African diaspora

  (Redirected from African Immigrant)

The African diaspora consists of the worldwide collection of communities descended from native sub-Saharan Africans or people from sub-Saharan Africa, predominantly in the Americas. The diaspora has continued for millennia, but historically,[when?] ethnographers, historians, politicians and writers have used the term particularly to refer to the descendants of the West and Central Africans who were enslaved and shipped to the Americas via the Atlantic slave trade between the 16th and 19th centuries, with their largest populations in Brazil, the United States and Haiti.[31][32] Some[quantify] scholars identify "four circulatory phases" of this migration out of Africa.[33] The phrase African diaspora gradually entered common usage at the turn of the 21st century.[34] The term diaspora originates from the Greek διασπορά (diaspora, literally "scattering") which gained popularity in English in reference to the Jewish diaspora before being more broadly applied to other populations.[35]

African Diaspora
Total population
c. 210 million[1][2][3][4][5]
Regions with significant populations
 United States46,350,467 including mixed people[9]
 Colombia4,944,400, including mixed people[11][12][13]
 FranceApproximately 3.3–5.5 million (5–8% of the French population)
 United Kingdom1,904,684 [14]
 Dominican Republic1,138,471 [17][18]
 Trinidad and Tobago452,536[22]
 Puerto Rico395,444[23] (est. 2020)
 Romania145,600[citation needed]
Lingua franca: English (American and Caribbean), French (Canadian and Haitian), Haitian Creole, Spanish, Portuguese, Papiamento, and Dutch
Christianity, Islam, Traditional African religions, Afro-American religions

Less commonly, the term has been used in scholarship to refer to more recent emigration from sub-Saharan Africa.[36] The African Union (AU) defines the African diaspora as consisting: "of people of native African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union". Its constitutive act declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union".[37]


18th-century painting showing a family of free Africans.

Dispersal through slave tradeEdit

Much of the African diaspora became dispersed throughout the Americas, Europe, and Asia during the Atlantic and Arab slave trades. Beginning in the 8th century, Arabs took African slaves from the central and eastern portions of the African continent (where they were known as the Zanj) and sold them into markets in the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent, and the Far East. Beginning in the 15th century, Europeans captured or bought African slaves from West Africa and brought them to the Americas and to Europe. The Atlantic Slave Trade ended in the 19th century, and the Arab Slave Trade ended in the middle of the 20th century[38] (although pockets of slavery still exist into the 21st century, such as the Haratin in Mauritania). The dispersal through slave trading represents the largest forced migrations in human history. The economic effect on the African continent proved devastating, as generations of young people were taken from their communities and societies were disrupted. Some communities formed by descendants of African slaves in the Americas, Europe, and Asia have survived to the present day. In other cases, blacks intermarried with non-blacks, and their descendants blended into the local population.

In the Americas, the confluence of multiple ethnic groups from around the world contributed to multi-ethnic societies. In Central and South America, most people are descended from European, Amerindian, and African ancestry. In Brazil, where in 1888 nearly half the population descended from African slaves, the variation of physical characteristics extends across a broad range. In the United States, there was historically a greater European colonial population in relation to African slaves, especially in the Northern Tier. There was considerable racial intermarriage in colonial Virginia, and other forms of racial mixing during the slavery and post-Civil War years. Jim Crow and anti-miscegenation laws passed after the 1863–1877 Reconstruction era in the South in the late-19th century, plus waves of vastly increased immigration from Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries, maintained much distinction between racial groups. In the early-20th century, to institutionalize racial segregation, most southern states adopted the "one drop rule", which defined and recorded anyone with any discernible African ancestry as "black", even those of obvious majority-white or of majority-Native-American ancestry.[39] One of the results of this implementation was the loss of records of Native-identified groups, who were classified only as black because of being mixed-race.[citation needed]

Dispersal through voluntary migrationEdit

See Emigration from Africa for a general treatment of voluntary population movements since the late 20th century.

From the very onset of Spanish exploration and colonial activities in the Americas, Africans participated both as voluntary expeditionaries and as slave laborers.[32][40] Juan Garrido was such an African conquistador. He crossed the Atlantic as a freedman in the 1510s and participated in the siege of Tenochtitlan.[41] Africans had been present in Asia and Europe long before Columbus's travels. Beginning in the late 20th century, Africans began to emigrate to Europe and the Americas in increasing numbers, constituting new African diaspora communities not directly connected with the slave trade.[citation needed]

Concepts and definitionsEdit

The African Union defined the African diaspora as "[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union." Its constitutive act declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union."

The AU considers the African diaspora as its sixth region.[42]

Between 1500 and 1900, approximately four million enslaved Africans were transported to island plantations in the Indian Ocean, about eight million were shipped to Mediterranean-area countries, and about eleven million survived the Middle Passage to the New World.[43] Their descendants are now found around the globe, but because of intermarriage they are not necessarily readily identifiable.

Social and politicalEdit

20th-century American philosopher and sociologist W. E. B. Du Bois wrote extensively on the black experience in his homeland and abroad; he spent the last two years of his life in the newly independent Ghana and got citizenship there.

Many scholars have challenged conventional views of the African diaspora as a mere dispersion of black people. For them, it is a movement of liberation that opposes the implications of racialization. Their position assumes that Africans and their descendants abroad struggle to reclaim power over their lives through voluntary migration, cultural production and political conceptions and practices. It also implies the presence of cultures of resistance with similar objectives throughout the global diaspora. Thinkers like W. E. B. Dubois and more recently Robin Kelley, for example, have argued that black politics of survival reveal more about the meaning of the African diaspora than labels of ethnicity and race, and degrees of skin hue. From this view, the daily struggle against what they call the "world-historical processes" of racial colonization, capitalism, and Western domination defines blacks' links to Africa.[44]

African diaspora and modernityEdit

In the last decades, studies on the African diaspora have shown an interest in the roles that blacks played in bringing about modernity. This trend also opposes the traditional eurocentric perspective that has dominated history books showing Africans and its diasporans as primitive victims of slavery, and without historical agency. According to historian Patrick Manning, blacks toiled at the center of forces that created the modern world. Paul Gilroy describes the suppression of blackness due to imagined and created ideals of nations as "cultural insiderism." Cultural insiderism is used by nations to separate deserving and undeserving groups[45] and requires a "sense of ethnic difference" as mentioned in his book The Black Atlantic. Recognizing their contributions offers a comprehensive appreciation of global history.[46]

Richard Iton's view of diasporaEdit

The late cultural and political theorist Richard Iton suggested that diaspora be understood as a "culture of dislocation." For Iton, the traditional approach to the African diaspora focuses on the ruptures associated with the Atlantic slave trade and Middle Passage, notions of dispersal, and "the cycle of retaining, redeeming, refusing, and retrieving 'Africa.'"[47]:199 This conventional framework for analyzing the diaspora is dangerous, according to Iton, because it presumes that diaspora exists outside of Africa, thus simultaneously disowning and desiring Africa. Further, Iton suggests a new starting principle for the use of diaspora: "the impossibility of settlement that correlates throughout the modern period with the cluster of disturbances that trouble not only the physically dispersed but those moved without traveling."[47]:199–200 Iton adds that this impossibility of settlement—this "modern matrix of strange spaces—outside the state but within the empire,"—renders notions of black citizenship fanciful, and in fact, "undesirable." Iton argues that we citizenship, a state of statelessness thereby deconstructing colonial sites and narratives in an effort to "de-link geography and power," putting "all space into play" (emphasis added)[47]:199–200 For Iton, diaspora's potential is represented by a "rediscursive albeit agonistic field of play that might denaturalize the hegemonic representations of modernity as unencumbered and self-generating and bring into clear view its repressed, colonial subscript".[47]:201

Diaspora citizenshipEdit

In the eighth chapter of her book Rihanna Barbados World-Gurl in Global Popular Culture Heather Russell describes diasporic citizenship as an identity where you “simultaneously negotiate the entailments of civic responsibility, public discourse, nostalgia, nationhood, belonging and migration, transnational cultural affiliations and shifting/fluid subject positionalities across material and symbolic boundaries”[48] Musical artists are prime figures to be appraised with this theory due to their acclaim bringing them public discourse and their music bringing cultural affiliations. As such, for musicians who reach this level of transnational stardom and music production, they have to balance their relationship to their identity and their home with the transnational populations they engage with through their music, performance and public image.

Robyn Rihanna Fenty is a global superstar whose music transcends national borders and as such is a perfect case for the diaspora citizen framework. She is one of the few black women to achieve this level of global success and gain diasporic citizenship that forces her to balance her identities with her relationship to her diverse viewership.[48] While Rihanna is by no means the first artist, or even the first black female artist to reach this level of stardom, unlike her peers her diasporic citizenship is characterized by her Caribbean identity. In her book, Russel further describes Rihanna's diasporic citizenship by saying:

“Rihanna must navigate inevitably conflicting, contesting and reinforcing sites of national and transnational belongings. In other words, she is a Barbadian citizen shining in a US-global sphere within which most citizens can hardly find Barbados on the map. She is a hugely commercially successful artist operating in a popular-cultural market dictated by US global musical tastes. At the same time, Rihanna is Barbados's honorary ambassador of youth and culture and has signed a multi-year deal to promote Barbados for the Barbados Tourism Authority. Moreover, local discussions surrounding Barbadian national pride, Victorian notions of female propriety and Christian ideas about decency which Rihanna's emergence and ascendancy have provoked, continue to capture the Barbadian public's imaginations and dominate the opinions expressed in their newspaper columns and call-in programmes”[48]

The diaspora citizen theory allows us to better understand the complexities associated with stars like Rihanna whose cultural influence has transcended national borders and created a complex relationship between the artist and the various cultural regions they are associated with.

Populations and estimated distributionEdit

African diaspora populations include but are not limited to:

Continent or region Country population Afro-descendants [50] African and African-mixed population
Caribbean 41,309,327 67% 27,654,061
Haiti 10,646,714 95% 10,114,378 + 532,335
Dominican Republic[51][52] 10,090,000 84% (72.9% Mixed + 11% Black) 1,109,900 + 7,365,700
Cuba[53] 11,116,396 35.9% 1,003,825 + 2,956,961
Jamaica[54] 2,812,090 92.1% 2,663,614 + 176,417
Trinidad and Tobago[55] 1,215,527 34.2% 415,710
Puerto Rico[56] 3,189,068 12.4% 395,444
Barbados 281,968 90% 253,771
The Bahamas[57] 332,634 90.6% 301,366
Netherlands Antilles 225,369 85% 191,564
Saint Lucia 172,884 83% 142,629
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 118,432 85% 100,667
Grenada 110,000 91% 101,309
US Virgin Islands 108,210 80% 86,243
Dominica 71,293 96% (87% Black + 9% Mixed) 61,882 + 9,411
Antigua and Barbuda 78,000 95% 63,000
French Guiana 199,509 66% 131,676
Bermuda 66,536 61% 40,720
Saint Kitts and Nevis 39,619 98% 38,827
Cayman Islands 47,862 60% 28,717
British Virgin Islands 24,004 83% 19,923
Turks and Caicos islands
South America 388,570,461 N/A N/A
Suriname 475,996 37% 223,718
Guyana 770,794 36% 277,486
Colombia[58] 45,925,397 10.6% (inc. mulattoes, palenqueros and other groups) 4,944,400
Brazil 190,732,694 8% (black) 14,517,961
Ecuador[59] 13,927,650 5% 680,000
Paraguay 6,349,000 4% (Mulatto) 222,215
Uruguay 3,494,382 4% 139,775
Venezuela[60] 27,227,930 3% (Black) 181,157
Peru 29,496,000 2% 589,920
Chile 17,094,270 1% 170,943*
Bolivia 10,907,778 <1% 54,539
Argentina 40,091,359 <1% ≈50,000
North America 450,545,368 10% 42,907,538
United States[61] 328,745,538 12% 42,020,743
Canada[62] 33,098,932 3% 783,795
Mexico 108,700,891 1% 1,386,556[15]
Central America 41,283,652 4% 1,453,761
Nicaragua 5,785,846 9% 520,726
Panama 3,292,693 14% 460,977
Honduras 7,639,327 2% 152,787
Costa Rica 4,195,914 3% 125,877
Guatemala 13,002,206 <1% 100,000
Belize 301,270 31% 93,394
El Salvador 7,066,403 <1% 3,000
Europe 738,856,462 1% < 8,000,000
France[63][64] 62,752,136 8% (inc. overseas territories) Approximately 3.3–5.5 millions (5–8% of the French population); it is illegal for the French State to collect data on ethnicity and race.
United Kingdom 60,609,153 3% (inc. partial) 2,015,400
Germany 82,000,000 1% 817,150 [20][21]
Netherlands[65] 16,491,461 3% 507,000
Italy[66][67] 60,795,612 2% 1,036,653
Portugal 10,605,870 2% 201,200
Spain 46,064,604 2% 1,045,120
Sweden 9,263,872 1% ≈115,000
Norway[68] 4,858,199 1% 67,000
Belgium 10,666,866 3% ~300,000
Russia[69] 141,594,000 <1% 120,000
Ireland[70] 4,339,000 1% 45,000
Switzerland[71] 7,790,000 1% 57,000
Finland 5,340,783 1% 50,000
Austria 8,356,707 <1% 15,000
Ukraine 45,982,000 <1% 14,500
Hungary[72] 10,198,325 <1% 6,500
Poland 37,980,000 <1% 5,700
Belarus 9,640,000 <1% 4,500
Asia 3,879,000,000 <1% ≈327,904
Israel[73] 7,411,000 3% 200,000
India[74] 1,132,446,000 <1% 40,000
Malaysia[75] 28,334,135 <1% 31,904
Hong Kong 7,200,000 <1% < 20,000[76]
China[77] 1,321,851,888 <1% 16,000[78]
Japan[79] 127,756,815 <1% 10,000
Pakistan 172,900,000 <1% 10,000

Largest African diaspora populationsEdit

Country Population Cite
  Brazil 55,900,000 including multiracial people, 6.84% (black) + 20.6% (mulatto pardos)[6][7][8]
  United States 46,350,467 including people citing both black and another race[9]
  Haiti 8,788,439
  Dominican Republic 7,985,991 Including multiracial population, 11% (black) + 72.9% (Multiracial / Mulatto)
  Colombia 4,944,400 [12][13][11]
  France Approximately 5.5 millions (8% of the French population);
  Jamaica 2,731,419
  United Kingdom 2,497,373 including mixed people (White and Black Caribbean, White and Black African)[14]
  Canada 1,198,540
  Mexico 1,400,000 [80]
  Cuba 1,126,894
  Ecuador 1,120,000
  Italy 1,100,000
  Spain 1,045,120
  Peru 828,841 [81]
  Germany 817,150 [82][83]
  Trinidad and Tobago 607,472
  Puerto Rico 395,444 [84] (est. 2020)

Autosomal genetic studies and the African contribution to BrazilEdit

Afro-Brazilians celebrating at a ceremony held by the Ministry of Culture.

African ancestry has contributed to the formation of Brazil, along with European and Amerindian ancestries.

A 2015 autosomal genetic study, which also analysed data of 25 studies of 38 different Brazilian populations concluded that: European ancestry accounts for 62% of the heritage of the population, followed by the African (21%) and the Native American (17%). The European contribution is highest in Southern Brazil (77%), the African highest in Northeast Brazil (27%) and the Native American is the highest in Northern Brazil (32%).[85]

Region[85] European African Amerindian
North Region 51% 16% 32%
Northeast Region 58% 27% 15%
Central-West Region 64% 24% 12%
Southeast Region 67% 23% 10%
South Region 77% 12% 11%

An autosomal study from 2013, with nearly 1300 samples from all of the Brazilian regions, found a pedigree of European ancestry combined with African and Native American contributions. "Following an increasing North to South gradient, European ancestry was the most prevalent in all urban populations (with values up to 74%). The populations in the North consisted of a significant proportion of Native American ancestry that was about two times higher than the African contribution. Conversely, in the Northeast, Center-West and Southeast, African ancestry was the second most prevalent. At an intrapopulation level, all urban populations were highly mixed, stemming from the large mixed ancestry population rather than a heterogenous distribution of groups of individuals with single ethnic ancestry. "[86]

Region European African Amerindian
North Region 51% 17% 32%
Northeast Region 56% 28% 16%
Central-West Region 58% 26% 16%
Southeast Region 61% 27% 12%
South Region 74% 15% 11%

A 2011 autosomal DNA study, with nearly 1000 samples from all over the country ("whites", "pardos" and "blacks"), found out a major European contribution, followed by a high African contribution and an important Native American component.[87] "In all regions studied, the European ancestry was predominant, with proportions ranging from 60.6% in the Northeast to 77.7% in the South".[87] The 2011 autosomal study samples came from blood donors (the lowest classes constitute the great majority of blood donors in Brazil [88]), and also public health institutions personnel and health students. The study showed that Brazilians from different regions are more homogenous than previously thought by some based on the census alone. "Brazilian homogeneity is, therefore, a lot greater between Brazilian regions than within Brazilians region".[89]

Region[87] European African Amerindian
Northern Brazil 69% 11% 19%
Northeast of Brazil 60% 29% 9%
Southeast Brazil 74% 17% 7%
Southern Brazil 80% 10% 9%

According to an autosomal DNA study from 2010, "a new portrayal of each ethnicity contribution to the DNA of Brazilians, obtained with samples from the five regions of the country, has indicated that, on average, European ancestors are responsible for nearly 80% of the genetic heritage of the population. The variation between the regions is small, with the possible exception of the South, where the European contribution reaches nearly 90%. The results, published by the scientific magazine American Journal of Human Biology by a team of the Catholic University of Brasília, show that, in Brazil, physical indicators such as skin colour, colour of the eyes and colour of the hair have little to do with the genetic ancestry of each person, which has been shown in previous studies (regardless of census classification).[90] "Ancestry informative SNPs can be useful to estimate individual and population biogeographical ancestry. Brazilian population is characterized by a genetic background of three parental populations (European, African, and Brazilian Native Amerindians) with a wide degree and diverse patterns of admixture. In this work we analyzed the information content of 28 ancestry-informative SNPs into multiplexed panels using three parental population sources (African, Amerindian, and European) to infer the genetic admixture in an urban sample of the five Brazilian geopolitical regions. The SNPs assigned apart the parental populations from each other and thus can be applied for ancestry estimation in a three hybrid admixed population. Data was used to infer genetic ancestry in Brazilians with an admixture model. Pairwise estimates of F(st) among the five Brazilian geopolitical regions suggested little genetic differentiation only between the South and the remaining regions. Estimates of ancestry results are consistent with the heterogeneous genetic profile of Brazilian population, with a major contribution of European ancestry (0.771) followed by African (0.143) and Amerindian contributions (0.085). The described multiplexed SNP panels can be useful tool for bioanthropological studies but it can be mainly valuable to control for spurious results in genetic association studies in admixed populations".[91] It is important to note that "the samples came from free of charge paternity test takers, thus as the researchers made it explicit: "the paternity tests were free of charge, the population samples involved people of variable socioeconomic strata, although likely to be leaning slightly towards the "pardo" group".[91]

Region[91] European African Amerindian
North Region 71% 18% 11%
Northeast Region 77% 14% 9%
Central-West Region 66% 19% 12%
Southeast Region 80% 14% 6%
South Region 88% 8% 5%

An autosomal DNA study from 2009 found a similar profile "all the Brazilian samples (regions) lie more closely to the European group than to the African populations or to the Mestizos from Mexico".[92]

Region[93] European African Amerindian
North Region 61% 21% 18%
Northeast Region 67% 23% 10%
Central-West Region 66% 22% 12%
Southeast Region 61% 32% 7%
South Region 82% 9% 9%

According to another autosomal DNA study from 2008, by the University of Brasília (UnB), European ancestry dominates in the whole of Brazil (in all regions), accounting for 66% of the heritage of the population, followed by the African contribution (25%) and the Native American (9%).[94]

The AmericasEdit

  • African Americans – There are an estimated 43 million people of black African descent in the United States.
  • Afro-South Americans – There are an estimated 100 million people of African descent living in Latin America, including 67 million in South America, making up 28% of Brazil's population, if including multiracial mulatto pardo Brazilians. Many also have European and Amerindian ancestry, and are also known as pardo, or mixed race. (Brazilian "blacks" are mixed to a significant degree).[95] There are also sizeable African-descended populations in Cuba, Haiti, Colombia and Dominican Republic, often with ancestry of other major ethnic groups.
  • Afro-Caribbeans – The population in the Caribbean is approximately 23 million. Significant numbers of African-descended people include Haiti – 8 million, Dominican Republic – 7.9 million, and Jamaica – 2.7 million,[96]


Haiti has the largest Afro-Caribbean population (almost 11 million) and also has the highest percentage of its population descended from the African diaspora (95%).

The archipelagos and islands of the Caribbean were the first sites of African dispersal in the western Atlantic during the post-Columbian era. Specifically, in 1492, Pedro Alonso Niño, a black Spanish seafarer, piloted one of Columbus's ships. He returned in 1499, but did not settle. In the early 16th century, more Africans began to enter the population of the Spanish Caribbean colonies, sometimes as freedmen, but most often as enslaved servants and workers. Demand for African labour increased in the Caribbean because of the massive deaths among the Taíno and other indigenous populations, resulting primarily from Eurasian infectious diseases to which they had no immunity, as well as conflict with the Spanish, and harsh working conditions. By the mid-16th century, slave trade from Africa to the Caribbean was so profitable that the Englishmen Francis Drake and John Hawkins engaged in piracy and violated Spanish colonial laws, in order to forcibly transport approximately 1500 enslaved people from Sierra Leone to Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic).

During the 17th and 18th centuries, European colonialism in the Caribbean became increasingly reliant on plantation slavery, so that, by the end of the 18th century, on many islands, enslaved Afro-Caribbeans far outnumbered their European masters.[97] A total of 1,840,000 slaves arrived at other British colonies, chiefly the West Indies in the Caribbean.[97]

Beginning in the late 18th century, harsh conditions, constant inter-imperial warfare, and growing human rights goals resulted in the Haitian Revolution in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, led by Toussaint L'Ouverture and Jean Jacques Dessalines. In 1804, Haiti, with what had been an overwhelmingly black slave population and leadership, became the second nation in the Americas to win independence from a European state and create a republic. Continuous waves of rebellion, such as the Baptist War led by Sam Sharpe in Jamaica, created the conditions for the incremental abolition of slavery in the region, with Great Britain abolishing it in 1838. Cuba (under the Spanish Crown) was the last island to emancipate its slaves.

During the 20th century, Afro-Caribbean people began to assert their cultural, economic and political rights on the world stage. The Jamaican Marcus Garvey formed the UNIA movement in the United States, continuing with Aimé Césaire's négritude movement, which was intended to create a pan-African movement across national lines. From the 1960s, the former slave populations in the Caribbean began to win their independence from British colonial rule. They were pre-eminent in creating new cultural forms such as calypso, reggae music, and rastafarianism within the Caribbean. Beyond the region, a new Afro-Caribbean diaspora, including such figures as Stokely Carmichael and DJ Kool Herc in the United States, was influential in the creation of the black power and hip hop movements. Influential political theorists such as Walter Rodney, Frantz Fanon and Stuart Hall contributed to anti-colonial theory and movements in Africa, as well as cultural developments in Europe.

North AmericaEdit

United StatesEdit

A map of United States counties that have majority-black populations: although the African-American population is still predominantly in the South, the Great Migration created several black populations in Chicago, Detroit, Harlem, Indianapolis, Oakland, and Washington, D. C.

Several migration waves to the Americas, as well as relocations within the Americas, have brought people of African descent to North America. According to the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, the first African populations came to North America in the 16th century via Mexico and the Caribbean to the Spanish colonies of Florida, Texas and other parts of the South.[98] Out of the 12 million people from Africa who were shipped to the Americas during the transatlantic slave trade,[99] 645,000 were shipped to the British colonies on the North American mainland and the United States.[97] In 2000, African Americans comprised 12.1 percent of the total population in the United States, constituting the largest racial minority group. The African-American population is concentrated in the southern states and urban areas.[100]

In the establishment of the African diaspora, the transatlantic slave trade is often considered the defining element, but people of African descent have engaged in eleven other migration movements involving North America since the 16th century, many being voluntary migrations, although undertaken in exploitative and hostile environments.[98]

In the 1860s, people from sub-Saharan Africa, mainly from West Africa and the Cape Verde Islands, started to arrive in a voluntary immigration wave to seek employment as whalers in Massachusetts. This migration continued until restrictive laws were enacted in 1921 that in effect closed the door on non-Europeans. By that time, men of African ancestry were already a majority in New England’s whaling industry, with African Americans working as sailors, blacksmiths, shipbuilders, officers, and owners. The internationalism of whaling crews, including the character Daggoo, an African harpooneer, is recorded in the 1851 novel Moby-Dick. They eventually took their trade to California.[101]

Today 1.7 million people in the United States are descended from voluntary immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa, most of whom arrived in the late twentieth century. African immigrants represent 6 percent of all immigrants to the United States and almost 5 percent of the African-American community nationwide. About 57 percent immigrated between 1990 and 2000.[102] Immigrants born in Africa constitute 1.6 percent of the black population. People of the African immigrant diaspora are the most educated population group in the United States—50 percent have bachelor's or advanced degrees, compared to 23 percent of native-born Americans.[103][104] The largest African immigrant communities in the United States are in New York, followed by California, Texas, and Maryland.[102]

The states with the highest percentages of people of African descent are Mississippi (36%), and Louisiana (33%). While not a state, the population of the District of Columbia is more than 50% black.[105] Recent African immigrants represent a minority of blacks nationwide. The U.S. Bureau of the Census categorizes the population by race based on self-identification.[106] The census surveys have no provision for a "multiracial" or "biracial" self-identity, but since 2000, respondents may check off more than one box and claim multiple ethnicity that way.


Much of the earliest black presence in Canada came from the newly independent United States after the American Revolution; the British resettled African Americans (known as Black Loyalists) primarily in Nova Scotia. These were primarily former slaves who had escaped to British lines for promised freedom during the Revolution.

Later during the antebellum years, other individual African Americans escaped to Canada, mostly to locations in Southwestern Ontario, via the Underground Railroad, a system supported by both blacks and whites to assist fugitive slaves. After achieving independence, northern states in the U.S. had begun to abolish slavery as early as 1793, but slavery was not abolished in the South until 1865, following the American Civil War.

Black immigration to Canada in the twentieth century consisted mostly of Caribbean descent.[107] As a result of the prominence of Caribbean immigration, the term "African Canadian", while sometimes used to refer to the minority of Canadian blacks who have direct African or African-American heritage, is not normally used to denote black Canadians. Blacks of Caribbean origin are usually denoted as "West Indian Canadian", "Caribbean Canadian" or more rarely "Afro-Caribbean Canadian", but there remains no widely used alternative to "Black Canadian" which is considered inclusive of the African, Afro-Caribbean, and African-American black communities in Canada.

Central America and South AmericaEdit

The racial make-up of the Dominican Republic includes many Afro-Caribbeans, mestizos, Taíno-descended persons, and whites.

At an intermediate level, in South America and in the former plantations in and around the Indian Ocean, descendants of enslaved people are a bit harder to define because many people are mixed in demographic proportion to the original slave population. In places that imported relatively few slaves (like Chile), few if any are considered "black" today.[108] In places that imported many enslaved people (like Brazil or Dominican Republic), the number is larger, though most identify themselves as being of mixed, rather than strictly African, ancestry.[109] Behind America, Brazil has the largest population of black diasporic people outside of Africa. However, in places like Brazil and the Dominican Republic, blackness is performed in more taboo ways than it is in, say, the United States. The idea behind Trey Ellis Cultural Mulatto comes into play as there are blurred lines between what is considered as black.

In Colombia, the African slaves were first brought to work in the gold mines of the Department of Antioquia. After this was no longer a profitable business, these slaves slowly moved to the Pacific coast, where they have remained unmixed with the white or Indian population until today. The whole Department of Chocó remains a black area. Mixture with white population happened mainly in the Caribbean coast, which is a mestizo area until today. There was also a greater mixture in the south-western departments of Cauca and Valle del Cauca. In these mestizo areas the African culture has had a great influence.


Some European countries make it illegal to collect demographic census information based on ethnicity or ancestry (e.g. France), but some others do query along racial lines (e.g. the UK). Of 42 countries surveyed by a European Commission against Racism and Intolerance study in 2007, it was found that 29 collected official statistics on country of birth, 37 on citizenship, 24 on religion, 26 on language, 6 on country of birth of parents, and 22 on nationality or ethnicity.

United KingdomEdit

There are about 2 million people identifying as Black British (not including British Mixed), among which are Afro-Caribbeans. They live mostly in urban areas in England.


Estimates of 2 to 3 million of African descent, although one quarter of the Afro-French population live in overseas territories. This number is difficult to estimate because the French census does not use race as a category for ideological reasons.[110]


There are an estimated 500,000 black people in the Netherlands and the Dutch Antilles. They mainly live in the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao and Saint Martin, the latter of which is also partly French-controlled. Many Afro-Dutch people reside in the Netherlands.


As of 2005, there were approximately 500,000 Afro-Germans (not including those of mixed ethnicity). This number is difficult to estimate because the German census does not use race as a category.


As of 2016, there were 1,045,120 Africans. They mainly live in the regions of Andalusia, Catalonia, Madrid and the Canaries.


Some blacks of unknown origin once inhabited southern Abkhazia; today, they have been assimilated into the Abkhaz population.


Around 145,600 people of African descendants are living in Romania.[citation needed]



The first blacks in Russia were the result of the slave trade of the Ottoman Empire[111] and their descendants still live on the coasts of the Black Sea. Czar Peter the Great was advised by his friend Lefort to bring in Africans to Russia for hard labor. Alexander Pushkin's great grandfather was the African princeling Abram Petrovich Gannibal, who became Peter's protégé, was educated as a military engineer in France, and eventually became general-en-chef, responsible for the building of sea forts and canals in Russia.[112][113]

During the 1930s fifteen Black American families moved to the Soviet Union as agricultural experts.[114] As African states became independent in the 1960s, the Soviet Union offered their citizens the chance to study in Russia; over 40 years, 400,000 African students came, and some settled there.[111][115]


Afro Turks are people of Zanj (Bantu) descent in Turkey. Like the Afro-Abkhazians, they trace their origin to the Ottoman slave trade. Beginning several centuries ago, a number of Africans, usually via Zanzibar as Zanj and from places such as Niger, Saudi Arabia, Libya, Kenya and Sudan,[116] came to the Ottoman Empire settled by the Dalaman, Menderes and Gediz valleys, Manavgat, and Çukurova. African quarters of 19th-century İzmir, including Sabırtaşı, Dolapkuyu, Tamaşalık, İkiçeşmelik, and Ballıkuyu, are mentioned in contemporary records.[117]

Indian and Pacific OceansEdit

There are a number of communities in South Asia that are descended from African slaves, traders or soldiers.[118] These communities are the Siddi, Sheedi, Makrani and Sri Lanka Kaffirs. In some cases, they became very prominent, such as Jamal-ud-Din Yaqut, Hoshu Sheedi or the rulers of Janjira State. The Mauritian creole people are the descendants of African slaves similar to those in the Americas.

Some Pan-Africanists also consider other peoples as diasporic African peoples. These groups include, among others, Negritos, such as in the case of the peoples of the Malay Peninsula (Orang Asli);[119] New Guinea (Papuans);[120] Andamanese; certain peoples of the Indian subcontinent,[121][122] and the aboriginal peoples of Melanesia and Micronesia.[123][124] Most of these claims are rejected by mainstream ethnologists as pseudoscience and pseudoanthropology, as part of ideologically motivated Afrocentrist irredentism, touted primarily among some extremist elements in the United States who do not reflect on the mainstream African-American community.[125] Mainstream anthropologists determine that the Andamanese and others are part of a network of authothonous ethnic groups present in South Asia that trace their genetic ancestry to a migratory sequence that culminated in the Australian Aboriginals rather than from Africa directly.[126][127][128] Genetic testing has shown the Andamani to belong to the Y-Chromosome Haplogroup D-M174, which is in common with Australian Aboriginals and the Ainu people of Japan rather than the actual African diaspora.[129]

Aksumite settlers in HimyarEdit

The Kingdom of Aksum at its height, with a presence on the Arabian peninsula outside of the African continent

The Kingdom of Aksum was an ancient empire in what is now northern Ethiopia. There were four invasions and subsequent settlements of Aksumites in Himyar, located across the Red Sea in modern-day Yemen. These invasions and settlements led to one of the first large-scale African diasporas in the ancient world.

In 517 AD, the Himyarite king Ma’adikarib was overthrown by Dhu Nuwas, a Jewish leader who began persecuting Christians[130] and confiscating trade goods between Aksum and the Byzantine Empire,[131] both of which were Christian nations.[132] A man identified as Bishop Thomas journeyed to Aksum to report on the persecution of Christians in Himyar to the Aksumite Kingdom.[133] As a result, the Aksumite king Ahayawa invaded Himyar.[134] Dhu Nuwas fled this first invasion,[135] and at least 580 Aksumite soldiers remained in Himyar.[136] Himyarites who opposed Aksumite settlement united under Dhu Nuwas,[137] and the formerly expelled king traveled back to kill the Aksumite soldiers and continue the oppression of Christians, forcing some settlers back into Aksum.[138]

Coin of Kaleb

In response to Dhu Nuwas’s Christian persecution, the new Aksumite king Kaleb first sent a group of Himyarite refugees in his Aksumite kingdom back into Himyar to stir up underground resistance against Dhu Nuwas. These discontented Himyarites then united under nobleman Sumyafa Ashwa.[139] Kaleb successfully invaded Himyar with an Aksumite army in 525 and installed Sumyafa Ashwa to rule.[140] [141] More Aksumite soldiers remained in Himyar to claim land.[142] The Byzantine ruler Justinian learned of this development and sent an ambassador, Julianus, to ally Aksum and Himyar with the Byzantine Empire against Persia. The overtures made by the Byzantine Empire to influence Himyar demonstrate that the Aksumite settlers in Himyar, due to their sustained residence and political organization, constituted a “stable community in exile,” which historian Carlton Wilson deems a necessary condition to classify a settlement as a diaspora.[143] Justinian had two wishes for this proposed alliance: first, for Aksum to purchase and distribute Indian silk to the Byzantine Empire to undermine Persia economically, and second, for Aksum-ruled Himyar to invade Persia, led by the general Caisus. Both of these plans failed, as Persia’s proximity to India made the interruption of their silk trade impossible, and neither Himyar nor Aksum saw value in attacking an adversary that was both stronger and far too distant. Caisus was also responsible for killing a relative of Sumyafa Ashwa’s, making Aksumites unwilling to go into battle under him.[144]

A third invasion was prompted by a rebellion of Aksumite soldiers between 532 and 535,[145] led by the former slave[142] and Aksumite commander[145] Abreha, against Sumyafa Ashwa. Kaleb sent 3,000 soldiers to quell this rebellion, led by one of his relatives, but these soldiers joined Abreha’s rebellion upon arrival and killed Kaleb’s relative. Kaleb sent reinforcements in another attempt to end the rebellion, but his soldiers were defeated and forced to turn around. Following Kaleb’s death, Abreha paid tribute to Aksum to reinforce Himyar’s independence.[142] The new Himyarite nation consisted of several thousand Aksumite emigrants, serving as one of the earliest examples of a large-scale movement of tropical Africans outside of the continent. Just a century later, Aksum’s relationship to this southwestern part of the Arabian peninsula would be pivotal to the introduction of Islam at Mecca and Yathrib (Medina), as evidenced by the naming of Bilal,[146] an Ethiopian,[147] as the first muezzin, and the flight of some of Muhammad's earliest followers from Mecca to Askum.[148]

Music and the African diasporaEdit

African-descended peoples have rich musical and dance traditions in the diaspora. Jamaica's Earl "Chinna" Smith is a reggae performer; the genre includes frequent references to Rastafari, pan-Africanism, and artwork with pan-African colors.

Although fragmented and separated by land and water, the African Diaspora maintains connection through the use of music. This link between the various sects of the African Diaspora is termed by Paul Gilroy as The Black Atlantic.[149] The Black Atlantic is possible because black people have a shared history rooted in oppression that is displayed in Black genres such as rap and reggae.[150] The linkages within the black diaspora formulated through music allows consumers of music and artists to pull from different cultures to combine and create a conglomerate of experiences that reaches across the world.[151]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "The Diaspora Prepared to Invest in Africa". African Development Bank. May 30, 2013.
  2. ^ K, Arthur (July 6, 2017). "Africa disapora".
  3. ^ Tinker, Keith L. (January 8, 2013). The African Diaspora to the Bahamas. FriesenPress. ISBN 9781460205549 – via Google Books.
  4. ^ "Global African Diaspora".
  5. ^ Bodomo, Adams (December 1, 2013). "African diaspora remittances are better than foreign aid funds: diaspora-driven development in the 21st Century". World Economics Journal. 14 – via ResearchGate.
  6. ^ a b Parra, Flavia C.; et al. (2003). "Color and genomic ancestry in Brazilians". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 100 (1): 177–82. Bibcode:2003PNAS..100..177P. doi:10.1073/pnas.0126614100. PMC 140919. PMID 12509516. Second paragraph
  7. ^ a b
  8. ^ a b "Pardo category includes Castizos, Mestizos, Caboclos, Gypsies, Eurasians, Hafus and Mulattoes Cafuzos". 2015. Retrieved April 15, 2015.
  9. ^ a b "PROFILE AMERICA FACTS FOR FEATURES: CB17-FF.01 – National African-American History Month: February 2017" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. 2017. Retrieved October 26, 2017.
  10. ^ "Haiti". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
  11. ^ a b "visibilización estadística de los grupos étnicos" (PDF). Censo General 2005. Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica (DANE). Retrieved June 15, 2013.
  12. ^ a b Bushnell, David & Rex A. Hudson (2010) "The Society and Its Environment"; Colombia: a country study: pp. 87, 92. Washington D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.
  13. ^ a b "Ethnic groups in Colombia" (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved March 26, 2014.
  14. ^ a b "2011 Census: Ethnic group, local authorities in the United Kingdom". Office for National Statistics. October 11, 2013. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
  15. ^ a b "Principales resultados de la Encuesta Intercensal 2015 Estados Unidos Mexicanos" (PDF). INEGI. p. 77. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 22, 2017. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
  16. ^ Census Profile, 2016 Census Statistics Canada. Retrieved November 6, 2017.
  17. ^ "The ethnicity of the Dominican population".
  18. ^ "Ethnic groups of the Dominican Republic".
  19. ^ "Perú: Perfil Sociodemográfico" (PDF). Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. p. 216.
  20. ^ a b "U zgradi Reichstaga sjedit će Muhamed i Džemila". Glas Slavonije.
  21. ^ a b SPIEGEL ONLINE, Hamburg, Germany. "Germany". Der Spiegel.
  22. ^ "Trinidad and Tobago 2011 Population and Housing Census: Demographic Report" (PDF). Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, Central Statistical Office. 2012. p. 94. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 19, 2017. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
  23. ^ CIA World Fact Book. Accessed 13 October 2020.
  24. ^ "ABS Statistics".
  25. ^ "Barbados". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
  26. ^
  27. ^ "Censusstatistieken 2012" (PDF). Algemeen Bureau voor de Statistiek in Suriname (General Statistics Bureau of Suriname). p. 76.
  28. ^ "Cuadro P42. Total del país. Población afrodescendiente en viviendas particulares por sexo, según grupo de edad. Año 2010" [Table P42. Total for the country. Afro-descendant population in private households by sex, according to age group, 2010]. INDEC (in Spanish). Archived from the original (XLS) on October 29, 2013.
  29. ^ "Cuadro P43. Total del país. Población afrodescendiente en viviendas particulares por sexo, según lugar de nacimiento. Año 2010" [Table P43. Total for the country. Afro-descendant population in private homes by sex, according to place of birth, 2010]. INDEC (in Spanish). Archived from the original (XLS) on April 18, 2014.
  30. ^ "Grenada". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Retrieved March 19, 2012.
  31. ^ Ade Ajayi, J. F; International Scientific Committee For The Drafting Of a General History Of Africa, Unesco (July 1, 1998). General History of Africa. pp. 305–15. ISBN 978-0-520-06701-1. via Google Books
  32. ^ a b Warren, J. Benedict (1985). The Conquest of Michoacán. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-1858-1.
  33. ^ Harris, J. E. (1993). "Introduction" In J. E. Harris (ed.), Global Dimensions of the African Diaspora, pp. 8–9.
  34. ^ Compare:
  35. ^ In an article published in 1991, William Safran set out six rules to distinguish "diasporas" from general migrant communities. While Safran's definitions were influenced by the idea of the Jewish diaspora, he recognised the expanding use of the term. Rogers Brubaker (2005) also noted that use of the term "diaspora" had started to take on an increasingly general sense. He suggests that one element of this expansion in use "involves the application of the term diaspora to an ever-broadening set of cases: essentially to any and every nameable population category that is to some extent dispersed in space". An early example of the use of "African diaspora" appears in the title of Sidney Lemelle, Robin D. G. Kelley, Imagining Home: Class, Culture and Nationalism in the African Diaspora (1994).
  36. ^ Akyeampong, E (2000). "Africans in the Diaspora: The Diaspora and Africans". African Affairs. 99 (395): 183–215. doi:10.1093/afraf/99.395.183.
  37. ^ "The Diaspora Division". Statement. The Citizens and Diaspora Organizations Directorate (CIDO). Archived from the original on December 1, 2015. Retrieved January 7, 2016.
  38. ^ "Historical survey > The international slave trade > Slavery". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved September 30, 2007.
  39. ^ Olson, Steve (2003). Mapping Human History: Genes, Race, and Our Common Origins. Houghton Mifflin Company. pp. 54–69. ISBN 978-0-618-35210-4.
  40. ^ Krippner-Martínez, James (October 1990). "The Politics of Conquest: An Interpretation of the Relación de Michoacán". The Americas. 47 (2): 177–97. doi:10.2307/1007371. JSTOR 1007371.
  41. ^ Kwame Anthony Appiah; Henry Louis Gates. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. p. 327.
  42. ^ ""Abolish the African Diaspora as the 6th Region and Bring Back Pan African Congresses," Says Kassim Khamis. – The African Sun Times". March 4, 2013. Archived from the original on July 1, 2017. Retrieved September 2, 2017.
  43. ^ Larson, Pier M. (1999). "Reconsidering Trauma, Identity, and the African Diaspora: Enslavement and Historical Memory in Nineteenth-Century Highland Madagascar". William and Mary Quarterly (PDF). 56 (2): 335–62. doi:10.2307/2674122. JSTOR 2674122. PMID 22606732.
  44. ^ Lao-Montes, Agustín (2007). "Decolonial Moves: Trans-locating African Diaspora Spaces". Cultural Studies. 21 (2–3): 309–38. doi:10.1080/09502380601164361. S2CID 143048986.
  45. ^ Gilroy, 3
  46. ^ Manning, Patrick. The African Diaspora: A History Through Culture. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009, Kindle.
  47. ^ a b c d Iton, Richard. In Search of the Black Fantastic: Politics and Popular Culture in the Post-Civil Rights Era. Oxford University Press, 2010.
  48. ^ a b c editor., Beckles, Hilary, 1955– editor. Russell, Heather, 1970– (2015). Rihanna : Barbados world-gurl in global popular culture. ISBN 9789766405021. OCLC 907426161.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  49. ^ Labbż, Theola (January 11, 2004). "A Legacy Hidden in Plain Sight". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011.
  50. ^ "The World Factbook>". Archived from the original on February 20, 2011. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  51. ^ "Dominican Republic: Racial and Ethnic Groups". U.S. Library of Congress.
  52. ^ Inter-American Dialogue
  53. ^ "Cuba". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
  54. ^ "Jamaica". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
  55. ^ "Trinidad and Tobago". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
  56. ^ CIA World Fact Book. (Country=Puerto Rioc > People & Society > Ethnic groups.) October 13, 2020. Accessed October 13, 2020.
  57. ^ "Bahamas, The". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
  58. ^ "Colombia una nación multicultural: su diversidad étnica" (PDF). (in Spanish).
  59. ^ "POBLACIÓN ECUATORIANA POR AUTODEFINICIÓN ÉTNICA EN EL VI CENSO DE POBLACIÓN DEL AÑO". INEC (in Spanish). Archived from the original on February 8, 2008.
  60. ^ Resultado Basico del XIV Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda 2011, (p. 14).
  61. ^ "CIA – The World Factbook – United States". Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  62. ^ "Visible minority population, by province and territory (2001 Census)". September 11, 2009. Archived from the original on September 16, 2008. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  63. ^ Retrieved March 7, 2007. Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link]
  64. ^ " World". Archived from the original on September 6, 2008.
  65. ^[permanent dead link] 8E9EB8EDD61/0/pb01e067.pdf
  66. ^ "ISTAT (Istituto Nazionale di Statistica), Popolazione residente 2015". Retrieved July 23, 2016.
  67. ^ "ISTAT (Istituto Nazionale di Statistica), Cittadini Stranieri, Bilancio Demografico 2015 Africa". Retrieved July 23, 2016.
  68. ^ "Statistics Norway – Persons with immigrant background by immigration category, country background and sex. 1 January 2010" (in Norwegian). January 1, 2010. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  69. ^ "Мймй Зпмдео Й Мймй Дйлупо. Фемертпелф "Юетоще Тхуулйе": Уйопруйу". Archived from the original on January 15, 2011. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  70. ^ "Ireland: People". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on December 10, 2008. Retrieved December 20, 2008.
  71. ^ "Federal Office of Statistics". Archived from the original on January 16, 2013. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  72. ^ "Hungarian census 2001". Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  73. ^ "Music Earns Black Hebrews Some Acceptance". Archived from the original on April 8, 2006. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
  74. ^ "". Archived from the original on February 26, 2009. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  75. ^ Lisa Goh (May 6, 2012). "Fear and prejudice". The Star. Archived from the original on May 6, 2012. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
  76. ^ Fenn, Andrea, The pride, passion and purpose of HK's Africans, China Daily, July 6, 2010.
  77. ^ "Global View: China: Foreign ghosts". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. June 30, 2005. Archived from the original on January 20, 2011. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  78. ^ Zhuang Pinghui (November 1, 2014). "Guangzhou clarifies size of African community amid fears over Ebola virus". South China Morning Post. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
  79. ^ POP AFRICA[permanent dead link] (Nagoya University) from the statictics at 2005 by the Immigration Bureau of Japan
  80. ^ Gregorius, Arlene (April 10, 2016). "The black people 'erased from history'". BBC News. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
  81. ^ "Perú: Perfil Sociodemográfico" (PDF). Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. p. 216.
  82. ^ Mwangi, Jane (July 19, 2012). "Berlin exhibition exposes plight of Africa migrants". Reuters. Retrieved August 10, 2012.
  83. ^ "Initiative Schwarze Menschen in Deutschland".
  84. ^ CIA World Fact Book. Accessed 13 October 2020.
  85. ^ a b Moura, R. R; Coelho, A. V; Balbino Vde, Q; Crovella, S; Brandão, L. A (2015). "Meta-analysis of Brazilian genetic admixture and comparison with other Latin America countries". American Journal of Human Biology. 27 (5): 674–80. doi:10.1002/ajhb.22714. PMID 25820814. S2CID 25051722.
  86. ^ "Revisiting the Genetic Ancestry of Brazilians Using Autosomal AIM-Indels", PLoS ONE, September 2013, Volume 8, Issue 9.
  87. ^ a b c Pena, SD; Di Pietro, G; Fuchshuber-Moraes, M; et al. (2011). "The Genomic Ancestry of Individuals from Different Geographical Regions of Brazil Is More Uniform Than Expected". PLOS ONE. 6 (2): e17063. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...617063P. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017063. PMC 3040205. PMID 21359226.
  88. ^ "Profile of the Brazilian blood donor". Archived from the original on May 2, 2012.
  89. ^ "Nossa herança europeia" Archived January 30, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Ciencia Hoje.
  90. ^ Reinaldo José Lopes, "DNA de brasileiro é 80% europeu, indica estudo", Folha de S. Paulo, 05/10/2009.
  91. ^ a b c Lins, TC; Vieira, RG; Abreu, BS; Grattapaglia, D; Pereira, RW (2010). "Genetic composition of Brazilian population samples based on a set of twenty-eight ancestry informative SNPs". Am. J. Hum. Biol. 22 (2): 187–92. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20976. PMID 19639555. S2CID 205301927.
  92. ^ Laboratorio Alvaro. Archived April 8, 2011, at WebCite
  93. ^ Forensic Science International: Genetics. Allele frequencies of 15 STRs in a representative sample of the Brazilian population (inglés) Archived April 8, 2011, at WebCite basandos en estudios del IBGE de 2008. Se presentaron muestras de 12.886 individuos de distintas etnias, por regiones, provenían en un 8,26% del Norte, 23,86% del Nordeste, 4,79% del Centro-Oeste, 10,32% del Sudeste y 52,77% del Sur.
  94. ^ Neide Maria de Oliveira Godinho, 2008. Archived July 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  95. ^ "Brazil". The World Factbook.
  96. ^ "World Population 2004 chart, UN" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved September 2, 2017.
  97. ^ a b c Stephen D. Behrendt, David Richardson, and David Eltis, W. E. B. Du Bois Institute for African and African-American Research, Harvard University. Based on "records for 27,233 voyages that set out to obtain slaves for the Americas". Stephen Behrendt (1999). "Transatlantic Slave Trade". Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. New York: Basic Civitas Books. ISBN 978-0-465-00071-5.
  98. ^ a b Dodson, Howard, and Sylviane A. Diouf, eds (2005). In Motion: The African-American Migration Experience. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library. Retrieved November 24, 2007.
  99. ^ Ronald Segal (1995). The Black Diaspora: Five Centuries of the Black Experience Outside Africa. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-374-11396-4. It is now estimated that 11,863,000 slaves were shipped across the Atlantic. [Note in original: Paul E. Lovejoy, "The Impact of the Atlantic Slave Trade on Africa: A Review of the Literature," in Journal of African History 30 (1989), p. 368.] ... It is widely conceded that further revisions are more likely to be upward than downward.
  100. ^ United States African-American Population. CensusScope, Social Science Data Analysis Network. Retrieved December 17, 2007.
  101. ^ "Heroes in the Ships: African Americans in the Whaling Industry". Old Dartmouth Historical Society / New Bedford Whaling Museum, 2001.
  102. ^ a b Dodson, Howard and Sylviane A. Diouf, eds (2005). "The Immigration Waves: The numbers", In Motion: The African-American Migration Experience, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library. Retrieved November 24, 2007.
  103. ^ Dodson, Howard and Sylviane A. Diouf, eds (2005). "The Brain Drain".
  104. ^ "Reversing Africa's 'brain drain'", In Motion: The African-American Migration Experience. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library. Retrieved November 24, 2007.
  105. ^ DeBonis, Mike (February 4, 2015). "D.C., where blacks are no longer a majority, has a new African American affairs director". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
  106. ^ U.S. Census Bureau. State & County QuickFacts Archived September 22, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved November 6, 2007.
  107. ^ Tettey, Wisdom J.; Puplampu, Korbla P. (2005). The African Diaspora in Canada: negotiating identity & belonging. Calgary, Alberta, Canada: University of Calgary Press. pp. 205. ISBN 978-1-85109-700-5.
  108. ^ Harry Hoetink, Caribbean Race Relations: A Study of Two Variants (Lon-don, 1971), xii.
  109. ^ Clara E. Rodriguez, "Challenging Racial Hegemony: Puerto Ricans in the United States," in Race, ed. Steven Gregory and Roger Sanjek (New Brunswick NJ, 1994), 131–45, 137. See also Frederick P. Bowser, "Colonial Spanish America," in Neither Slave Nor Free: The Freedmen of African Descent in the Slave Societies of the New World, ed. David W. Cohen and Jack P. Greene (Baltimore, 1972), 19–58, 38.
  110. ^ 1/4 of the French African population comes from the Caribbean islands. in French Archived September 26, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  111. ^ a b "Лили Голден и Лили Диксон. Телепроект "Черные русские": синопсис. Info on "Black Russians" film project in English". Archived from the original on January 15, 2011. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  112. ^ Gnammankou, Dieudonné. Abraham Hanibal – l’aïeul noir de Pouchkine Archived March 15, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Paris, 1996.
  113. ^ "Barnes, Hugh. Gannibal: The Moor of Petersburg". London: Profile Books. 2005. Archived from the original on January 14, 2011. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  114. ^ Eric Foner, "Three Very Rare Generations" review of Yelena Khanga's family memoir Soul To Soul: A Black Russian American Family 1865–1992, in The New York Times, December 13, 1992.
  115. ^ "Film: Black Russians". Archived from the original on April 17, 2011. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  116. ^ "Turks with African ancestors want their existence to be felt". Today's Zaman. May 11, 2008. Archived from the original on August 27, 2008. Retrieved August 28, 2008.
  117. ^ "Afro-Türklerin tarihi, Radikal, 30 August 2008. Retrieved 22 January 2009". August 30, 2008. Retrieved May 3, 2012.
  118. ^ Shanti Sadiq Ali, The African Dispersal in the Deccan: From Medieval to Modern Times The African Dispersal in the Deccan: From Medieval to Modern Times], Orient Blackswan, 1996.
  119. ^ Runoko Rashidi (November 4, 2000). "Black People in the Philippines". Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved September 29, 2007.
  120. ^ "West Papua New Guinea: Interview with Foreign Minister Ben Tanggahma". July 25, 2007. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved September 29, 2007.
  121. ^ Iniyan Elango (August 8, 2002). "Notes from a Brother in India: History and Heritage". Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved September 29, 2007.
  122. ^ Horen Tudu (August 8, 2002). "The Blacks of East Bengal: A Native's Perspective". Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved September 29, 2007.
  123. ^ Runoko Rashidi (November 19, 1999). "Blacks in the Pacific". Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved September 29, 2007.
  124. ^ "Micronesians". Newcastle University. Retrieved September 2, 2017.
  125. ^ Mary Lefkowitz, Not Out Of Africa: How "Afrocentrism" Became An Excuse To Teach Myth As History, New Republic Press, ISBN 0-465-09838-X, ISBN 978-0-465-09838-5
  126. ^ Kumar, Vikrant; Reddy, B. Mohan (June 2003). "Status of Austro-Asiatic groups in the peopling of India: An exploratory study based on the available prehistoric, linguistic and biological evidences". Journal of Biosciences. Springer. 28 (4): 507–522. doi:10.1007/BF02705125. ISSN 0250-5991. PMID 12799497. S2CID 3078465.
  127. ^ "Multiple origins of the mtDNA 9-bp deletion in populations of South India", W. S. Watkins 1 *, M. Bamshad 2, M. E. Dixon 1, B. Bhaskara Rao 3, J. M. Naidu 3, P. G. Reddy 4, B. V. R. Prasad 3, P. K. Das 5, P. C. Reddy 6, P. B. Gai 7, A. Bhanu 8, Y. S. Kusuma 3, J. K. Lum 1, P. Fischer 2, L. B. Jorde 1, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 109, Issue 2, pp. 147–58, June 2, 1999.
  128. ^ P. Endicott, "The Genetic Origins of the Andaman Islanders". The American Journal of Human Genetics, Vol. 72, Issue 1, pp. 178–84.
  129. ^ "WorldHaplogroupsMaps.pdf" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 28, 2004.
  130. ^ "73. The Conversion of the People of Najrân". The Chronicle of Seert. Translated by Alcock, Anthony. 2014.
  131. ^ Kobishchanov, Yuri M. (1990). Axum. University Park, Pennsylvania: Penn State University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0271005319.
  132. ^ Procopius (1914). Procopius, with an English translation by H. B. Dewing. 1. Translated by Dewing, Henry Bronson. London: William Heinemann. pp. 189, 193.
  133. ^ Moberg, Axel, ed. (1924). The book of the Himyarites : fragments of a hitherto unknown Syriac work. Lund : C.W.K. Gleerup. p. ci.
  134. ^ Moberg (1924), pp. ci. Some sources (e.g. Acta Sanctorum) indicate that the king at this time was not Ahayawa, but Kaleb; other sources (e.g. Procopius) begin with the second invasion led by Kaleb.
  135. ^ Acta Sanctorum. Brussels. 1861. Octobris X, index chronologicus, saeculo VI. Cited in Kobishchanov (1990), p. 91. (The Tapharis named in Acta Santorum is Zafar, Yemen.)
  136. ^ Moberg (1924), pp. ci-cii, cv. Page ci establishes that the first presence of Aksumites (Abyssinians) in Himyar was due to Ahayawa’s (HWYN’) invasion. Page cv indicates that Dhu Nuwas (Masrūq) killed 300 Aksumite soldiers on one occasion and 280 on another, leading to the conclusion that at least 580 Aksumite soldiers were in Himyar. Page cii shows that these killings happened soon after Ahayawa’s invasion, suggesting that the 580 Aksumite soldiers were part of the invasion.
  137. ^ Kobishchanov 1990, p. 92.
  138. ^ Moberg 1924, pp. cii.
  139. ^ Kobishchanov 1990, p. 100.
  140. ^ Procopius 1914, p. 189.
  141. ^ Moberg 1924, pp. cxlii, cxxxiv-cxxxv.
  142. ^ a b c Procopius 1914, p. 191.
  143. ^ Wilson, Carlton (1997). "Conceptualizing the African Diaspora". Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East. 17 (2): 118–122. doi:10.1215/1089201X-17-2-118.
  144. ^ Procopius 1914, p. 193.
  145. ^ a b Kobishchanov 1990, p. 105.
  146. ^ Arafat, W. "Bilа̄l b. Rabа̄ḥ". Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second edition. Isḥа̄q (1998). The Life Of Muhammad. Karachi: Oxford University Press. pp. 143–144.
  147. ^ Isḥа̄q 1998, pp. 235-236.
  148. ^ Sīrat ibn Hishа̄m (2000). M. Hа̄rūn, ’Abdus-Salа̄m (ed.). Biography of the Prophet. Cairo: Al-Falah Foundation for Translation, Publication and Distribution.
  149. ^ Gilroy, Paul (1993). The Black Atlantic. Harvard University Press. pp. 1–97. ISBN 9780674076068.
  150. ^ Veal, Michael (2007). Dub: Soundscapes and Shattered Songs in Jamaican Reggae. Wesleyan University Press. pp. 454–467.
  151. ^ Campbell, Mark (December 2012). ""Other/ed" Kinds of Blackness: An Afrodiasporic Versioning of Black Canada". Southern Journal of Canadian Studies. 5: 46–65.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit