian singer
- Zezé Motta – Brazilian actress
- Morella Muñoz – Venezuelan singer
- Anthony Nesty - Surinamese swimmer
- Lupita Nyong'o – Mexican actress
- Barack Obama – American politician, first black president of the United States
- Michelle Obama – American politician, former First Lady of the United States
- Shaquille O'Neal – American basketball player
- David Ortiz – Dominican baseball player
- Deval Patrick – American politician
- Chris Paul – American basketball player
- Carlos Posadas – Argentine musician
- Álex Quiñónez – Ecuadorian Olympic sprinter
- Rubén Rada – Uruguayan singer
- Lionel Richie – American singer
- Robinho – Brazilian football player
- Walter Rodney – Guyanese historian and political activist
- Arturo Rodríguez – Argentine boxer
- Bill Russell – American basketball player
- Carlos Andrés Sánchez – Uruguayan football player
- Pablo Sandoval – Venezuelan athlete
- Tupac Shakur – American rapper
- Cayetano Alberto Silva – Uruguayan musician
- Will Smith – American actor and singer
- Domingo Sosa – Argentine soldier
- Sloane Stephens – American tennis player
- María Isabel Urrutia – Colombian athlete
- Bebo Valdés – Cuban pianist
- Elcina Valencia – Colombian teacher
- Dwyane Wade – American basketball player
- Derek Walcott – Saint Lucian poet, playwright and the 1992 Nobel Prize Literature Winner
- Denzel Washington – American actor
- The Weeknd – Canadian singer
- Kanye West – American singer
- Russell Westbrook – American basketball player
- Andrew Wiggins – Canadian basketball player
- Eric Eustace Williams – Trinidad and Tobago's first Prime Minister
- Serena Williams – American tennis player
- Zion Williamson – American basketball player
- Russell Wilson – American football player
- Tiger Woods – American golfer
- Ethnic domination and racist discourse in Spain and Latin America. Dijk, Teun A. van. van. Gedisa Editorial SA ISBN 84-7432-997-3
- Gender, class and race in Latin America: some contributions. Luna, Lola G. Ed PPU, SA ISBN 84-7665-959-8
- Gender, race and class "color" desensientes Latinas. Impoexports, Colombia, Yumbo
- "Tabela 1.3.1 – População residente, por cor ou raça, segundo o sexo e os grupos de idade – Brasil – 2010" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Retrieved 2015-07-28.
- https://census.gov/library/visualizations/interactive/race-and-ethnicity-in-the-united-state-2010-and-2020-census.html. 2020 U.S. Census
- "US Census Bureau" (PDF). Census.gov. Retrieved 2013-10-02.
- "Información general: Haití" [General information: Haiti] (in Spanish). Spanish.state.gov. April 2002. Archived from the original on 2016-01-29. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
- "Visibilidad Estadistica Etnicos" (PDF). Censo General 2005 (in Spanish). Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica (DANE). Retrieved 15 June 2013.
- "Jamaica - People".
- "Principales resultados de la Encuesta Intercensal 2015 Estados Unidos Mexicanos" (PDF). INEGI. p. 77. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 December 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
- Census Profile, 2016 Census Statistics Canada. Accessed on November 6, 2017.
- "Resultados Basicos : Censo 2011" (PDF). Ine.gov.ve. Retrieved 2015-07-28.
- "En Cuba: resumen de resultados definitivos del Censo de Población y Viviendas 2012" [Cuba: Summary of final results of the Census of Population and Housing 2012] (in Spanish). Radioprogreso.cu. 8 November 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
- Moya Pons, Frank (2010). Historia de la República Dominicana (in Spanish). 2. Editorial CSIC. ISBN 978-84-00-09240-5. Retrieved 2015-07-28.
- "Perú: Perfil Sociodemográfico" (PDF). Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. p. 216.
- "Panamá: Cultura y Etnias". Embassy of the Republic of Panama to the United Spain. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
-  Accessed 11 November 2021.
- "Trinidad and Tobago 2011 population and housing census demographic report" (PDF). Central Statistical Office. 30 November 2012. p. 94. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-10-19. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
- "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. 22 September 2021.
- "Censusstatistieken 2012" (PDF). Algemeen Bureau voor de Statistiek in Suriname (General Statistics Bureau of Suriname). p. 76.
- "Cuadro P42. Total del país. Población afrodescendiente en viviendas particulares por sexo, según grupo de edad. Año 2010" [Table P42. Total for the country. African-descendant population in private households by sex, according to age group, 2010]. INDEC (in Spanish). Archived from the original (XLS) on 29 October 2013.
- "Cuadro P43. Total del país. Población afrodescendiente en viviendas particulares por sexo, según lugar de nacimiento. Año 2010" [Table P43. Total for the country. African-descendant population in private homes by sex, according to place of birth, 2010]. INDEC (in Spanish). Archived from the original (XLS) on 18 April 2014.
- "Grenada". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Retrieved 2012-03-19.
- Daniel, G. Reginald. Race and Multiraciality in Brazil and the United States: Converging Paths?. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press. 2006. ISBN 0-271-02883-1
- NMO O impacto das migrações na constituição genética de populações latino-americanas. PhD Thesis, Universidade de Brasília (2008).
- Pena, Sérgio D. J.; Di Pietro, Giuliano; Fuchshuber-Moraes, Mateus; Genro, Julia Pasqualini; Hutz, Mara H.; Kehdy, Fernanda de Souza Gomes; Kohlrausch, Fabiana; Magno, Luiz Alexandre Viana; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; Moraes, Manoel Odorico; de Moraes, Maria Elisabete Amaral; de Moraes, Milene Raiol; Ojopi, Élida B.; Perini, Jamila A.; Racciopi, Clarice; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea Kely Campos; Rios-Santos, Fabrício; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Sortica, Vinicius A.; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme (2011). Harpending, Henry (ed.). "The Genomic Ancestry of Individuals from Different Geographical Regions of Brazil is More Uniform Than Expected". PLoS ONE. 6 (2): e17063. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...617063P. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017063. PMC 3040205. PMID 21359226.
- (in Portuguese) Nossa herança europeia — Archived 2012-01-30 at the Wayback Machine. Cienciahoje.uol.com.br. Retrieved on 2012-05-19.
- Lins, T. C.; Vieira, R. G.; Abreu, B. S.; Grattapaglia, D.; Pereira, R. W. (March–April 2009). "Genetic composition of Brazilian population samples based on a set of twenty-eight ancestry informative SNPs". American Journal of Human Biology. 22 (2): 187–192. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20976. PMID 19639555. S2CID 205301927.
- Folha Online – Ciência – DNA de brasileiro é 80% europeu, indica estudo. .folha.uol.com.br (2009-10-05). Retrieved on 2012-05-19.
- De Assis Poiares, Lilian; De Sá Osorio, Paulo; Spanhol, Fábio Alexandre; Coltre, Sidnei César; Rodenbusch, Rodrigo; Gusmão, Leonor; Largura, Alvaro; Sandrini, Fabiano; Da Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles (2009). "Allele frequencies of 15 STRs in a representative sample of the Brazilian population" (PDF). Forensic Science International: Genetics. 4 (2): e61-3. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2009.05.006. PMID 20129458. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 April 2011.
- Bethel, Camille (February 2013). "Census: Mixed population on the rise | Trinidad Express Newspaper | News". Trinidadexpress.com. Archived from the original on 2013-11-04. Retrieved 2013-11-26.
- "CIA – The World Factbook – Dominican Republic". Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Retrieved 2007-06-04.
- Central Intelligence Agency (2011). "Costa Rica". The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
- "Ethnic Groups by Country (%)". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 2015-08-02.