Afghan (Pashto/Persian: افغان; see etymology) refers to someone or something from Afghanistan, in particular a citizen of that country. Prior to the rise of the nation as Afghanistan, it was used by Persian speakers and those influenced by the Persian language to denote the Pashtun people. In modern times, "Afghan" is rarely used as an ethnic term for the Pashtuns, but is rather used as the national demonym for all citizens of Afghanistan — Pashtuns, Tajiks, and also a large number of Hazaras, Uzbeks, Aimaqs, Turkmens, Balochs, Nuristanis, Pashayis, Pamiris, Arabs, and others. According to the Encyclopædia Iranica, the word Afghan (afḡān) in current political usage means any citizen of Afghanistan, regardless of their tribal or religious affiliation. According to the 1964 Constitution of Afghanistan, all Afghans are equal in rights and obligations before the law. The fourth article of the current Constitution of Afghanistan states that citizens of Afghanistan consist of Pashtuns, Tajiks, Hazara, Uzbek, Turkmen, Aymaq, Arab, Baluch, Pashayi, Nuristani, Qezelbash, Gujjars, Brahui, and members of other tribes.
As an adjective, the word Afghan also means "of or relating to Afghanistan or its people, language, or culture".
The term "Afghani" refers to the unit of Afghan currency. It is often improperly used for a person or thing related to Afghanistan. The incorrect use of the term may have originated during the Soviet war in Afghanistan when millions of Afghans took refuge in neighboring Pakistan and Iran. The Afghani was created in 1925. Between 1925 and 1993 varieties of Afghani coins and banknotes were in circulation through Afghanistan. Coins issued during this period consisted of: 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20, 25 pul in bronze, brass, copper nickel, and aluminum-bronze; silver ½, 1, and 2½ Afghani; and gold ½, 1, and 2½ amani. Banknotes issued were in: 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500, 1000, 5000, and 10,000 Afghani. In 1958 bank notes worth 2 and 5 were switched with coins.
Notes and referencesEdit
- Garner, Bryan (2009). Garner's Modern American Usage (third ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-19-538275-4.
- Siegal, Allan M.; Connolly, William (2015). The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage (fifth ed.). New York: Crown Publishing Group. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-336-02484-7.
- In referring to the former usage of "Afghan" as synonymous with "Pashtun", Maley said, While this was certainly the sense in which the word 'Afghan' was used in major nineteenth-century works (and continues to be used in parts of Afghanistan), such usage has now almost completely died out in English-language sources. Maley, William (2009). The Afghanistan Wars (second ed.). Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-230-21313-5.
- Naby, Eden (1988). "The Changing Role of Islam as a Unifying Force in Afghanistan". In Banuazizi, Ali; Weiner, Myron. The State, Religion, and Ethnic Politics: Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press. pp. 124–154. ISBN 978-0-8156-2448-6.
- Central Intelligence Agency (22 January 1993). "Afghanistan: People". The World Factbook. University of Missouri. Retrieved 20 December 2015.
- "AFGHAN". Encyclopædia Iranica.
- "Article 1 of the 1964 Constitution of Afghanistan". Government of Afghanistan. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
- "Constitution of Afghanistan". 2004. Retrieved 2013-02-16.
National sovereignty in Afghanistan shall belong to the nation, manifested directly and through its elected representatives. The nation of Afghanistan is composed of all individuals who possess the citizenship of Afghanistan. The nation of Afghanistan shall be comprised of Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Turkman, Baluch, Pachaie, Nuristani, Aymaq, Arab, Qirghiz, Qizilbash, Gujur, Brahwui and other tribes. The word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan. No individual of the nation of Afghanistan shall be deprived of citizenship. The citizenship and asylum related matters shall be regulated by law.
- "More on Afghani". Slate.com. Retrieved March 29, 2013.
- "Afghan Afghani". famouswonders.com.