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Afeni Shakur Davis[1] (born Alice Faye Williams; January 10, 1947 – May 2, 2016[2]) was an American activist, businesswoman, and mother of American rapper and actor Tupac Shakur.

Afeni Shakur
Afeni Shakur.jpg
Shakur giving a speech in 2008
Born
Alice Faye Williams

(1947-01-10)January 10, 1947
DiedMay 2, 2016(2016-05-02) (aged 69)
NationalityAmerican/Kinnaus
OccupationActivist
Years active1968–2016
Political party
Spouse(s)
Gust Davis (m. 2004)
Partner(s)Lumumba Shakur (1968–1971)
Mutulu Shakur (1975–1982)
ChildrenTupac Shakur and Sekyiwa Shakur

Contents

Early lifeEdit

Afeni Shakur was born as Alice Faye Williams on January 10, 1947, in Lumberton, North Carolina,[2] the daughter of Rosa Belle, a home maker, and Walter Williams Jr., a trucker. She had a sister Gloria Jean[3]. She had a troubled beginning and grew up resenting her father and men in general because he was abusive and she thought her mother was weak because she did not stand up against her father.[4] When the family left her father in 1958, they moved to the Bronx where she had difficulty in adapting to the educational setting even though her teachers thought the High School for Performing Arts was fit for her[4]. She attended Bronx High School of Science. She became interested in street life and called herself a street fighter and a member of the Disciple Debs in Harlem[4].

ActivismEdit

In 1968, at the age of twenty-one, she changed her name to Afeni Shakur, Afeni is a Yoruba word for "lover of people" and Shakur is Arabic for "thankful".[5] She lived in Harlem, New York and she joined the Black Panther Party.[6] She opposed racial discrimination and social injustices which showed why she got involved in the party.[4] She wrote the Black Panther Party newsletter Panther Post.[4] She lead a successful campaign that led the FBI to believe the party was fading.[4] She became a section leader of the Harlem chapter[7] and a mentor to new members, including Jamal Joseph, Cleo Silvers and Dhoruba Bin-Wahad.[6] She also worked with Billy Garland (Tupac's biological father) and Geronimo Pratt (who became Tupac's baptismal sponsor).[8]

The Panther 21Edit

In April 1968, Afeni Shakur was arrested with her then husband Lumumba Shakur at their apartment in Harlem on charges of conspiring with other Black Panther members to carry out bombings in New York.[2][4] With bail set at $100,000 each for the 21 suspects, the Black Panthers decided to raise bail money first for Joseph and Shakur so that those two could work on raising bail for the others.[6] Shakur had been effective in raising bail funds for jailed Panthers.[8] The pre-trial started in February 1970 and actual trial on September 8, 1970.[4] Charges brought against her and the other members of the Black Panther Party were attempted murder, conspiracy to commit murder, conspiracy to bomb buildings and conspiracy.[4] During the course of the trial, the judge dismissed twelve out of the thirty charges.[4] Shakur chose to represent herself in court, pregnant while on trial and facing a 300-year prison sentence and had no law degree.[9] Shakur interviewed witnesses and argued in court.[6] She and the others in the "Panther 21" were acquitted in May 1971 after an eight-month trial.[8] Altogether, Afeni Shakur spent two years in jail before being acquitted.[4] Her son, Lesane Parish Crooks, was born on June 16, 1971. The following year, in 1972, Lesane Parish was renamed Tupac Amaru Shakur, this means "shining serpent" in Inca.[8][10]

Later LifeEdit

After Afeni Shakur was acquitted of her charges, she did not return to the Black Panther Party. In 1975, she married Mutulu Shakur and had their daughter, Sekyiwa. They got divorced in 1982. She and her children moved to Baltimore, Maryland in 1984. She raised her children as a single mother and later became addicted to crack cocaine and raised her children through welfare because she could not keep a job.[11] She relocated to Marin County in California to manage her drug use.[11] In 1989, her son left home because of her addiction. The two later reconciled.[12] She overcome her addiction after she moved back to New York in 1991 and started Narcotics Anonymous meetings.[13]

In 2004 Afeni Shakur married Gust Davis Jnr. In that same year, her autobiography, Afeni Shakur: Evolution of a revolutionary was released.[4] In her autobiography, Afeni Shakur reflected in her childhood experiences and her upbringing as well as her involvement in the Black Panther Party. In her book she stated that the party educated and directed her to channel her anger.[1] This gave her hope which she mentioned she had never experienced[1]. She wrote about how she met men who did not abuse black women in the party. It was through the party that she met Lumumba Shakur, agreed to be his second wife and converted to Islam[4]. She described her experiences in jail and how together with other inmates, they organized a bail fund to get some of the women out of jail[4].

Involvement and MentionsEdit

Although she and her son Tupac did not always have a great relationship, he paid her tribute in his song "Dear Mama."[12] In his song, he reflected on his upbringing and living with his mother. He expressed his love for Afeni Shakur and her drug addiction troubles, "You was committed, A poor mother on welfare...There's no way to pay you back, But the plan is to show you that I understand: you are appreciated."[14] Her revolutionary ideas were reflected in Tupac's music[15]. Before Tupac died, he arranged for her to receive $16,000 monthly and purchased a home for her in Stone Mountain, Georgia. She was the co-executor of Tupac's estate.[11]

Exactly one year following her son's death, with revenue from his albums released posthumously, Afeni Shakur founded the Georgia-based Tupac Amaru Shakur Foundation, which provides art programs for young people, and Amaru Entertainment, the holding company for all Tupac's unreleased material. She was a comfort to many grieving mothers after the death of her son Tupac and travelled across America giving speeches at events. The foundation was sold shortly before her death.[16] She also launched a fashion clothing line, Makaveli Branded Afeni Shakur was heavily involved in the production of All Eyez on Me, a film based on Tupac's life.[15]

Injunction against Death Row RecordsEdit

Afeni Shakur was reportedly in federal court on July 20, 2007, to file an injunction to prevent Death Row Records from selling any unreleased material from Tupac after the company failed to prove that the unreleased songs were not part of its bankruptcy settlement.[17]

Guest appearances and lecturesEdit

Shakur traveled across the U.S., making guest appearances and delivering lectures. On February 6, 2009, she gave the keynote address for Vanderbilt University's Commemoration for Black History Month.[18] She shared with people her experiences and ways in which to overcome loss.[19]

DeathEdit

On May 2, 2016 at 9:34pm, police and paramedics responded to Shakur's home in Sausalito, California.[20] She was transported to a nearby hospital, where she was pronounced dead of a suspected heart attack.[11][21] She died at age 69.[15] Her body was cremated.[22] Her death was a loss to her community and brought sorrow to many as she was regarded as a mother of many.[22]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Guy, Jasmine (2004). Afeni Shakur: Evolution of a Revolutionary. New York: Atria Books. p. 5.
  2. ^ a b c Kaufman, Gil (May 3, 2016). "Tupac's Mother, Afeni Shakur, Dead at 69". Billboard. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
  3. ^ Guy, Jasmine (2004). Afeni Shakur:Evolution of a Revolutionary. New York: Attira Books.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Cribb, Arielle G. Stories Of Gender And Injustices In The Cases Of Afeni Shakur, Angela Davis And Assata Shakur. Arielle Garden Cribb. Aug. 2009. https://ecommons.cornell.edu/bitstream/handle/1813/13786/Cribb%2c%20Arielle.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  5. ^ Thompson, Desire (May 5, 2016). "The Black Panther Party Releases Statement On Afeni Shakur's Passing". Vibe. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d Hall, Mia (May 2, 2016). "Afeni Shakur, Tupac's Mom, Legacy Remembered by Fellow Panthers". NBC News. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
  7. ^ Akindele, Toni (May 6, 2016). "The Black Panther Party Releases Statement on Afeni Shakur's Passing". Essence. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d Kreps, Daniel (May 3, 2016). "Afeni Shakur, Activist and Tupac Shakur's Mother, Dead at 69". Rolling Stone. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
  9. ^ Bristout, Ralph (14 May 2017). "2Pac collaborators Reflect in the Enduring Impact of Dear Mama". Revolt.
  10. ^ Afeni Shakur, mother of rapper Tupac, dies at 69, RichmondFreePress.com; accessed May 15, 2016.
  11. ^ a b c d Kimble, Lindsay (May 3, 2016). "Tupac Shakur's Mother Afeni Shakur Davis Dies at 69: Police". People Magazine. Retrieved May 3, 2016.
  12. ^ a b Ellis, Tanya (3 May 2016). "5 Things You Should Know About Afeni Shakur". Tvone. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  13. ^ Castro, Peter (1 December 1997). "All Eyes On Her". People. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  14. ^ Romi, Ezzo. "Dear Mama Lyrics". Genius. Retrieved 2 June 2019.
  15. ^ a b c McGee, Robyn (4 May 206). "Remebering Afeni Shakur, Racial Justice Activist and Mother". Bitch Media. Retrieved 2 June 2019.
  16. ^ Lee, Christina (July 6, 2016). "What Happened to the Tupac Amaru Shakur Center for the Arts?". Rolling Stone. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  17. ^ Moscow-Pullman Daily News (July 26, 2007) "Tupac's mother tries to stop Death Row sale of unreleased tracks"; retrieved May 17, 2010.
  18. ^ "Lecture: Afeni Shakur delivers keynote address of Vanderbilt University's Black History Month Commemoration". Discoverer Archive. Jean and Alexander Heard Library. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
  19. ^ MTV News (2016-05-03), Tupac’s Mother, Afeni Shakur, Talks Faith & God | MTV News, retrieved 2019-06-02
  20. ^ McLaughlin, Eliott (3 May 2016). "Afeni Shakur Davis, Tupac's mother, dies at 69". CNN Entertainment. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  21. ^ Dillion, Nancy; Niemietz, Brian; Wagner, Meg (May 4, 2016). "Afeni Shakur, mother of hip-hop legend Tupac, dead at 69". New York Daily News. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
  22. ^ a b Anthony, Flo; Dillon, Nancy (14 May 2016). "Private memorial for Tupac's mom Afeni Shakur to be held in N.C." Daily News. Retrieved February 23, 2017.

External linksEdit