This article needs to be updated.(April 2021)
Little is known about ancient relations between China and the African continent, though there is some evidence of early trade connections. Highlights of medieval contacts include the 14th-century journey of Ibn Battuta, the Moroccan scholar and traveler to parts of China; the 14th-century visit of Sa'id of Mogadishu, the Somali scholar and explorer; and the 15th-century Ming dynasty voyages of Chinese admiral Zheng He and his fleet, which rounded the coast of Somalia, passing the Ajuran Sultanate, and followed the coast down to the Mozambique Channel. Glass beads and porcelain from China have been discovered at Great Zimbabwe, an ancient city located in present-day Zimbabwe.
Modern political and economic relations between mainland China and the African continent commenced in the era of Mao Zedong, following the victory of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in the Chinese Civil War. At the turn of the 21st century, the modern state of the People's Republic of China (PRC) built increasingly strong economic ties with Africa. In 2013, it was estimated that one million Chinese citizens were residing in Africa. Additionally, it has been estimated that 200,000 Africans were working in China, in 2017.:99 As of 2021, Eswatini and the self-declared Republic of Somaliland (recognized as part of Somalia) are the only two African states to have official relations with the Republic of China (Taiwan).
Trade between China and Africa increased by 700% during the 1990s, and China is currently Africa's largest trading partner. The Forum on China–Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) was established in October 2000, which designated itself to be an official forum to strengthen the relationship between both parties. There have been increasing international concerns over the significant political, economic, and military roles that China is playing in the African continent.
China and Africa have a history of trade relations, sometimes through third parties, dating back as far as 202 BC and 220 AD. Ptolemy, writing in Roman Egypt in the second century, knew of China by two separate routes: the silk road and the Indian Ocean trade. He identified two Chinese peoples: the Seres or silk people and the Sinai of the southern trade, whose name probably derives from the Qin dynasty.
In 1071, an embassy arrived in China from an unidentified East African kingdom. Since it was a formal tribute mission (in the eyes of the Chinese), it is described in the official History of the Song Dynasty. The name of the kingdom was Ts'eng t'an and it was said to lie inland and mint its coin. This name is probably derived from the Persian Zangistan, and the title of its ruler, a-mei-lo a-mei-lan is probably derived from the Persian amir-i-amiran (emir of emirs).
Archaeological excavations at Mogadishu in the Ajuran Empire and Kilwa, Tanzania have recovered many coins from China. The majority of the Chinese coins date back to the Song Dynasty, although the Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty are also represented, according to Richard Pankhurst. In 1226, Chao Jukua, the commissioner of foreign trade at Quanzhou in the Fujian province of China, completed his Chu-fan-chih (Description of Barbarous Peoples) which discusses Zanzibar (Ts'ong-pa) and Somalia (Pi-P'a-Lo).
Giraffes, zebras, and incense were exported to the Ming Empire of China, making Somali merchants leaders in the commerce between Asia and Africa while influencing the Chinese language in Somalia in the process.
In the 14th century, Moroccan traveler and scholar, Ibn Battuta, made a long journey to Africa and Asia. He reached China in April 1345 after a stay in India before serving as an envoy of Sultan Muhammad Tughlaq of the Indian Tughlaq dynasty to China. He wrote:
China is the safest, best regulated of countries for a traveler. A man may go by himself on a nine-month journey, carrying with him a large sum of money, without any fear. Silk is used for clothing even by poor monks and beggars. Its porcelains are the finest of all makes of pottery and its hens are bigger than geese in our country.
The Ming Dynasty admiral, Zheng He, and his fleet rounded the coast of Somalia and followed the coast down to the Mozambique Channel. The goal of those expeditions was to spread Chinese culture and display Chinese strength. Zheng brought gifts and granted titles from the Ming emperor to local rulers. In October 1415, Zheng He reached the eastern coast of Africa and sent the first of two giraffes as gifts to the Chinese Yongle Emperor.
Archaeologists have found Chinese porcelains made during the Tang dynasty (618–907) in Kenyan villages; however, these were believed to have been brought over by Zheng He during his fifteenth-century ocean voyages. On Lamu Island off the Kenyan coast, local oral tradition maintains that twenty shipwrecked Chinese sailors, possibly part of Zheng's fleet, washed up on shore there hundreds of years ago. Given permission to settle by local tribes after having killed a dangerous python, they converted to Islam and married local women. Now, they are believed to have just six descendants remaining there. In 2002, DNA tests conducted on one of the women confirmed that she was of Chinese descent. Her daughter, Mwamaka Sharifu, later received a PRC government scholarship to study traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in China.
National Geographic published an article by Frank Viviano in July 2005 about his visit to Pate Island. During his time on Lamu, ceramic fragments had been found which the administrative officer of the local Swahili history museum claimed were of Chinese origin, specifically from Zheng He's voyage to East Africa. The eyes of the Pate people resembled Chinese, and Famao and Wei were among the names, which were speculated to be of Chinese origin. Their ancestors were said to have been indigenous women who intermarried with Chinese Ming sailors when they were shipwrecked. Two places on Pate were called "Old Shanga", and "New Shanga", which the Chinese sailors had named. A local guide, who claimed to be of Chinese descent, showed Viviano a graveyard made out of coral on the island, indicating that they were graves of Chinese sailors, which the author described as "virtually identical", to Chinese Ming dynasty tombs, complete with "half-moon domes" and "terraced entries".
According to Melanie Yap and Daniel Leong Man in their book "Colour, Confusions, and Concessions: the History of Chinese in South Africa", Chu Ssu-pen, a Chinese mapmaker in 1320, had southern Africa drawn on one of his maps. Ceramics found in Zimbabwe and South Africa dated back to the Song dynasty. Some tribes to Cape Town's north claimed descent from Chinese sailors during the thirteenth century. Their physical appearance is similar to Chinese with paler skin and a Mandarin-sounding tonal language. Their name for themselves is "abandoned people", Awatwa in their language.
The establishment of modern Sino-African relations began in the late 1950s, when China signed bilateral trade agreements with Algeria, Egypt, Guinea, Somalia, Morocco, and Sudan. Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai made a ten-country tour of Africa between December 1963 and January 1964. Zhou Enlai visited Ghana and established close relations with Kwame Nkrumah, who desired a united Africa. Relations at that time often reflected China's foreign policy in general: China "began to cultivate ties and offer...economic, technical and military support to African countries and liberation movements in an effort to encourage wars of national liberation and revolution as part of an international united front against both superpowers".
Early modern bilateral relations were mainly affected by the Cold War and communist ideology. China originally had close ties with the anti-apartheid and liberation movement, African National Congress (ANC), in South Africa, but as China's relations with the Soviet Union deteriorated and the ANC moved closer to the Soviet Union, China shifted away from the ANC towards the Pan-Africanist Congress. The Soviets supported Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union, and supplied them with arms; Robert Mugabe's attempts to gain Soviet support for his Zimbabwe African National Union were rebuffed, leading him to enter into relations with China. China adopted several principles, among them was the support of the independence of African countries while investing in infrastructure projects.
In the 1970s, the expulsion of Soviet military advisers from Egypt and Sudan was welcomed with arms supplied by China. China and Zaire (and Safari Club) shared a common goal in Africa, namely to do everything in their power to halt Soviet gains in the area. Accordingly, both Zaire and China covertly funneled aid to the National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA) (and later, UNITA) to prevent the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), which was supported and augmented by Cuba, from coming to power. China and Safari Club sent assistance to support the Mobutu regime during the Shaba I conflict in 1977.
The Somali Democratic Republic established good relations with the Soviet Union throughout the Cold War era. When Somalia sought to create a Greater Somalia, it declared war on Ethiopia and took the Ogaden region in three months with Soviet aid. When the Soviet Union shifted its support from Somalia to Ethiopia, the latter retook the Ogaden. This angered Somalian President, Siad Barre, who expelled all Soviets advisors and citizens from Somalia. China and Safari Club supported Somalia diplomatically and with token military aid.
Recognition of TaiwanEdit
The question of Taiwan has been a key political issue for the People's Republic of China (PRC). In 1971, the support of African nations was crucial in the PRC's joining the United Nations (UN), taking over the seat of the ROC on Taiwan. Many African countries, such as Algeria, Egypt, Ethiopia, and Zambia have stressed their support for a "one-China policy". Only one African country, Swaziland, still maintains relations with Taipei.
Human rights in XinjiangEdit
In July 2019, UN ambassadors of 37 countries, including Algeria, Angola, Cameroon, Congo, DRC, Egypt, Eritrea, Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Zimbabwe, and other African states, signed a joint letter to the UNHRC defending China's treatment of Uyghurs and other Muslim minority groups in the Xinjiang region.
Hong Kong national security lawEdit
In 1980, the total Sino-African trade volume amounted to US$1 billion. In 1999, it was US$6.5 billion and US$10 billion in 2000. By 2005, the total Sino-African trade volume had reached US$39.7 billion before jumping to US$55 billion in 2006, making China the second-largest trading partner of Africa after the United States, which had US$91 billion in trade with African nations. The PRC also passed its traditional African economic partner and former colonial power, France, which had trade worth US$47 billion. In 2010, trade between Africa and China was valued at US$114 billion and US$166.3 billion in 2011. In the first ten months of 2012, it was US$163.9 billion.
There are an estimated 800 Chinese corporations doing business in Africa, most of which are private companies investing in the infrastructure, energy, and banking sectors. Investments from Chinese entrepreneurial migration have culminated in positive (indirect jobs) and negative (displacing local traders) effects in local African societies.
One-third of China's oil supplies comes from the African continent, mainly from Angola. Investments of Chinese companies in the energy sector reached US$78.1 billion in 2019. In some cases, as in Nigeria and Angola, oil and gas exploration and production deals crossed $2 billion.
In agriculture, Benin and the Sahel countries of Burkina Faso and Mali supply up to 20% US$39.7 million in 2001 to $113.5 million in 2005 (source:intracen.org)</ref> large[quantify] shipments of coffee are imported from Kenya. As for fish products, Namibia remains one of the main[quantify] providers.
During the year 2011, trade between Africa and China increased a staggering 33% from the previous year to US$166 billion. This included Chinese imports from Africa equaling US$93 billion, consisting largely of mineral ores, petroleum, and agricultural products, and Chinese exports to Africa totaling US$93 billion, consisting largely of manufactured goods. Outlining the rapidly expanding trade between the African continent and China, trade between these two areas of the world increased further by over 22% year-over-year to US$80.5 billion in the first five months of the year 2012. Imports from Africa were up 25.5% to $49.6 billion during these first five months of 2012 and exports of Chinese-made products, such as machinery, electrical and consumer goods and clothing/footwear increased 17.5% to reach $30.9 billion. China remained Africa's largest trading partner during 2011 for the fourth consecutive year (starting in 2008).
The need to protect China's increased investments in Africa has driven a shift away from China's traditional non-interference in the internal matters of other countries to new diplomatic and military initiatives to try to resolve unrest in South Sudan and Mali.
During the December 2015 FOCAC meeting in Johannesburg, South Africa, China's paramount leader Xi Jinping pledged $60 billion over three years in loans and assistance to the African continent. The stated aim of China's effort was to support factories manufacturing goods for export. Along with roads and ports, Nigerian President Muhammadu Buhari showed his desire to finish stalled railway projects along the coastline, specifically a 1,400 km railway from Lagos to Calabar representing approximately 200,000 jobs.
To improve commercial relationships and telecommunication services as part of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), significant investments in fiber networks have been undertaken. The PEACE Cable (Pakistan & East Africa Connecting Europe) is a 9,300 mile (12,000Km) submarine fiber optic cable owned by a subsidiary of the China-based Hengtong Group and supplied by Huawei Marine; it is expected to reach initial completion in 2021-2022. The Cable’s landfalls in Pakistan provide for low-latency overland connection to China. The Cable’s route is around the Arabian Peninsula, first dividing north into the Red Sea, crossing land in Egypt and then proceeding through the Mediterranean to the Interxion MRS2 Data Center in Marseille, France. The southern fork extends along the east coast of Africa, which in Phase 2 will reach South Africa. Additional landfalls are in Cyprus, Djibouti, Somalia, Kenya, and Seychelles.
Aid and loansEdit
In the 1960s and 1970s, the Chinese government supported African Independence Movements and gave aid to newly independent African nations. Among the most notable early projects were the 1,860 km TAZARA Railway, linking Zambia and Tanzania, which China helped to finance and build from 1970 to 1975. Some 50,000 Chinese engineers and workers were sent to the continent to complete the project. By 1978, China was giving aid to more African countries than the United States. In 2014, the US gave four times what China gave to Africa in official development assistance.
According to Marxist journalist Martin Jacques in his book When China Rules the World, Chinese aid is "far less restrictive and doctrinaire" and comes with fewer strings attached than Western aid. Unconditional and low-rate credit lines (rates at 1.5% over fifteen years to twenty years) have largely taken the place of more restrictive and conditional Western loans. Since 2000, over $10bn in debt owed by African nations to the PRC has been cancelled.
Scott N. Romaniuk, a researcher at the University of Alberta's China Institute, cautioned that Africa should "beware of 'no strings attached'" regarding development financing from China. He said that China's low-interest loans have been used to trade for extraction rights of proven deposits of natural resources, constraining African countries' future use of these resources. Patrick Bond said, "the conditions on Chinese loans and investments become very clear when the recipient countries have a debt crisis".
In 2015, the China Africa Research Initiative identified 17 African countries with loans from China facing potential default. Kenyan economist Anzetse Were has argued that some African nations' narratives of Chinese debt-trap diplomacy stem from a lack of fiscal transparency and a weaker bargaining position vis-à-vis China.
Allegations of espionageEdit
The African Union headquarters in Addis Ababa was built and fully funded by the Chinese government. The Chinese government was alleged to have spied on the computer servers at the headquarters from 2012 to 2017. Chinese officials denied the accusation, yet the African Union replaced their servers after the report of backdoor hacks.
China has been engaged in a kind of "health diplomacy" towards Africa since the 1960s. Health care development and medical assistance have been among the chief areas of support. Between the early 1960s and 2005, more than 15,000 Chinese doctors travelled to Africa to help treat patients in more than 47 countries.
In 2001, the member nations of G8 formed the United Nations-backed Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria with an initial budget of $10 billion. In 2007, another additional $1.1 billion was approved in Kunming, China, of which 66% was dedicated to Africa. In September of the same year, China promised the Democratic Republic of the Congo to build 31 hospital units and 145 smaller health care centres, a project due to be completed in March 2010.
Military cooperation goes back to the Cold War period when China was keen to help African liberation movements. Apart from some traditional allies such as Somalia and Tanzania, China also had military ties with non-aligned countries like Egypt. Military equipment worth $142 million was sold to African countries between 1955 and 1977. In July 2017, China set up its first overseas military base in Djibouti as a logistics facility for peacekeeping missions on the continent. Bertil Lintner, as well as various Indian analysts, have described the base in Djibouti as part of China's "String of Pearls" geopolitical and military strategy in the Indian Ocean.
In 2004, China deployed around 1,500 military personnel between Liberia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Since 2011, it has sent infantry troops describable (arguably) as 'combat' forces.
In July 2007, China supported the passage of UN Security Council Resolution 1769 and contributed troops to African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID). China also has fourteen attachés in fourteen different African countries as of 2007, while eighteen African countries maintain attachés in Beijing.
An increasing number of African countries have shifted their source of munitions from traditional providers such as Russia to China due to the competitive prices offered by Chinese suppliers. Arms sales by China to some African states have troubled critics who point out that some buyers like Sudan are accused of war crimes. Chinese drones have proliferated across Africa, and have been utilized in hundreds of attacks in Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Nigeria.
Former U.S. military contractor Erik Prince's Frontier Services Group has close ties to the Chinese state-owned CITIC Group and provides security training services to Chinese firms operating in Africa.
The first overseas Chinese cultural centre in Africa was opened in Mauritius in 1988. Two others followed in Egypt and Benin. The Confucius Institute has twenty centres distributed around thirteen African countries.[needs update]
Historically, little is known about early African immigration to China. As economic and political ties have strengthened, many Africans have relocated to China to seek better economic opportunities. Places dubbed 'Little Africa' and 'Chocolate City' are increasingly receiving new immigrants, mostly Nigerians. Most African immigrants, an estimated 20,000 individuals, are concentrated in the area of Guangzhou. An estimated 10,000 illegal African immigrants are in China, and police crackdowns have intensified since early 2009.
In contrast, early Chinese immigration to the African continent is slightly better documented. In 1724, a few Chinese convicts were brought as laborers to South Africa from the Dutch East Indies (modern-day Indonesia) by the colonial Dutch Empire. In the early nineteenth century, another wave of immigrants were brought to South Africa by the British to work in agriculture, infrastructure building, and mining. In recent years, there has been an increasing presence of Chinese in Africa with one estimate numbering Chinese nationals at one million.
China has also been increasingly involved in sport in Africa. Since 1970, Chinese-owned companies have been building sports stadiums throughout most African countries. Each project costs dozens of millions of dollars, a fee that China gives as a soft loan. The stadiums strengthen China’s diplomatic and commercial ties with African countries. African governments accept China’s loans because they enable them to promote development projects. On the other hand, concerns have been raised as to the working conditions at these stadiums. Also, some of the stadiums turned out to be white elephants given their meager usage.
There are a variety of critical perspectives scrutinizing the balance of power relationship between China and Africa, and China's role concerning human rights in Africa. Increasingly, concerns have been raised by Africans and outside observers that China's relationship with Africa is neocolonialist in nature. As a response to such criticism, China issued the Nine Principles to Encourage and Standardise Enterprises' Overseas Investment, a charter and conduct guide for Chinese companies operating abroad.
In 2002, the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated that China and Africa are making "joint efforts to maintain the lawful rights of developing countries and push forward the creation of a new, fair and just political and economic order in the world".
The China-Zimbabwe relationship drew the attention of critics. China was accused of supplying Zimbabwe with jet fighters, vehicles, and other military equipment. China declared in 2007 that it was limiting assistance to humanitarian aid. In July 2008, Chinese diplomatic channels asked Mugabe "to behave", though critics see that as a way for China to protect its interests in this country should a regime change.
War in DarfurEdit
Another high-profile event of concern for critics of China in Africa was in the run-up to the 2008 Summer Olympics. Human rights groups criticized China for its supportive relationship with the government of Sudan, which had been accused of mass killings in Darfur. China is Sudan's largest economic partner, with a 40% share in its oil, and also sells Sudan small arms. China has threatened to veto UN Security Council actions to combat the war in Darfur. In response, a 2008 editorial in the CCP-owned daily tabloid Global Times stated that "As the Darfur issue is not an internal affair of China, nor was it caused by China, to link the two together is utterly unreasonable, irresponsible and unfair."
- Gin Ooi, Keat (2004) . Southeast Asia: a historical encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor. ABC-CLIO. p. 626. ISBN 978-1-57607-770-2.
- Between the Middle Ages and modernity: individual and community in the early By Charles H. Parker, Jerry H. Bentley pg 160
- "Great Zimbabwe National Monument".
- "Africa and China: More than minerals". The Economist. 23 March 2013. Archived from the original on 15 February 2018. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
- Zhou, Youyou. "Why Chinese are traveling to Africa, and why Africans are traveling to China". Quartz. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
- Mathews, Gordon and Yang Yang (2012). "How Africans Pursue Low-End Globalization in Hong Kong and Mainland China". Journal of Current Chinese Affairs. Archived from the original on 23 February 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
- "Taiwan-China Diplomatic Competition Comes to Somaliland". Archived from the original on 10 July 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
- China's trade safari in Africa Archived 26 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine - Le Monde Diplomatique, May 2005
- Wonacott, Peter (2 September 2011). "In Africa, U.S. Watches China's Rise". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 27 February 2021.
- Snow 1988, p 2
- J. Lennart Berggren and Alexander Jones (eds.), Ptolemy's Geography: An Annotated Translation of the Theoretical Chapters (Princeton University Press, 2000), p. 176.
- Paul Wheatley (1964), "The land of Zanj: Exegetical Notes on Chinese Knowledge of East Africa prior to AD 1500", in R. W. Steel and R. M. Prothero (eds.), Geographers and the Tropics: Liverpool Essays (London: Longmans, Green, and Co.), pp. 139–188, at 156–157.
- Pankhurst, Richard (1961). An Introduction to the Economic History of Ethiopia. London: Lalibela House. ASIN B000J1GFHC., p. 268
- Freeman-Grenville 1975
- East Africa and its Invaders pg.37
- "Ibn Battuta's Trip: Part Nine - Malaysia and China (1345–1346)". Archived from the original on 18 April 2009. Retrieved 19 March 2009.
- "Ibn Battuta and Zheng He, the tourist and the admiral". Archived from the original on 28 January 2003. Retrieved 19 March 2009.
- Snow 1998, p. 23
- Eliot, Charles (1966). The East African Protectorate. Routledge. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-7146-1661-2.
- "Kenyan girl with Chinese blood steals limelight". Chinese Embassy in Kenya. Archived from the original on 8 May 2013. Retrieved 3 April 2009.
- "Children of the master voyager?", People's Daily, 3 November 2006, archived from the original on 26 July 2020, retrieved 30 March 2009
- York, Geoffrey (18 July 2005), "Revisiting the history of the high seas", The Globe and Mail, retrieved 30 March 2009[dead link]
- Brautigam, Deborah (7 April 2011). The Dragon's Gift: The Real Story of China in Africa. OUP Oxford. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-19-161976-2.
- Frank Viviano (July 2005). "China's Great Armada, Admiral Zheng He". NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC. p. 6. Archived from the original on 25 July 2020. Retrieved 29 September 2011.
- Alex Perry (1 August 2008). "A Chinese Color War". TIME. Archived from the original on 26 August 2013. Retrieved 29 September 2011.
- "The Confused Moments of Nkrumah in China After The Coup". modernghana.com. Archived from the original on 27 April 2019. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
- Muekalia 2004, p.6
- Taylor 2000, p.93
- Blair, David (2002). Degrees in Violence: Robert Mugabe and the Struggle for Power in Zimbabwe. Internet Archive. Continuum. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-8264-5974-9. OCLC 1148792737. OL 8168551M.
- Meredith, Martin (20 February 2002). Our Votes, Our Guns: Robert Mugabe and the Tragedy of Zimbabwe. PublicAffairs. pp. 36–37. ISBN 978-1-58648-128-5.
- Alao, Abiodun (2012). Mugabe and the Politics of Security in Zimbabwe. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-7735-4043-9. JSTOR j.ctt1pq18v.
- "China offers Africa billions, 'no strings attached'". DW.COM. Deutsche Welle. 3 September 2018. Archived from the original on 1 May 2019. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
- Genin, Aaron (30 April 2019). "FRANCE RESETS AFRICAN RELATIONS: A POTENTIAL LESSON FOR PRESIDENT TRUMP". The California Review. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
- O’Ballance, Edgar (2000). Sudan, Civil War and Terrorism, 1956–99. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 111. doi:10.1057/9780230597327. ISBN 978-1-349-42112-1.
- "EGYPT AND CHINA SIGN ARMS PACT, HAIL CLOSER TIES". The New York Times. 22 April 1976. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 27 February 2021.
- "China Will Sell Arms to Egypt, Sadat Announces". The Washington Post. 6 June 1979. Archived from the original on 10 July 2019. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
- The Oxford Handbook of the Cold War. Front Cover. Richard H. Immerman, Petra Goedde. Oxford University Press, 2013 p.276
- A Little Help from His Friends Time, 25 April 1977, Vol. 109 Issue 17, p.57.
- "Russians in Somalia: Foothold in Africa Suddenly Shaky". The New York Times. 16 September 1977. Archived from the original on 15 December 2019. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
- "the ogaden situation" (PDF). Central Intelligence Agency. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
- "The First Ministerial Conference of FOCAC". www.fmprc.gov.cn. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
- "Africa and the UN Security Council Permanent Seats". pambazuka.org. Archived from the original on 8 May 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- "From "brothers" to "partners": China, Africa building strategic ties". Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the Arab Republic of Egypt. Archived from the original on 8 May 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- "China woos Taiwan's African friends". afrol.com. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- "Which Countries Are For or Against China's Xinjiang Policies?". The Diplomat. 15 July 2019. Archived from the original on 11 October 2019. Retrieved 19 July 2019.
- Lawler, Dave (2 July 2020). "The 53 countries supporting China's crackdown on Hong Kong". Axios. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
- "Sino-African Relations". www.chinaembassy.org.zw. Archived from the original on 16 June 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
- "China boosts African economies, offering a 'second opportunity'". Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 24 June 2009. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- "Mozambique-China Trade Continues to Grow". allafrica.com. 9 December 2012. Archived from the original on 18 January 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- "Africa, China Trade" (PDF). Financial Times. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 March 2009. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- Dankwah, Kwaku Opoku; Valenta, Marko (5 March 2019). "Chinese entrepreneurial migrants in Ghana: socioeconomic impacts and Ghanaian trader attitudes". The Journal of Modern African Studies. 57 (1): 1–29. doi:10.1017/S0022278X18000678. hdl:11250/2608582. ISSN 0022-278X. S2CID 159241142.
- "China, Africa, and Oil". Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 8 February 2009. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- Lema, Rasmus; Bhamidipati, Padmasai Lakshmi; Gregersen, Cecilia; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Kirchherr, Julian (1 May 2021). "China's investments in renewable energy in Africa: Creating co-benefits or just cashing-in?". World Development. 141: 105365. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2020.105365. ISSN 0305-750X.
- Taylor, Ian (2006). "China's Oil Diplomacy in Africa". International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-). 82 (5): 937–959. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2346.2006.00579.x. ISSN 0020-5850. JSTOR 3874208.
- Linebaugh, Kate; Oster, Shai (10 January 2006). "Cnooc Pays $2.27 Billion For Nigerian Oil, Gas Stake". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 4 December 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- Lee, Don (14 November 2004). "China Barrels Ahead in Oil Market". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 20 October 2010. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- "Africa, China Trade" (PDF). Financial Times. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 March 2009. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- "China-Africa Trade Booms | JOC.com". www.joc.com. Archived from the original on 26 December 2019. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
- China's new security strategy for Africa
- Johnson, Keith (24 April 2014). "China's African Adventure". www.foreignpolicy.com. Graham Holdings Company. Archived from the original on 20 September 2014. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- "China's Xi cheers African leaders with pledge of $60 billion for development". Reuters. 4 December 2015. Archived from the original on 13 March 2020. Retrieved 5 December 2015.
- "Buhari Meets With Chinese President Xi Jinping in South Africa". Sahara Reporters. 4 December 2015. Archived from the original on 26 October 2019. Retrieved 5 December 2015.
- Calabrese, Linda and Tang, Xiaoyang (2020). Africa's economic transformation: The role of Chinese investment (Report). DEGRP. Archived from the original on 1 November 2020. Retrieved 6 November 2020.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Qui, Winston (15 February 2021). "PEACE". www.submarinenetworks.com. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
- Brautigam 2010: 40–41
- Brautigam 2010: 42
- "China's financial statecraft: Winning Africa one Yuan at a time?". www.aiddata.org. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
- Jacques, Martin (2009). When China Rules the World. Penguin Books. p. 426. OCLC 883334381.
- "China's trade safari in Africa". Le Monde Diplomatique. May 2005. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- Romaniuk, Scott N. (28 January 2019). "Africa's Appetite for Chinese Aid: Beware of "No Strings Attached"". China Institute. University of Alberta. Archived from the original on 29 April 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
- Wan, Fang (15 May 2018). "How 'unconditional' is China's foreign aid?". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 12 February 2021. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
- Mahmood, Basit (21 October 2020). "Many Countries at Risk of Defaulting on Debt to China". Newsweek. Retrieved 27 February 2021.
- Dahir, Abdi Latif (5 February 2019). "The "debt-trap" narrative around Chinese loans shows Africa's weak economic diplomacy". Quartz. Retrieved 27 February 2021.
- Linyan, Wang (30 January 2012). "New headquarters shows partnership entering era of hope: Ethiopia PM". China Daily. Archived from the original on 29 March 2019. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
- Dahir, Abdi Latif. "China "gifted" the African Union a headquarters building and then allegedly had it bugged". Quartz Africa. Archived from the original on 8 February 2021. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
- Thompson, Drew. "China's soft power in Africa: From the "Beijing Consensus" to health diplomacy". jamestown.org. Archived from the original on 26 December 2010. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- "China, U.S. and Africa: Competition or Cooperation?" (PDF). The Defense Technical Information Center p.17. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- "The Chinese and Congo take a giant leap of faith". iht.com. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- "Copper Colony in Congo". Le Monde diplomatique. Archived from the original on 19 May 2009. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- "China formally opens first overseas military base in Djibouti". Reuters. 1 August 2017. Retrieved 27 February 2021.
- Jacobs, Andrew; Perlez, Jane (25 February 2017). "U.S. Wary of Its New Neighbor in Djibouti: A Chinese Naval Base (Published 2017)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 14 May 2017. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
- Lintner, Bertil (15 April 2019). The Costliest Pearl: China's Struggle for India's Ocean. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-1-78738-240-4.
- Brewster, David (25 January 2018). India and China at Sea: Competition for Naval Dominance in the Indian Ocean. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-909168-3.
- Reed, John (15 July 2013). "China's Combat Troops in Africa". The Complex. Archived from the original on 27 August 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- "WHAT EXPLAINS CHINA'S DEPLOYMENT TO UN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS?". Columbia University. 3 December 2015. Archived from the original on 27 December 2019. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
- Puska, Susan (8 June 2007). "Military backs China's Africa adventure". Asia Times. Archived from the original on 21 July 2012. Retrieved 14 March 2009.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
- "Russian, Chinese weapons compete in Africa". upiasia.com. Archived from the original on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- "China 'is fuelling war in Darfur'". BBC. 13 July 2008. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- "Chinese Drones Are Going to War All Over the Middle East and Africa". National Interest. 29 September 2019. Archived from the original on 21 September 2020. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
- "Is Blackwater founder's lucrative security-training deal with Chinese insiders against US interests?". Stars and Stripes. 4 May 2008. Archived from the original on 27 December 2019. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
- "Cultural Exchange Between China and Africa". www.china.org.cn. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
- "Confucius Institute Bridges Friendship between China and Africa". cri.com.cn. Archived from the original on 16 October 2012. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- Amoah, Padmore Adusei; Hodzi, Obert; Castillo, Roberto (1 October 2020). "Africans in China and Chinese in Africa: inequalities, social identities, and wellbeing". Asian Ethnicity. 21 (4): 457–463. doi:10.1080/14631369.2020.1784706. ISSN 1463-1369.
- Evan Osnos (9 February 2009). "The Promised Land". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 30 March 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- Mathews, Gordon; Lin, Linessa Dan; Yang, Yang (2017). The World in Guangzhou: Africans and Other Foreigners in South China's Global Marketplace. University of Chicago Press. doi:10.7208/chicago/9780226506241.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-226-50610-4.
- "China's 'Little Africa' is under pressure". globalpost.com. Archived from the original on 28 February 2009. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- "China and Africa: Stronger Economic Ties Mean More Migration". Migration Policy Institute. Archived from the original on 29 January 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- Idris, Abubakar. "How many Chinese workers are there in Africa now?". Quartz. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
- Lim, Louisa; Bergin, Julia (7 December 2018). "Inside China's audacious global propaganda campaign". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 1 March 2021.
- Dubinsky, Itamar (4 March 2021). "China's Stadium Diplomacy in Africa". Journal of Global Sport Management. 0: 1–19. doi:10.1080/24704067.2021.1885101. ISSN 2470-4067.
- Daly, Tom; Lee, Se Young (12 February 2021). "China New Year gala show sparks new racism controversy with blackface performance". Reuters. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
- McDonald, Joe (12 February 2021). "Chinese TV features blackface performers in New Year's gala". Associated Press. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
- Wang, Yaqiu (17 February 2021). "From Covid to blackface on TV, China's racism problem runs deep". MSNBC. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
- John M. Friend; Bradley A. Thayer (1 November 2018). How China Sees the World: Han-Centrism and the Balance of Power in International Politics. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-1-64012-137-9. Archived from the original on 3 March 2020. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
- Osondu-Oti, Adaora (2016). "China and Africa:: Human Rights Perspective". Africa Development / Afrique et Développement. 41 (1): 49–80. ISSN 0850-3907. JSTOR 90001834.
- Blair, David (31 August 2007). "Why China is trying to colonise Africa". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- Zhou, Scott (3 November 2006). "China as Africa's 'angel in white'". Asia Times. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2009.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
- Sautman, Barry; Hairong, Yan (2008). "The Forest for the Trees: Trade, Investment and the China-in-Africa Discourse". Pacific Affairs. 81 (1): 9–29. doi:10.5509/20088119. hdl:10397/5416. ISSN 0030-851X. JSTOR 40377480.
- "China-Africa Relations" Archived 30 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China, 25 April 2002
- Beresford, David (18 April 2008). "Chinese ship carries arms cargo to Mugabe regime". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- Spencer, Richard (31 August 2007). "China is to withdraw backing for Mugabe". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- Evans, Ian (26 July 2008). "Robert Mugabe forced into talks with opposition after China told him 'to behave'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- Abramowitz, Morton; Kolieb, Jonathan (5 June 2007). "Why China Won't Save Darfur". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 27 February 2021.
- "Beyond Darfur - Sudan's Slide Toward Civil War". Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 18 December 2008. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- "The "Big 4" – How oil revenues are connected to Khartoum". Amnesty International USA. Archived from the original on 3 October 2008. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- Herbst, Moira (14 March 2008). "Oil for China, Guns for Darfur". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 27 February 2021.
- "The United Nations and Darfur". Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on 26 November 2010. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- "China: Darfur-Olympic link 'unfair'". Aljazeera.com. 14 February 2008. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
- Alden, Chris (2007). China in Africa: Partner, Competitor or Hegemon?. Zed Books. ISBN 978-1-84277-864-7.
- Brautigam, Deborah (2010). The Dragon's Gift: The Real Story of China in Africa. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-955022-7.
- Breslin, Shaun; Taylor, Ian (2008). "Explaining the Rise of 'Human Rights' in Analyses of Sino-African Relations" (PDF). Review of African Political Economy. 35 (115): 59–71. doi:10.1080/03056240802011469. S2CID 144597487.
- Calabrese, Linda and Tang, Xiaoyang (2020). Africa's economic transformation: the role of Chinese investment (Report). DEGRP.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Caniglia, Laura (2011). "Western ostracism and China's presence in Africa". China Information. 25 (2): 165–184. doi:10.1177/0920203X11406339. S2CID 144485159. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
- Calabrese, Linda (ed.) (2016). China-Africa: a maturing relationship? Growth, change and resilience London: DFID-ESRC Growth Research Programme.
- Cornelissen, Scarlett; Taylor, Ian (2000). "The Political Economy of China and Japan's Relationship with Africa: a Comparative Perspective". Pacific Review. 13 (4): 615–633. doi:10.1080/095127400455350. S2CID 154734964.
- Dankwah Kwaku Opoku & Valenta Marko (2019). "Chinese entrepreneurial migrants in Ghana: socioeconomic impacts and Ghanaian trader attitudes". Journal of Modern African Studies. 57 (1). pp. 1–29. doi:10.1017/S0022278X18000678.
- Fasan, Rotimi. "African Studies and Sino-Africa Collaborations: Towards Our “Common Interest”." Journal of African Cultural Studies 33.2 (2021): 194-200.
- Fasan, Olu. "Like the West, Africa must be guarded in its relations with China." Africa at LSE (2017). online
- Freeman-Grenville, G.P.S., ed. (1975). The East African Coast. Select Documents form the first to the earlier nineteenth century. London: Rex Collings.
- Hellström, Jerker (2009). China's Emerging Role in Africa: a Strategic Overview. Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI). ISBN 978-1-84277-864-7.
- Jedlowski, Alessandro. "Chinese Television in Africa." Theory, Culture & Society (2021): 02632764211012033.
- de Moraes, Isaías Albertin, and Mônica Heinzelmann Portella de Aguiar. "China-Africa Relations in Political Economy of the World-System: in between excluding-insertion and including-insertion." Relações Internacionais no Mundo Atual 4.29 (2021): 119-146. online
- Muekalia, D.J. (2004). "Africa and China's strategic partnership". African Security Review. 13 (1). pp. 5–11.
- Otele, Oscar M. "Introduction. China-Africa Relations: Interdisciplinary Question and Theoretical Perspectives." The African Review 47.2 (2020): 267-284. online
- Snow, Philip (1988). The Star Raft: China's encounter with Africa. New York: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-1-55584-184-3.
- Taylor, I. (1998). "China's foreign policy towards Africa in the 1990s". Journal of Modern African Studies. 36 (3). pp. 443–460. doi:10.1017/S0022278X98002857.
- Taylor, Ian (2006). China and Africa: Engagement and Compromise. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-39740-7.
- Taylor, Ian (2009). China's New Role in Africa. Boulder: Zed Books. ISBN 978-1-58826-636-1.
- Wyatt, Don J. (2009). The Blacks of Premodern China. Encounters with Asia. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-4193-8.
- Taylor, Ian (2011). The Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC). London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415628518.
- Taylor, Ian (2017). China's Aid to Africa: Does Friendship Really Matter?. London: Routledge. ISBN 9781138630390.